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  2. Violence and Society
About City
Terence A R Watts

Violence and Society Centre

Welcome to the Violence and Society Centre.

About

The Violence and Society Centre is being established at City University of London from 1 March 2019, with Professor Sylvia Walby OBE as its Director.

Towards Zero Violence. Violence wrecks lives and causes immense suffering and death.  Violence is not inevitable, but shaped by society.  The Centre aims to produce the evidence to build the theory needed to inform policy, politics and practice to move towards zero violence.

The Violence and Society Centre is interdisciplinary and international.  It engages across the Social Sciences, including Sociology and Politics, and Law and Health.  Five academic posts will be advertised in these areas shortly.

The Centre will hold research grants, supervise PhDs, run seminars and conferences, and develop educational programmes.

The major themes are:

  1. Theory and concepts: What is violence: developing the concepts and theories to explain the increase, decrease and variation in violence
  2. Measurement: Current measurement practices hide some forms of violence, especially against women: developing a new measurement framework and methods to remedy this.
  3. Types of violence: Different types of violence and coercion, including trafficking in human beings, violent crime, domestic violence and rape. Gender is mainstreamed rather than treated in isolation.
  4. Policy and interventions: Analysing what works to reduce violence through policy fields including: criminal justice; civil justice; security; health; and gender equality. International: engaging with the European Union, Council of Europe and UN, as well as the UK.
  5. Change: What future of violence, including macro-socio-historical trends; the impact of the economic crisis; and situational crime analysis. What might it mean to move towards ‘zero violence’?

Research Grants 2019

Four grants of £25,000 are available for research on measuring violence as part of our collaboration in the Network on Violence, Abuse and Mental Health: Opportunities for change, funded by UK Research and Innovation (and ESRC).

Find out more information and apply online at The Violence, Abuse and Mental Health Network website.

Closing date is 1st September 2019.


Contact us

To contact the Violence and Society Centre please email the Research Administrator

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Projects

The Violence and Society Centre runs multiple research projects.

Selected externally funded research projects are listed below.

Study on the economic, social and human costs of trafficking

Start Date: 21 May 2019
End Date: 20 February 2020
Title: Study on the economic, social and human costs of trafficking
Total Amount: GBP 270,764.17
Funder: European Commission: Directorate-General Migration and Home Affairs
Abstract: Trafficking in human beings harms not only victims but society as a whole.  This project will estimate the costs to society within the European Union Member States.  All forms of trafficking of women, men and children will be addressed, whether for sexual exploitation, labour exploitation, forced begging or domestic servitude. The social costs accounted for are; specialised services; health services; law enforcement; lost economic output and intangibles (measured as quality adjusted life years).  This establishes a rigorous evidence base and expands the theory on trafficking in human beings and society.
Principle-Investigator: Sylvia Walby (City, University of London)
Research Team: Patricia Bell, Janet Bowstead, Gene Feder, Hilary Fisher, Stuart Kirby, Sally McManus, Stephen Morris, Sian Oram, Jessica Phoenix
In collaboration with: Kings College London, University of Bristol, University of Cambridge and NatCen Social Research
Key Outputs: In process.

Violence, abuse and mental health. Opportunities for change

Start Date: 1 November 2018
End Date: 31 October 2022
Title: Violence, abuse and mental health: Opportunities for change
Total Amount: GBP 1,000,000
Funder: UK Research and Innovation, Economic and Social Research Council
Abstract: This large interdisciplinary research project’s main objective is to reduce the prevalence of mental health problems through addressing associated violence and abuse. The Violence and Society Centre is responsible for the measurement stream (GBP 65,000), which will mobilise a gender-sensitive framework for measuring violence against women and men.
Principle-Investigator: Louise Howard (King’s College London)
Co-applicant(s): Sylvia Walby (City, University of London), Jude Towers (Liverpool John Moores University), Ravinder Thiara (University of Warwick), Sian Oram (King's College London), Alana Harris (King's College London), George Danezis (University College London), Angela Sweeney (St George's University of London), Seena Fazel (University of Oxford), Rachel Hewitt (University of Oxford).
Key Outputs: In process.

Anneliese Maier Research Award

Start Date: 1 April 2018
End Date: 30 March 2023
Title: Anneliese Maier Research Award
Total Amount: EUR 250,000
Funder: Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung
Principle-Investigator: Sylvia Walby
Abstract: Prof. Sylvia Walby was one of eight researchers selected for the prestigious Anneliese Maier Research Award in 2018, which is reserved for “outstanding humanities scholars and social scientists”. The prize money is to finance research collaboration with specialist colleagues in Germany over a five-year period. The programme of work is to re-work a theory of society that better takes account of violence and gender inequality. Specific contributions will be made to theorising society as a system, developing the conceptual distinctions between varieties of gender regimes, analysing the trafficking in human beings, and the theorisation of the relationship of violence and society.
Key Outputs: In process.

Study on the data analysis of trafficking in human beings

Start Date: 11 June 2018
End Date: 10 October 2018
Title: Study on the data analysis of trafficking in human beings
Total Amount: EUR 100,000
Funder: European Commission
Abstract: This project analyses and reports on recent data collected on human trafficking by the European Commission. Covering both victims and trafficking perpetrators, it discusses gender, age and form of trafficking, as well as the source and recruiting country for victims. Perpetrator data discussed includes prosecutions and convictions. The project also reports on the robustness of Commission data, and what can and cannot be gleaned from the data. It updates earlier Commission reports published by Eurostat. Principle-Investigator: Brian Francis (University of Lancaster)
Co-applicant(s): Sylvia Walby, Becky Pattinson, Amy Elliott, Valmira Hoti, Jessica Phoenix, Rachel Verrall, Moira Peelo (at time of study, all at Lancaster).
Key Outputs: Francis, B., et al. (2018). Data collection on trafficking in human beings in the EU: Final report. Brussels: European Commission. ISBN 978-92-79-96706-1 DOI:10.2837/193237

Comprehensive policy review of anti-trafficking projects

Start Date: 1 January 2016
End Date: 30 September 2019
Title: Comprehensive policy review of anti-trafficking projects
Total Amount: EUR 350,000
Funder: European Commission
Abstract: The European Union has a Strategy to eradicate trafficking in human beings to support the implementation of the 2011 Anti-Trafficking Directive. This project contributed to the development of the post-2016 Strategy by comprehensively reviewing all the projects funded by the European Commission since 2004 that concern anti-trafficking for the office of the Anti-Trafficking Coordinator. The study analysed around 300 projects in the context of relevant EU Actions and wider bodies of knowledge.
Principle-Investigator: Sylvia Walby (University of Lancaster)
Co-applicant(s): Jude Towers (Lancaster, Sociology), Brian Francis (Lancaster, Maths/Stats), Birgit Apitzsch (Duisberg-Essen, Sociology), Jo Armstrong (Lancaster, Sociology), Susie Balderston (Lancaster, Sociology), Adam Fish (Lancaster, Sociology), Claire Hardaker (Lancaster, Linguistics), Liz Kelly (London Met, CWASU), Stuart Kirby (UCLAN), Corinne May-Chahal (Lancaster, Sociology), Emma Palmer (Lancaster, Sociology), Awais Rashid (Lancaster, Computing), Karen Shire (Duisberg-Essen, Sociology), Jackie Taylor (London Met, CWASU).
Key Outputs: Walby, S., et al. (2016). Comprehensive Policy Review of Anti-Trafficking Projects funded by the European Commission. Brussels: European Commission. ISBN 978-92-79-61960-1 doi:10.2837/973893

The gender dimension of trafficking in human beings

Start Date: 31 December 2014
End Date: 30 September 2015
Title: The gender dimension of trafficking in human beings
Total Amount: EUR 250,000
Funder: European Commission
Abstract: This project focused on the gender dimension of trafficking in human beings. The study concluded with recommendations to the EU and Member States regarding how to better implement the EU Directive and Strategy on Trafficking by paying greater attention to its gender dimensions in relation to: services for victims; EU Home Affairs and Justice Agency practices; reducing the demand for the services of victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation; the system of data collection; and, policy coherence and coordination by implementing EU gender equality policies in EU Strategies. Sylvia Walby delivered the keynote address at the Ninth EU Anti-Trafficking Day (Brussels, October 2015). The report was published on 21 March 2016 and launched in the European Parliament, in Brussels.
Principle-Investigator: Sylvia Walby (University of Lancaster)
Co-applicant(s): Birgit Apitzsch (Duisberg-Essen, Sociology), Jo Armstrong (Lancaster, Sociology), Susie Balderston (Lancaster, Sociology), Karolina Follis (Lancaster, Philosophy, Politics and Religious Studies), Brian Francis (Lancaster, Maths/Stats), Liz Kelly (London Met, CWASU), Corinne May-Chahal (Lancaster, Sociology), Awais Rashid (Lancaster, Computing), Karen Shire (Duisberg-Essen, Sociology), Jude Towers (Lancaster, Sociology), Markus Tünte (Duisberg-Essen, Sociology).
Key Outputs: Walby, S., et al. (2016). Gender Dimension of Trafficking in Human Beings. Brussels: European Commission, Anti-Trafficking Coordinators Office. ISBN 978-92-79-54063-9 doi:10.2837/462884

Guidelines for Member States on how to comply with Istanbul Convention Article 11 on data collection

Start Date: 1 October 2014
End Date: 30 June 2018
Title: Guidelines for Member States on how to comply with Istanbul Convention Article 11 on data collection
Total Amount: EUR 10,000
Funder: The Council of Europe
Abstract: The Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence was signed in Istanbul in 2011 and came into force in 2015. In order to comply with Article 11 of the Convention, the 47 Member States of the Council of Europe need to collect data and conduct research on this violence. The Council of Europe funded this report in order to support Member States by providing practical guidance on: the collection of data from administrative and survey sources; the development of research programmes; and, the measurement framework needed to benchmark progress internationally.
Principle-Investigator: Sylvia Walby (University of Lancaster)
Key Outputs:
Walby, S. (2016). Ensuring data collection and research on violence against women and domestic violence – Article 11 of the Istanbul Convention. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
Walby, S., et al. (2017). The Concept and Measurement of Violence against Women and Men. Bristol: Policy Press.

Is the rate of domestic violence increasing or decreasing? A re-analysis of the British Crime Survey

Start Date: 1 April 2013
End Date: 30 September 2014
Title: Is the rate of domestic violence increasing or decreasing? A re-analysis of the British Crime Survey
Total Amount: GBP 199,000
Funder: Economic and Social Research Council
Abstract: This project re-analysed data from the Crime Survey for England and Wales. The results show that, during the economic crisis, there was an increase in violent crime, reversing the long-run fall. The increase is driven by violence against women committed by domestic relations. The increase is made visible by removing the arbitrary maximum cap of five crimes traditionally imposed by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) on the number of incidents reported to the survey included in published statistics, while attending to volatility by using three-year moving averages.
Principle-Investigator: Sylvia Walby (University of Lancaster)
Co-applicant(s): Brian Francis (Lancaster, Maths/Stats)  
Researcher: Jude Towers (Lancaster, Sociology)
Key Outputs: Walby, Sylvia, Jude Towers, and Brian Francis (2016). ‘Is violent crime increasing or decreasing? A new methodology to measure repeat attacks making visible the significance of gender and domestic relations’, British Journal of Criminology, 56(6): 1203-1234.

Estimating the costs of gender-based violence in the European Union

Start Date: 1 January 2013
End Date: 1 January 2014
Title: Estimating the costs of gender-based violence in the European Union
Total Amount: EURO 58,000
Funder: European Institute for Gender Equality
Abstract: This projected reviewed developments in methodologies for estimating the costs of gender-based violence in order to identify best practice and estimated the costs of gender-based violence within the EU. The project found that gender-based violence costs the EU28 €259 billion each year. This is due to lost economic output because of injuries, the use of public services (e.g. health, criminal justice), and the public’s valuation of the physical and emotional impacts.
Principle-Investigator: Sylvia Walby (University of Lancaster)
Researcher: Philippa Olive (Lancaster, Sociology)
Key Outputs:Walby, Sylvia and Philippa Olive (2014). Estimating the Costs of Gender-Based Violence in the European Union. Vilnius, Lithuania: European Institute for Gender Equality. ISBN 978-92-9218-499-5 Doi:10.2839/79629

Towards a Directive on violence against women: Analysis of its legal grounds and the cost of violence against women

Start Date: 1 December 2013
End Date: 31 December 2014 
Title: Towards a Directive on violence against women: Analysis of its legal grounds and the cost of violence against women
Total Amount: EUR 14,500
Funder: European Parliament, European Value Added Unit
Abstract: This study investigated aspects of the basis for a possible Directive of the EU on Violence Against Women. Building on previous work on costing gender-based violence, the study found that the cost of inaction was considerably greater than the cost of action. It considers the extent to which the Treaties confer on the European Union the legal competence to develop a Directive on Violence against Women, concluding that there is scope for a directive.
Principle-Investigator: Sylvia Walby (University of Lancaster)
Researcher: Philippa Olive (Lancaster, Sociology)
Key Outputs: Walby, Sylvia and Philippa Olive (2013). The European Added Value of a Directive on Combatting Violence Against Women: Annex 2 Economic Aspects and Legal Perspectives for Action at the European Level. Brussels: European Value Added Unit.

Overview of the worldwide best practices for rape prevention and for assisting women victims of rape

Start Date: 1 January 2012
End Date: 1 January 2013
Title: Overview of the worldwide best practices for rape prevention and for assisting women victims of rape
Total Amount: EUR 68,500
Funder: European Parliament
Abstract: This study reviewed worldwide best policies and practices on the prevention of rape and assistance to victims of rape in order to produce recommendations for the development of a European Union policy. The study addressed strategy, planning and coordination; victim services and healthcare systems; law and the criminal justice system; issues in conflict zones; culture, media and education; the economy; and, issues in the theorisation of prevention. The research was conducted following the award of ‘preferred bidder status’ following a competitive tender in 2011 by the European Parliament for the Women’s Rights and Gender Equality (FEMM) Committee.
Principle-Investigator: Sylvia Walby (University of Lancaster)
Co-applicant(s): Philippa Olive (Lancaster, Sociology), Jude Towers (Lancaster, Sociology), Brian Francis (Lancaster, Maths/Stats), Sofia Strid (Örebro University, Gender Studies), Andrea Krizsán (Central European University, Policy Studies), Emanuela Lombardo (Madrid Complutense University, Political Science), Corinne May-Chahal (Lancaster, Sociology), Suzanne Franzway (University of South Australia, Sociology and Gender Studies), David Sugarman (Lancaster, Law), and Bina Agarwal (University of Manchester, Development; and Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi).
Key Outputs:
Walby, S., et al. (2015). Stopping Rape: Towards a Comprehensive Policy.  Bristol: Policy Press.
Walby, S., et al. (2013). Overview of the worldwide best practices for rape prevention and for assisting women victims of rape.  Brussels: European Parliament. ISBN 978-92-823-4865-9.  DOI: 10.2861/37950.

Measuring the impact of cuts in public expenditure on the provision of services to prevent violence against women

Start Date: 1 January 2011
End Date: 31 December 2011
Title: Measuring the impact of cuts in public expenditure on the provision of services to prevent violence against women
Total Amount: GBP 3,000  
Funders: Trust for London and Northern Rock Foundation
Abstract: This study investigated the impact of cuts in public expenditure in 2010 on the provision of domestic and sexual violence services by Local Authorities. Information about service provision was collected from the specialised service providers. The analysis showed that routine funding from Local Authorities to specialised Third Sector service providers declined following the cuts, especially to smaller providers, even though some smaller specialised national funding streams increased or fluctuated. Principle-Investigator: Sylvia Walby (University of Lancaster)
Researcher: Jude Towers (Lancaster, Sociology)
Key Outputs: Towers, Jude and Walby, Sylvia (2012). Measuring the impact of cuts in public expenditure on the provision of services to prevent violence against women. Trust for London/Northern Rock Foundation. ISBN 978-1-901373-70-3.

Measuring equality and violence in the UK: Physical and legal security and the criminal justice system

Start Date: 1 January 2009
End Date: 31 December 2009
Title: Measuring equality and violence in the UK: Physical and legal security and the criminal justice system
Total Amount: GBP 30,000
Funder name: UK Equality and Human Rights Commission
Abstract: This is one of two studies contributing to the development of the measurement framework of the UK’s statutory Triennial Review of Equalities, developed by the UK Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC). This study focused on physical and legal security.
Principle-Investigator: Sylvia Walby (University of Lancaster)
Researchers: Jo Armstrong (Lancaster, Sociology), Sofia Strid (Lancaster, Sociology)
Key Outputs:
Walby, Sylvia, Jo Armstrong, and Sofia Strid (2012). ‘ Developing measures of multiple forms of sexual violence and their contested treatment in the criminal justice system ’ in Sandra L. Walklate and Jennifer Brown (eds.) Handbook on Sexual Violence. London: Willan. pp. 90-114.
Walby, Sylvia, Jo Armstrong, and Sofia Strid (2010). Physical and Legal Security and the Criminal Justice System: A Review of Inequalities.  Manchester: Equality and Human Rights Commission.

Measuring equality and violence in the UK: Review of equality statistic

Start date: 1 January 2008
End Date: 31 December 2008
Title: Measuring equality and violence in the UK: Review of equality statistics
Total Amount: GBP 42,000  
Funder: UK Equality and Human Rights Commission
Abstract: This is one of two studies contributing to the development of the measurement framework of the UK’s statutory Triennial Review of Equalities, developed by the UK Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC). This study mapped over 200 existing equality statistics.
Principle-Investigator: Sylvia Walby (University of Lancaster)
Co-applicant(s): Jo Armstrong (Lancaster, Sociology), Les Humphreys (Lancaster, Law)
Key Outputs:
Walby, Sylvia, Jo Armstrong, and Les Humphreys (2018). Review of Equality Statistics. Research Report: 1. Manchester: Equality and Human Rights Commission. ISBN: 978 1 84206 074 2.
Walby, Sylvia and Jo Armstrong (2010). ‘Measuring equality: Data and indicators in Britain’, International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 13 (3): 237-249. Reprinted in C. Hughes and R. Cohen (eds.) (2010). Feminism Counts: Quantitative Methods and Researching Gender. Oxford: Routledge.

Gender and citizenship in a multicultural context: Quality in gender equality policies (Quing)

Start date: 1 January 2006
End Date: 31 December 2011
Title: Gender and citizenship in a multicultural context: Quality in gender equality policies (Quing)
Total Amount: EUR 4.7 million
Funder: European Commission Framework 6
Abstract: This large European project analysed the quality of gender equality policies in the European Union when meeting the challenges of intersectionality. Policies on gender-based violence were one of the areas of focus, addressing, in particular, the ‘Crenshaw dilemma’ concerning visibility where there are intersecting inequalities. The study encompassed all EU Member States as well as the EU-level, with researchers for each country. The outputs were both theoretical and practical. Prof. Walby was Principle Investigator of the Lancaster Team, and was responsible for focusing on intersectionality and gender equality policies including gender-based violence (EUR 634,000).
Quing Principle-Investigator and Scientific Director: Mieke Verloo (Radboud University, Political Science)
Lancaster Team:
Principle-Investigator for Lancaster: Sylvia Walby (Sociology)
Researchers: Jo Armstrong (Sociology), Sofia Strid (Sociology)
Key Outputs: Walby, Sylvia and Mieke Verloo (eds.) (2012). ‘Intersectionality and the equality architecture in Europe’, Social Politics, 19(4): 433-620.

Estimating the economic and social costs of domestic violence against women

Start date: 1 January 2002
End Date: 31 December 2004
Title: Estimating the economic and social costs of domestic violence against women
Total Amount: GBP 56,000
Funder: Department for Trade and Industry, Women and Equality Unit
Abstract: This study estimated the costs of domestic violence by drawing upon a range of data sources, including the British Crime Survey. The study found that domestic violence costs the UK £23 billion a year. The findings and methodology have been used by the Home Office, other government departments, local government and non-governmental providers of services to estimate the cost of domestic violence (and gender-based violence more generally) and contributed to decision-making over service provision. The methods have been adapted for use in other countries, including New Zealand and Canada, disseminated by the UN (e.g. UN Women in 2011).
Principle-Investigator: Sylvia Walby (University of Leeds)
Key Outputs: Walby, S. (2004). The Cost of Domestic Violence. London: Department of Trade and Industry Women and Equality Unit.

Developing the British Crime Survey (now Crime Survey for England and Wales) to measure domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking

Start Date: 1 January 2000
End Date: 1 January 2003
Title: Developing the British Crime Survey (now Crime Survey for England and Wales) to measure domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking
Total Amount: GBP 10,500
Funder: Home Office
Abstract: This consultancy project led to the design of an innovative self-completion module on domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking for the British Crime Survey. This followed a review, funded by the Nuffield Foundation, of the new wave of national surveys of violence against women. Following the publication of the findings, Prof. Walby was consulted on the development of further population surveys by the Irish National Crime Council, the German Federal Ministry for Family, Women, Seniors and Youth, the EU Fundamental Rights Agency, and the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NSPCC).
Principle-Investigator: Sylvia Walby (University of Leeds)
Researchers: Andy Myhill, Jonathan Allen (Home Office)
Key Outputs: Walby, S. and Allen, J. (2004). Domestic Violence, Sexual Assault and Stalking: Findings from the British Crime Survey. Home Office Research Study 276. London: Home Office.

Publications

Books

2017 - Walby, Sylvia, Jude Towers, Susie Balderston, Consuelo Corradi, Brian Francis, Markku Heiskanen, Karin Helweg-Larsen, Lut Mergaert, Philippa Olive, Emma Palmer, Heidi Stöckl and Sofia Strid. The Concept and Measurement of Violence against Women and Men.  Bristol: Policy Press.

2015 - Walby, Sylvia. Crisis.  Cambridge: Polity.

2015 - Walby, Sylvia, Philippa Olive, Jude Towers, Brian Francis, Sofia Strid, Andrea Krizsan, Emanuela Lombardo, Corinne May-Chahal, Suzanne Franzway, David Sugarman, Bina Agarwal and Jo Armstrong. Stopping Rape: Towards a Comprehensive Policy.  Bristol: Policy Press.

2009 - Walby, Sylvia. Globalization and Inequalities: Complexity and Contested Modernities. London: Sage.

1991 - Soothill, Keith and Sylvia Walby. Sex Crime in the News. London: Routledge.

Edited journal special issues

2013 - Walby, Sylvia.  ‘Violence and society’, Current Sociology, 61(2): 95-264.

Articles

2018 - Walby, Sylvia. ‘Is Europe cascading into fascism?  What concepts are needed to address this question?’, Politics and Governance, 6(3): 67–77.  DOI: 10.17645/pag.v6i3.1438

2018 - Walby, Sylvia and Jude Towers. ‘Untangling the concept of coercive control: Theorizing domestic violent crime’, Criminology and Criminal Justice.  On-line advance publication. 7 January 2018.  DOI: 10.1177/1748895817743541

2017 - Walby, Sylvia and Jude Towers. ‘Measuring violence to end violence: Mainstreaming gender’, Journal of Gender-Based Violence, 1(1): 11-31.

2016 - Walby, Sylvia, Jude Towers and Brian Francis. ‘Is violent crime increasing or decreasing? A new methodology to measure repeat attacks making visible the significance of gender and domestic relations’, British Journal of Criminology, 56(6): 1203-1234

2014 - Walby, Sylvia, Jude Towers and Brian Francis. ‘Mainstreaming domestic and gender-based violence into sociology and the criminology of violence’, The Sociological Review, 62(S2): 187-214.

2013 - Strid, Sofia, Sylvia Walby and Jo Armstrong. ‘Intersectionality and multiple inequalities: Visibility in British policy on violence against women’, Social Politics, 20(4): 558-581.

2013 - Walby, Sylvia ‘Violence and society: Introduction to an emerging field of sociology’, Current Sociology, 61(2): 95-111.

2011 - Walby, Sylvia and Jo Armstrong ‘Developing key indicators of “fairness”: Competing frameworks, multiple strands and ten domains – an array of statistics’, Social Policy and Society, 10(2): 205-218.

2010 - Walby, Sylvia and Jo Armstrong. ‘Measuring equality: Data and indicators in Britain’, International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 13 (3): 237-249. Reprinted in C. Hughes and R. Cohen (eds) (2010) Feminism Counts: Quantitative Methods and Researching Gender.  Oxford: Routledge.

2005 - Walby, Sylvia. ‘Improving the statistics on violence against women’, Statistical Journal of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, 22(4): 193-216.

2001 - Walby, Sylvia and Andy Myhill. ‘New survey methodologies in researching violence against women’, British Journal of Criminology, 41(3): 502-522.

1990 - Walby, Sylvia, Keith Soothill and Paul Bagguley. 'Judges, the media, and rape', Journal of Law and Society, 17(2): 211-233.

1983 - Walby, Sylvia, Alex Hay and Keith Soothill. 'The social construction of rape', Theory, Culture and Society, 2(1): 86-98.

Reports

2018 - Francis, Brian, Sylvia Walby, Becky Pattinson, Amy Elliott, Valmira Hoti, Jessica Phoenix, Rachel Verrall, Moira Peelo. Data collection on trafficking in human beings in the EU: Final report. Brussels: European Commission.

2016 - Walby, Sylvia, Jude Towers, Brian Francis, Karen Shire, Liz Kelly, Birgit Apitzsch, Jo Armstrong, Susie Balderston, Adam Fish, Claire Hardaker, Stuart Kirby, Corinne May-Chahal and Emma Palmer. Comprehensive Policy Review of Anti-Trafficking Projects funded by the European Commission. ISBN 978-92-79-61960-1 doi:10.2837/973893

2016 - Walby, Sylvia, Birgit Apitzsch, Jo Armstrong, Susie Balderston, Karolina Follis, Brian Francis, Liz Kelly, Corinne May-Chahal, Awais Rashid, Karen Shire, Jude Towers, and Markus Tünte Gender Dimension of Trafficking in Human Beings.  Brussels: European Commission Anti-Trafficking Coordinators Office. ISBN 978-92-79-54063-9 doi:10.2837/462884

2016 - Ensuring data collection and research on violence against women and domestic violence – Article 11 of the Istanbul Convention.  Prepared by Sylvia Walby for the Council of Europe.  Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

2014 - Walby, Sylvia and Philippa Olive. Estimating the Costs of Gender-Based Violence in the European Union.  Vilnius, Lithuania: European Institute for Gender Equality.  ISBN 978-92-9218-499-5 Doi:10.2839/79629

2013 - Walby, Sylvia, Philippa Olive, Jude Towers, Brian Francis, Sofia Strid, Andrea Krizsan, Emanuela Lombardo, Corinne May-Chahal, Suzanne Franzway, David Sugarman, Bina Agarwal. Overview of the worldwide best practices for rape prevention and for assisting women victims of rape.  Brussels: European Parliament. ISBN 978-92-823-4865-9.  DOI: 10.2861/37950.

2013 - Walby, Sylvia and Olive, Philippa The European Added Value of a Directive on Combatting Violence Against Women: Annex 2 Economic Aspects and Legal Perspectives for Action at the European Level.  European Value Added Unit.

2012 - Towers Jude and Sylvia Walby. Measuring the impact of cuts in public expenditure on the provision of services to prevent violence against women. Trust for London/Northern Rock Foundation. ISBN 978-1-901373-70-3:

2009 - Walby, Sylvia. The Cost of Domestic Violence: Up-date 2009. Lancaster: Lancaster University.

2008 - Walby, Sylvia, Jo Armstrong and Les Humphreys. Review of Equality Statistics. Research Report: 1. Manchester: Equality and Human Rights Commission. ISBN: 978 1 84206 074 2.

2004 - Walby, Sylvia and Jonathan Allen. Domestic Violence, Sexual Assault and Stalking: Findings from the British Crime Survey. Home Office Research Study 276.  London: Home Office.

2004 - Walby, Sylvia.  The Cost of Domestic Violence. London: Department of Trade and Industry Women and Equality Unit.

Chapters and other short publications

2017 - Walby, Sylvia. ‘Towards zero violence?’ Global Dialogue (publication of the International Sociological Association).

2016 - Towers, Jude, Sylvia Walby and Brian Francis ‘ONS (Office for National Statistics, UK) Consultation on high frequency repeat victims in the Crime Survey - our response.

2015 - Walby, Sylvia ‘Official statistics mask the extent of domestic violence in the UKThe Conversation, 15 June.

2012 - Walby, Sylvia and Jude Towers. ‘Measuring the impact of cuts in public expenditure on the provision of services to prevent violence against women and girls’ Safe: The Domestic Abuse Quarterly, 41: 14-17.

2012 - Walby, Sylvia, Jo Armstrong and Sofia Strid. ‘Developing measures of multiple forms of sexual violence and their contested treatment in the criminal justice system’ in Sandra L. Walklate and Jennifer Brown (eds) Handbook on Sexual Violence.  London: Willan. Pp. 90-114.

2010 - Walby, Sylvia, Jo Armstrong and Sofia Strid. Physical and Legal Security and the Criminal Justice System: A Review of Inequalities.  Equality and Human Rights Commission. 172 pp.

2008 - Walby, Sylvia. ‘From statistics to indicators: How to convert information from surveys into practical indicators’, in K. Aromaa and M. Heiskanen (eds) Victimisation Surveys in Comparative Perspective.  Helsinki: Heuni. Pp.180-188.

2007 - Walby, Sylvia. Indicators to Measure Violence Against Women.  Report for the United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, presented as lead background paper for UN Expert meeting, Geneva, 8-10 October 2007.

2007 - Walby, Sylvia. ‘Violence conjugale, agression sexuelle et harcèlement: Résultas tirés de la British Crime Survey (enquête de criminalité britannique)’ in M. Jaspard and S. Condon (eds) Nommer et compter les violences envers les femmes en Europe.  Enjeux scientifiques et politiques.  Paris: Institute de Démograpie Université Paris 1.  Pp. 55-61.

2007 - Indicators to Measure Violence Against Women.  Report for the United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, presented as lead background paper for UN Expert meeting, Geneva, 8-10 October 2007.

2006 - Home Affairs Select Committee: Invited written submission to Draft Sentencing Guidelines – Overarching Principles: Domestic Violence and Breach of a Protective Order Third report of session 2005-6, HC 1231, Ev14-15.

2006 - Towards international standards for data collection and statistics on violence against women, presented to United Nation Economic Commission for Europe meeting on gender statistics; translated into Russian; published on UN website.

2005 - ‘Improving statistics on violence against women’.  Presented to UN Expert Group Meeting on ‘Violence against women: A statistical overview, challenges and gaps in data collection and methodology and approaches for overcoming them’, 11-14 April 2005, Geneva, and published on the UN web-site at:

2005 - Developing Indicators on Violence Against Women.  Report for the United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women.  Contribution to the UN Secretary-General’s Report on Violence Against Women to the September 2006 UN General Assembly.

2004 - Walby, Sylvia. ‘Five times higher - the extent of domestic violence’, Safe: The Domestic Abuse Quarterly, 10: 10-12.

2004 - Walby, Sylvia. ‘The real cost of domestic violence’, Safe: The Domestic Abuse Quarterly, 11: 15-18.

2002 - ‘Reducing gendered violence: Defining, measuring and interpreting inter-personal violence and responses to it’ in Kön och våld I Norden.  Rapport från en konferens I Køge, Danmark, 2001.   (Gender and violence in the Nordic countries.  Report from conference in Køge, Denmark 2001).  (Nordic Council of Ministers Tema Nord.)

2001 - Walby, Sylvia. ‘Assessing and managing the risk of domestic violence’ in J. Taylor-Browne (ed.) What Works in Reducing Domestic Violence? London: Whiting and Birch. (With A. Myhill), pp. 309-335.

2000 - Comparing Methodologies to Investigate Violence Against Women in Proceedings of the Council of Europe Seminar on ‘Men and Violence Against Women’  (Strasbourg: Council of Europe).  Also posted on Council of Europe web-site. Translated and published in French by the Council of Europe, 2000.