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Welcome to the European Social Survey.
The European Social Survey (ESS) is an academically driven survey using the highest methodological standards headquartered at City, University of London.
Since 2002/03, the ESS has provided cross-national data measuring public attitudes, beliefs and behaviour. Every two years, up to 40,000 face-to-face interviews are conducted across Europe on a wide range of subjects.
Funded through the European Union’s Horizon 2020 grants and membership fees from countries who take part, the ESS was made a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ESS ERIC) in 2013. It is currently the first ERIC to be hosted in the United Kingdom.
The involvement of the United Kingdom, and the extra costs of hosting an ERIC, are funded through the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC).
ESS data is available completely free of charge for non-commercial use - all results from 2002/03 can be accessed and analysed online or downloaded for use in statistical software such as SPSS, Stata or R.
For more information, visit the ESS website.
As well as the HQ based at City, the ESS consists of many colleagues based in different areas of Europe.
Find out more about the people who are part of ESS HQ:
Professor Rory Fitzgerald, Director of the ESS ERIC
Dr. Eric Harrison, Deputy Director of the ESS ERIC and Deputy Co-ordinator of the City Q-Step Centre
Dr. Sarah Butt, Deputy Director of the ESS ERIC and Research Fellow
Dr. Gianmaria Bottoni, Research Fellow
Esther Bourne, Grants Coordinator
Niccolò Ghirelli, Research Assistant
Mary Keane, Administrator
Dr. Lorna Ryan, Research Manager
Luca Salini, Researcher
Elissa Sibley, Research Fellow
Stefan Swift, ESS ERIC Media and Communications Officer
The award-winning and academically driven cross-national survey project collects data biennially measuring citizens’ attitudes and public opinions on a variety of topics across Europe.
Every two years, a questionnaire is conducted in up to 30 European nations. The face-to-face interview lasts an hour, and includes questions from a core questionnaire asked in every round. In each iteration of the survey, two specially selected modules are included following a worldwide call for proposals from external academics.
Among other things, the ESS asks question about:
All data and documentation is available on the ESS website, including an online tool that allows registered users to view, weight and analyse ESS data. Since 2002, over 125,000 people have registered to use the data - to sign up for free, visit the ESS website.
Fieldwork for Round 8 (collected in late 2016 and early 2017) was published in autumn 2017. It included questions on attitudes towards welfare provision and climate change and energy. A copy of the Round 8 questionnaire is available.
RISCAPE brings together a consortium of organisations to undertake analysis of international research infrastructures for the use of European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI), European Commission (EC), OECD and national or regional funding agencies.
The objective of the RISCAPE project is to provide a peer-reviewed report on the position of the major European research infrastructures in an international context.
RISCAPE will establish close links with a panel representing the main user groups of the report and cooperate with European research infrastructures to build on the ESFRI landscape report (2016).
For more information, visit the RISCAPE website.
The SERISS project develops strategies to ensure that Europe’s social science data infrastructures play an effective role in addressing the key challenges facing Europe today. It supports national and European policy makers by providing them with high-quality input on citizens’ attitudes, experiences, and behaviours.
SERISS is funded by the European Commission under Horizon 2020 (Project volume: €8.4million). The project has collaborative links between the ESS, the Survey for Health Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), the Consortium of European Social Science Data Archives (CESSDA), the Generations and Gender Programme (GGP), European Values Study (EVS), and the Wage Indicator Survey.
With the support of these partners, the project is able to address key challenges in cross-national data collection, to overcome the barrier across research infrastructures, and to embrace the future of social science exploring new ways of data collection. For more information see the SERISS website.
For more information see the SERISS website.
Part of the European Social Survey (ESS) led work package of SERISS, a Cross-National Online Survey Panel (CRONOS) has been established to explore the possibilities of using the Internet to collect survey data in future.
There remains serious challenges to obtaining accurate data using the internet, especially for cross-national studies of the general population. These include a lack of email listings to select and contact respondents, different internet penetration rates across countries, low participation rates and an increasing number of survey completion requests.
CRONOS has used respondents from Round 8 (2016/17) of the ESS to recruit respondents for a 12-month web panel. The CRONOS panel will run for one year, and respondents will be asked to complete a 20-minute web survey every other month, which respondents can complete at a time convenient to them, within a two month period.
The surveys are programmed and administered using Questback-EFS, one of the leading software solutions for online survey panels. The surveys contain topics from prestigious surveys like the European Value Study, ESS, and European Quality of Life Survey. Respondents will be offered a small token of appreciation for their participation in each survey.
For more information, visit the SERISS website
Funded by the European Commission under H2020 and coordinated by a team at Manchester Metropolitan University, The European Cohort Development Project (ECDP) 2018-19 is a Design Study which will create the specification and business case for a European Research Infrastructure that will provide, over the next 25 years, comparative longitudinal survey data on child and young adult well-being. The infrastructure developed by ECDP will subsequently coordinate the first Europe wide cohort survey, named EuroCohort.
ESS ERIC is a partner in the project providing expert input particularly with regard to issues around infrastructure governance, survey methodology and piloting.
The ADDResponse project analysed Nonresponse Bias by looking at auxiliary data. The ESRC funded project held strong ties with the ESS. ADDResponse matched small-area administrative, commercial, and geo-coded data to the ESS data collected in the UK during Round 6 (2012/13). It aimed to: identify benefits and challenges of using different kinds of auxiliary data confidentially; analyse non-response bias with the help of auxiliary information; and develop corrective models and weighting procedures for non-response bias. Find out more about the project on the ADDResponse blog.
The ESRC funded research project aimed to sustain public and political interest in the use of well-being data and explore how best to employ this data for policy recommendations. The project holds strong ties with the ESS relying on well-being questions collected in the core questionnaire and in special modules. The project built on four core areas of research in the field: Designing well-being indicators based on survey data; analysing subjective well-being nationally and cross-nationally; exploring the well-being of societies; and studying the challenges of using subjective well-being data for policy recommendations. Read the final report - Looking through the Well-being Kaleidoscope.
The European Social Survey (ESS) has begun working on a new Horizon 2020 project, the Social Sciences and Humanities Open Cloud (SSHOC). Read more
Professor Rory Fitzgerald, the director of the European Social Survey (ESS), delivered a public lecture at the University of Western Australia in Perth on 19 February 2019. Read more
The recipient of €1,000 as part of the 2019 Jowell-Kaase Early Career Researcher Prize has been announced by the European Social Survey (ESS). Read more
The European Social Survey (ESS) has updated its cumulative data file for the first eight rounds of the survey. It means that all data collected from Round 1 (2002/03) to Round 8 (2016/17) can be downloaded in a single file, available in SPSS, STATA and CSV formats. Read more
Russian respondents in Round 8 (2016/17) of the European Social Survey are amongst the least concerned of all 23 participating countries about climate change. Read more
The first of two new publications based on European Social Survey (ESS) data has been produced by those involved in the public attitudes to welfare and climate change in the European Union and Russia (PAWCER) project. Read more
Online registration for the 4th International European Social Survey (ESS) Conference - being held at the University of Mannheim (Germany) during April 2019 - is now open. Read more
A great majority of Europeans think that climate change is happening, but do not have strong concern about the issue, according to a new European Social Survey (ESS) report. Read more
A new European Social Survey (ESS) report has found significant public support in Europe for the introduction of universal basic income and a European Union-led social benefits scheme. Read more
Analysis of the most recent round of European Social Survey (ESS) data will be showcased at two events being held in Brussels next month. Read more
Questions measuring attitudes towards democracy and media and communication will be included in Round 10 of the European Social Survey (ESS). Read more
Leading academics can now submit their research using our data to be considered for inclusion at the 4th International ESS Conference being held in Germany during April 2019. Read more
Details of how to apply for the 2019 Jowell-Kaase Early Career Researcher Prize have now been announced by the European Social Survey (ESS). Read more
We are pleased to announce that the second edition of data and documentation for European Social Survey (ESS) Round 8 was published today (Wednesday 30 May 2018). Read more
Survey data collected online through the Synergies for Europe's Research Infrastructures in the Social Sciences (SERISS) project is now available to download. Read more
The director of the European Social Survey (ESS), Professor Rory Fitzgerald, was a keynote speaker at an international conference at the University of Western Australia in Perth on 21-23 February 2018. Read more
The fifth annual lecture in honour of European Social Survey co-founder, Sir Roger Jowell, will be held at the British Academy in London on Monday 21 May 2018. Read more
The 4th International ESS Conference - Turbulent times in Europe: Instability, insecurity and inequality - will take place at the University of Mannheim in Germany on 24-26 April 2019.
Participants are being invited to submit session proposals as part of a call published by the conference organising committee that will remain open until 31 May 2018. Read more
The Spanish National Committee of the European Social Survey (ESS) has announced that its first Spanish Congress event will be held in Madrid during September 2018. Read more
The European Social Survey (ESS) is a partner organisation involved in a new Europe-wide project aimed at assessing children’s health and well-being, led by researchers based at Manchester Metropolitan University. Read more
The European Social Survey European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ESS ERIC) is looking to appoint three external members to its revised Research Ethics Committee. Read more
An independent report commissioned by the ESS HQ has found that the European Social Survey (ESS ERIC) has high levels of academic, teaching and non-academic impact across Europe. Read more
The first edition of data and documentation for European Social Survey (ESS) Round 8 (2016) has been published today (Tuesday 31 October). Read more
The European Social Survey (ESS) is joining together with Ronnie Cowan MP to host an event that will look at public attitudes towards the introduction of a universal basic income in London next month. Read more
Multi-national teams of researchers can now submit applications to propose modules of questions to be fielded in Round 10 of the European Social Survey (ESS). Read more
The European Social Survey (ESS) ERIC is seeking applications to produce a scoping report that will outline potential methods for measuring the media context during future survey fieldwork periods. Read more
The European Social Survey (ESS) held a workshop to strengthen its global links with the world’s leading cross-national and cross-cultural surveys at ESS HQ based at City, University of London on 12-13 September. Read more
The European Social Survey updated its Multilevel Data resource on Monday (26 June) to include the most recent data available. The resource is designed to facilitate the task of adding external data on countries and regions to ESS Round 4-7 data (2008/09-2014/15). Find out more about Multilevel data resource.
The European Social Survey joined forces with Migration Policy Group to hold an immigration event, hosted by Jean Lambert MEP at the European Parliament, on Monday (19 June). ‘Attitudes towards immigration in Europe: myths and realities’ brought together leading academics to present research using data primarily from the ESS Round 7 (2014/15) module on immigration. Find out more about this event.
The European Social Survey has now published the latest survey specifications for Round 9 (2018/19). The specifications outline the tasks and responsibilities required of national teams to conduct the international survey. Find out more about our latest survey.
Roger Jowell Memorial Lecture 2017
Chair of UK in a Changing Europe, Professor Anand Menon, delivered the fourth annual lecture held in memory of co-founder of the European Social Survey, Professor Sir Roger Jowell CBE.
Menon (based at King's College London) discussed what the vote for ‘Brexit’ means for the UK and its relationship with the European countries who remain a part of the union.
Roger Jowell sadly passed away on Christmas Day 2011 - Roger was co-founder of the European Social Survey (ESS) with Max Kaase.
A free workshop focusing on Albanian participation in the European Social Survey will take place in the Faculty for the Social Sciences at the University of Tirana on 19 May 2017. Leading scholars and researchers will discuss the benefits of Albanian participation in Round 6 (2012/13) of the survey. Find out more about this workshop.
Analysis of European Social Survey Round 7 (2014/15) will be showcased at the Centre for Sociological Research in Madrid on Friday 31 March. The conference will have a specific focus on the two rotating modules fielded in Round 7: Social Inequalities in Health and Attitudes towards Immigration. Find out more about this event.
Alongside Max Kaase, Sir Roger Jowell began developing the European Social Survey at the European Science Foundation (ESF) in 1995. The ESF would eventually ask Jowell to assemble a core team and apply to the European Commission for central funding to be matched by the participating countries.
In 2001, the European Social Survey was established at the National Centre for Social Research (now NatCen Social Research) in London. Since 2003, the ESS Headquarters have been hosted by City, University of London.
In 2001, Roger was awarded the CBE in the UK for his services to the social sciences. Seven years later, he was recognised again by the UK Government - this time awarded a knighthood to become Sir Roger Jowell.
The fifth annual lecture in honour of Sir Roger Jowell was held at the British Academy in London on 21 May 2018. The lecture was delivered by Professor Jane Green of the University of Manchester who discussed her research into the 2015 and 2017 British elections.
Jane Green is Professor of Political Science in the Cathy Marsh Institute for Social Research and the Politics Department in Manchester and belongs to the Scientific Leadership Team of the British Election Study (BES).
The Chair of the lecture was Jennifer Rubin, Executive Chair of the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC).
Professor Anand Menon discussed what the vote for Brexit means for the UK and its relationship with the countries who remain a part of the union. As Chair of the UK in a Changing Europe initiative, the Professor of European Politics and Foreign Affairs at King's College London offered valuable insight into this critical issue.
The fourth annual memorial lecture was held on 30 May 2017 and chaired by Professor Sara Hobolt, Sutherland Chair in European Institutions at the London School of Economics.
Since September 2017, City, University of London, the European Social Survey HQ and NatCen Social Research have held a series of survey methodology seminars. Presentation slides are available for all seminars from September 2017 until December 2018. From January 2019, all events are recorded, with the presentation slides viewable alongside an audio recording of the event.
28 September 2017: Taking the leap… from in-person to mixed-mode surveys - Paul P. Biemer, RTI International and the University of North Carolina
25 October 2017: The development of push-to-web surveys in the UK - Gerry Nicolaas & Patten Smith, Ipsos Public Affairs
25 January 2018: Using mobile devices to enhance and extend measurement - Mick P. Couper, Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan
22 February 2018: Evidence of the effectiveness of respondent centred survey design - Andrew Phelps, Office for National Statistics (ONS) and Respondent centred survey design: Principles and practice, Laura Wilson, ONS
16 April 2018: Managing survey change: resource trade-offs and quality metrics - Brad Edwards, Westat
24 May 2018: Completing social surveys on smartphones: what should we be worried about? - Tim Hanson, Peter Matthews & Alice McGee, Kantar Public UK
21 June 2018: Probability based on-line panels in Great Britain - Curtis Jessop, NatCen Social Research and Rory Fitzgerald & Gianmaria Bottoni, European Social Survey
6 September 2018: Conducting probability based mixed-mode surveys: Experimental evidence from the European Values Study - Pablo Christmann, GESIS - Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences
2 October 2018: How web-push surveys are changing survey methodology - Don A. Dillman, Washington State University
11 October 2018: Interviewer effects on response latencies in a face-to-face interview survey - Patrick Sturgis, University of Southampton
8 November 2018: Ethics are everywhere - Helen Kara
22 Jaunary 2019: Linking survey and social media data: Experiences and evidence - Tarek Al Baghal, Institute for Social and Economic Research, University of Essex
12 February 2019: Adventures in administrative data: Potential, pitfalls and predictions... - Emma White, University of Southampton
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Bastos, M. T. ORCID: 0000-0003-0480-1078, Mercea, D. ORCID: 0000-0003-3762-2404 and Baronchelli, A. ORCID: 0000-0002-0255-0829 (2018). The Geographic Embedding of Online Echo Chambers: Evidence from the Brexit Campaign. PLoS ONE, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0206841
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Olsen, W., Gash, V. ORCID: 0000-0001-8152-4196, Sook, K. and Zhang, M. (2018). The gender pay gap in the UK: evidence from the UKHLS (DFE-RR804). London, UK: Department for Education, Government Equalities Office.
Bastos, M. T. and Mercea, D. (2018). Parametrizing Brexit: Mapping Twitter Political Space to Parliamentary Constituencies. Information, Communication and Society, doi: 10.1080/1369118X.2018.1433224
Hileman, J., Bastos, M. T. and Lubell, M. (2018). Robustness and the Paradox of Bridging Organizations: The Exit Problem in Regional Water Governance Networks in Central America. Society and Natural Resources, doi: 10.1080/08941920.2017.1423436
Bastos, M. T. ORCID: 0000-0003-0480-1078 and Mercea, D. (2018). The Public Accountability of Social Platforms: Lessons from a Study on Bots and Trolls in the Brexit Campaign. Philosophical Transactions A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 376(2128), 20180003.. doi: 10.1098/rsta.2018.0003
Farkas, J. and Bastos, M. T. ORCID: 0000-0003-0480-1078 (2018). IRA Propaganda on Twitter: Stoking Antagonism and Tweeting Local News. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Social Media & Society, pp. 281-285. doi: 10.1145/3217804.3217929
Fisher, S., Fitzgerald, R. and Poortinga, W. (2018). Climate change Social divisions in belief and behaviour. In: Phillips, D., Curtice, J., Phillips, M. and Perry, J. (Eds.), British Social Attitudes: The 35th Report. . London: The National Centre for Social Research. ISBN 9781527225916
Kuyper, L., Sommer, E. and Butt, S. (2017). Gender Gaps in the Measurement of Public Opinion About Homosexuality in Cross-national Surveys: A Question-Wording Experiment. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, edx019. doi: 10.1093/ijpor/edx019
Turkay, C., Slingsby, A., Lahtinen, K., Butt, S. and Dykes, J. (2017). Supporting Theoretically-grounded Model Building in the Social Sciences through Interactive Visualisation. Neurocomputing, 268, pp. 153-163. doi: 10.1016/j.neucom.2016.11.087
Bastos, M. T., Piccardi, C., Levy, M., McRoberts, N. and Lubell, M. (2017). Core-periphery or decentralized? Topological shifts of specialized information on Twitter. Social Networks, doi: 10.1016/j.socnet.2017.09.006
Bastos, M. T. and Mercea, D. (2017). The Brexit Botnet and User-Generated Hyperpartisan News. Social Science Computer Review, doi: 10.1177/0894439317734157
Johann, D., Kleinen-von Königslow, K., Kritzinger, S. and Thomas, K. (2017). Intra-Campaign Changes in Voting Preferences: The Impact of Media and Party Communication. Political Communication, doi: 10.1080/10584609.2017.1339222
Kuha, J., Butt, S., Katsikatsou, M. and Skinner, C. (2017). The Effect of Probing "Don't Know" Responses on Measurement Quality and Nonresponse in Surveys. Journal of the American Statistical Association,
Johann, D. and Thomas, K. (2017). Testing the Validity of the Crosswise Model: A Study on Attitudes Towards Muslims. Survey Methods: Insights from the Field,
Sommer, E. and Gamper, M. (2017). Transnational entrepreneurial activities: A qualitative network study of self-employed migrants from the former Soviet Union in Germany. Social Networks, doi: 10.1016/j.socnet.2017.04.007
Barnes, M., Stares, S., Wood, C., Vibert, S. and Lord, C. (2017). Poverty in Perspective: A typology of poverty in Scotland. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government, ISSN 2045-6964.
Thomas, K., Johann, D., Kritzinger, S., Plescia, C. and Zeglovits, E. (2017). Estimating Sensitive Behavior: The ICT and High-Incidence Electoral Behavior. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 29(1), pp. 151-171. doi: 10.1093/ijpor/edw002
Puschmann, C., Bastos, M. T. and Schmidt, J-H. (2017). Birds of a feather petition together? Characterizing e-petitioning through the lens of platform data. Information, Communication & Society, 20(2), pp. 203-220. doi: 10.1080/1369118X.2016.1162828
Villar, A. and Fitzgerald, R. (2017). Using mixed modes in survey data research: Results from six experiments. In: Breen, M. (Ed.), Values and Identities in Europe: Evidence from the European Social Survey. (pp. 273-310). Routledge. ISBN 9781138226661
Allum, N., Allansdottir, A., Gaskell, G., Hampel, J., Jackson, J., Moldovan, A., Priest, S., Stares, S. and Stoneman, P. (2017). Religion and the public ethics of stem-cell research: Attitudes in Europe, Canada and the United States. PLoS One, 12(4), e0176274. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0176274
Barnes, M. and Harrison, E. K. (2017). The wellbeing of secondary school pupils with special educaitonal needs. UK: Department for Education.
Simpson, A., Coffey, M., Hannigan, B., Barlow, S., Cohen, R. L., Jones, A., Faulkner, A., Thornton, A., Všetečková,, J., Haddad, M. and Marlowe, K (2017). Cross-national mixed methods comparative case study of recovery-focused mental health care planning and coordination in acute inpatient mental health settings (COCAPP-A). Health Services and Delivery Research, 5(26), doi: 10.3310/hsdr05260
Butt, S., Schneider, S. and Heath, A.F. (2016). Developing a measure of socio-cultural origins for the European Social Survey (2016/16). GESIS - Leibniz-Institut für Sozialwissenschaften, ISSN 2364-3773.
Dieckhoff, M., Gash, V., Mertens, A. and Romeu Gordo, L. (2016). A stalled revolution? What can we learn from women’s drop-out to part-time jobs: A comparative analysis of Germany and the UK. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 46(B), pp. 129-140. doi: 10.1016/j.rssm.2016.09.001
Pinotsis, D. A. ORCID: 0000-0002-6865-8103, Loonis, R., Bastos, A. M., Miller, E. K. and Friston, K. J. (2016). Bayesian Modelling of Induced Responses and Neuronal Rhythms. Brain Topography, doi: 10.1007/s10548-016-0526-y
Coffey, M., Cohen, R. L., Faulkner, A., Hannigan, B., Simpson, A. and Barlow, S. (2016). Ordinary risks and accepted fictions: how contrasting and competing priorities work in risk assessment and mental health care planning. Health Expectations, doi: 10.1111/hex.12474
Reece Thomas, K. (2016). The UK Supreme Court's latest look at State Immunity. Journal of International and Comparative Law, 3(1), pp. 149-161.
Eikemo, T., Bambra, C., Huijts, T. and Fitzgerald, R. (2016). The first pan-European sociological health inequalities survey of the general population: the European Social Survey (ESS) rotating module on the social determinants of health. European Sociological Review, doi: 10.1093/esr/jcw019
Simpson, A., Bannigan, B., Coffey, M., Barlow, S., Cohen, R., Jones, A., Všetečková,, J., Faulkner, A., Thornton, A. and Cartwright, M. (2016). Recovery-focused care planning and coordination in England and Wales: a cross-national mixed methods comparative case study. BMC Psychiatry, 16(147), doi: 10.1186/s12888-016-0858-x
Harrison, E. K. and Smart, A. (2016). The under-representation of minority ethnic groups in UK medical research. Ethnicity and Health, doi: 10.1080/13557858.2016.1182126
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Winstone, L., Widdop, S. and Fitzgerald, R. (2016). Constructing the Questionnaire: the Challenges of Measuring Views and Evaluations of Democracy Across Europe. In: Ferrin, M. and Kriesi, H. (Eds.), How Europeans View and Evaluate Democracy (Comparative Politics). (pp. 21-42). UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-876690-2
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Dr Emmeline Taylor provides an overview of the British Retail Consortium’s annual Retail Crime Survey...