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  1. Dr Stephann Makri

portrait of Dr Stephann Makri

Dr Stephann Makri

Senior Lecturer in Human-Computer Interaction

School of Mathematics, Computer Science & Engineering, Department of Computer Science

Contact Information


Visit Stephann

A202, College Building


Postal Address

City University London
Northampton Square



Dr Stephann Makri works in the area of Human-Centric Systems. He does research, teaching and consultancy on information interaction (how people interact with digital information environments such as websites, search engines, digital libraries, social media tools etc.). His work focuses on understanding how people find, interpret and use digital information, then using this understanding to design new and improve existing digital information environments.


PhD Human-Computer Interaction, University College London, 2008
MSc Human-Computer Interaction with Ergonomics, University College London, 2004
BSc (Hons) Business Information Systems, University of Hertfordshire, 2003


04/2013 - to date City University London, Lecturer
02/2009 - 01/2013 University College London, Research Associate
07/2005 - 09/2011 University of Hertfordshire, Visiting Lecturer
09/2004 - 07/2005 University of Hertfordshire, Lecturer

Membership of professional bodies

British Computer Society
The Royal Institution of Great Britain (RI)
Association for Information Science & Technology


Research interests

Understanding how digital information is acquired (i.e. both sought and encountered), interpreted and used in the context of peoples' work and everyday lives.

Feeding this understanding into the design of new and improvement of existing digital information environments. This involves designing to better support peoples' information needs, tasks and behaviour and evaluating digital information environments to ensure they are useful and usable.

Media appearances

Research featured on BBC Radio 4’s ‘The Digital Human’ programme (June 2012) and on BBC Radio Solent (November 2012).

Research featured in a variety of print and online media outlets, including The Sunday Times (21st October 2012), The Daily Mail (28th October 2012), The Huffington Post (9th October 2012), (30th October 2012), Emerald Street (8th October 2012), PhysOrg (5th October 2012), Soul&Spirit Magazine (January 2013), Red Magazine (April 2013), Healthy Magazine (Sep. 2013), Readers Digest Australia (Oct. 2013), Readers Digest New Zealand (Oct. 2013), Readers Digest Asia (Oct. 2013), Readers Digest Singapore (Oct. 2013), Readers Digest Philippines (Oct. 2013).

Research Students

Robert Heeley
Thesis title
Further Information
Current PhD student, joined Oct. 2013


Journal Article (23)

  1. Burnett, M., Stumpf, S., Macbeth, J., Makri, S., Beckwith, L., Kwan, I., Peters, A. and Jernigan, W. (Nov 2016). GenderMag: A Method for Evaluating Software's Gender Inclusiveness. Interacting with Computers, 28(6), 760-787. doi: 10.1093/iwc/iwv046
  2. Pontis, S., Kefalidou, G., Blandford, A., Forth, J., Makri, S., Sharples, S., Wiggins, G. and Woods, M. (13 May 2015). Academics' responses to encountered information: Context matters. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 67(8), 1883-1903. doi: 10.1002/asi.23502
  3. Georgiou, A. and Makri, S. (10 May 2015). How local government policy workers use information: An interview study and design recommendations. International Journal of Information Management, 35(4), 472-489. doi: 10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2015.03.004
  4. Day, J., Buchanan, G. and Makri, S. (01 Jan 2015). Learning lessons from controlled studies to investigate users’ resilience strategies. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 9299, 578-581. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-22723-8_65
  5. Makri, S., Blandford, A., Woods, M., Sharples, S. and Maxwell, D. (01 Nov 2014). "Making my own luck": Serendipity strategies and how to support them in digital information environments. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 65(11), 2179-2194. doi: 10.1002/asi.23200
  6. Ellis, S., Makri, S. and Attfield, S. (01 Jan 2014). Keeping up with the law: Investigating lawyers’ monitoring behaviour. New Library World, 115(7-8), 292-313. doi: 10.1108/NLW-03-2014-0023
  7. Russell-Rose, T., Lamantia, J. and Makri, S. (01 Jan 2014). Defining and applying a language for discovery. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 8382, 3-28. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-12093-5_1
  8. Makri, S. and Blandford, A. (01 Aug 2012). Coming across information serendipitously - Part 1: A process model. Journal of Documentation, 68(5), 684-705. doi: 10.1108/00220411211256030
  9. Makri, S. and Blandford, A. (01 Aug 2012). Coming across information serendipitously - Part 2: A classification framework. Journal of Documentation, 68(5), 706-724. doi: 10.1108/00220411211256049
  10. Dantonio, L., Makri, S. and Blandford, A. (01 Dec 2012). Coming across academic social media content serendipitously. Proceedings of the ASIST Annual Meeting, 49(1). doi: 10.1002/meet.14504901002
  11. Sun, X., Sharples, S. and Makri, S. (26 Sep 2011). A user-centred mobile diary study approach to understanding serendipity in information research. Information Research, 16(3).
  12. Erdelez, S. and Makri, S. (26 Sep 2011). Introduction to the thematic issue on opportunistic discovery of information. Information Research, 16(3).
  13. Makri, S. (2011). Information by Chance: Opportunistic Discovery of Information. Information Research, 16(3).
  14. Makri, S., Blandford, A. and Cox, A.L. (01 May 2011). This is what I'm doing and why: Methodological reflections on a naturalistic think-aloud study of interactive information behaviour. Information Processing and Management, 47(3), 336-348. doi: 10.1016/j.ipm.2010.08.001
  15. Makri, S., Blandford, A., Cox, A.L., Attfield, S. and Warwick, C. (2011). Evaluating the Information Behaviour methods: Formative evaluations of two methods for assessing the functionality and usability of electronic information resources.. Int. J. Hum.-Comput. Stud., 69, 455-482. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2011.04.004
  16. Makri, S. and Blandford, A. (26 Sep 2011). What is serendipity? A workshop report. Information Research, 16(3).
  17. Attfield, S., Blandford, A. and Makri, S. (2010). Social and interactional practices for disseminating current awareness information in an organisational setting.. Inf. Process. Manage., 46, 632-645. doi: 10.1016/j.ipm.2009.10.003
  18. Makri, S. and Warwick, C. (2010). Information for inspiration: Understanding architects' information seeking and use behaviors to inform design.. JASIST, 61, 1745-1770. doi: 10.1002/asi.21338
  19. Makri, S., Blandford, A. and Cox, A.L. (2008). Using information behaviors to evaluate the functionality and usability of electronic resources: From Ellis's model to evaluation.. JASIST, 59, 2244-2267. doi: 10.1002/asi.20927
  20. Makri, S., Blandford, A. and Cox, A.L. (01 Mar 2008). Investigating the information-seeking behaviour of academic lawyers: From Ellis's model to design. Information Processing and Management, 44(2), 613-634. doi: 10.1016/j.ipm.2007.05.001
  21. Blandford, A., Green, T.R.G., Furniss, D. and Makri, S. (01 Jun 2008). Evaluating system utility and conceptual fit using CASSM. International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 66(6), 393-409. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2007.11.005
  22. Blandford, A., Adams, A., Attfield, S., Buchanan, G., Gow, J., Makri, S., Rimmer, J. and Warwick, C. (01 Jan 2008). The PRET A Rapporter framework: Evaluating digital libraries from the perspective of information work. Information Processing and Management, 44(1), 4-21. doi: 10.1016/j.ipm.2007.01.021
  23. Makri, S., Blandford, A., Gow, J., Rimmer, J., Warwick, C. and Buchanan, G. (01 Mar 2007). A library or just another information resource? A case study of users' mental models of traditional and digital libraries. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 58(3), 433-445. doi: 10.1002/asi.20510

Book (1)

  1. Blandford, A., Furniss, D. and Makri, S. (07 Apr 2016). Qualitative HCI Research: Going Behind the Scenes. doi: 10.2200/S00706ED1V01Y201602HCI034

Chapter (1)

  1. Blandford, A., Furniss, D. and Makri, S. (2016). Introduction: Behind the scenes. (Ed.), Qualitative HCI Research: Going Behind the Scenes (pp. 1-6) USA: Morgan and Claypool Publishers. doi: 10.2200/S00706ED1V01Y201602HCI034

Conference (19)

  1. Day, J., Buchanan, G. and Makri, S. (01 Jul 2015). Introducing the RSDiary app for the collection of resilience strategies. , doi: 10.1145/2788412.2788447
  2. Makri, S., Bhuiya, J., Carthy, J. and Owusu-Bonsu, J. (01 Jan 2015). Observing serendipity in digital information environments. , doi: 10.1002/pra2.2015.145052010019
  3. Day, J., Buchanan, G. and Makri, S. (24 Aug 2015). Lessons from mobile users: Resilience strategies and behaviors. , doi: 10.1145/2786567.2793700
  4. Makri, S. (2014). Serendipity is not Bullshit. ,
  5. Makri, S. (2013). From Grounded Theory to Design Practice. BCS-HCI 2013 Workshop, 09 Sep 2013, Brunel University, Uxbridge, UK.

    [publisher's website]

  6. Maxwell, D., Woods, M., Makri, S., Bental, D., Kefalidou, G. and Sharples, S. (2012). Designing a semantic sketchbook to create opportunities for serendipity.. BCS HCI 2012, 2012, Birmingham, UK.

    [publisher's website]

  7. Russell-Rose, T. and Makri, S. (2012). Designing for Consumer Search Behaviour. 6th Symposium on Human-Computer Interaction and Information Retrieval, 2012, Cambridge, MA, USA.
  8. Russell-Rose, T. and Makri, S. (2012). A Model of Consumer Search Behaviour. 2nd European Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction and Information Retrieval, 2012, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
  9. Piao, S., Bental, D., Whittle, J., Aylett, R., Makri, S. and Sun, X. (2012). A Pilot Study: Deriving a Users' Goal Framework from a Corpus of Interviews and Diaries. Workshop on Semantic Relations II. Enhancing Resources and Applications, 22 May 2012, Istanbul, Turkey.
  10. Woods, M., Sharples, S., Sun, X., Aylett, R., Stewart, R., Bental, D., Makri, S., Blandford, A., Forth, J., Wiggins, G., Piao, S. and Whittle, J. (2011). Understanding Serendipity to Inform Novel Processes, Methods and Technologies for the Researcher. igital Economy All Hands Conference: Digital Engagement, 2011, Newcastle, UK.
  11. Makri, S., Toms, E.G., McCay-Peet, L. and Blandford, A. (2011). Encouraging Serendipity in Interactive Systems.. , doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-23768-3_136

  12. Makri, S., Blandford, A. and Cox, A.L. (2010). This is what I'm doing and why: Reflections on a think-aloud study of DL users' information behaviour. ACM/IEEE Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, 2010, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.
  13. Attfield, S., Makri, S., Kalbach, J., Blandford, A., Gabrielle, S.D. and Edwards, M. (2008). Prioritisation, Resources and Search Terms: A Study of Decision-Making at the Virtual Reference Desk.. European Conference on Digital Libraries, 2008, doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-87599-4_12

    [publisher's website]

  14. Makri, S. (2007). Studying Academic Lawyers' Information-Seeking to Inform the Design of Digital Law Libraries. ,
  15. Makri, S., Blandford, A. and Cox, A.L. (2007). ‘I’ll just Google it!’: Should lawyers’ perceptions of Google inform the design of electronic legal resources?. Web Information-Seeking and Interaction Workshop 2007 (WISI2007), 23 Jul 2007, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
  16. Makri, S., Blandford, A. and Cox, A.L. (2006). A Study of Legal Information-Seeking Behaviour to Inform the Design of Electronic Legal Research Tools. 1st International Workshop on Digital Libraries in the Context of Users' Broader Activities (DL-CUBA), 15 Jun 2006, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
  17. Makri, S. Studying law students’ information-seeking behaviour to inform the design of digital law libraries, Presented as a poster presentation. European Conference on Digital Libraries, 17 Sep 2006, Alicante, Spain.
  18. Day, J., Buchanan, G. and Makri, S. Reflecting on Users’ Strategies for Resilient Interactions. IFIP WG 13.5 Workshop on Resilience, Reliability, Safety and Human Error in System Development. Adjunct proceedings of the 15th IFIP TC13 Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (INTERACT 2015), , Bamburg, Germany.

    [publisher's website]

  19. Makri, S. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Encouraging Serendipity in Interactive Systems. ,

Thesis/Dissertation (3)

  1. Makri, S. A study of lawyers’ information behaviour leading to the development of two methods for evaluating electronic resources. (PhD Thesis).
  2. Makri, S. An accessible and multi-sensory web-based approach to dyslexia screening. (Undergraduate Dissertation).
  3. Makri, S. Investigating users’ mental models of traditional and digital libraries. (Master's Thesis).

Internet Publication (1)

  1. Byers, A., Priego, E. and Makri, S. (2015). Streamlining Deposit: An OJS to Repository Plugin (Pitch)doi: 10.6084/m9.figshare.1319497



Stephann teaches at both Undergraduate and Graduate levels and has taught a variety of Human-Computer Interaction, Information Science and Information Technology courses. His teaching ethos is firmly student-focused and his teaching sessions are interactive and focus on fostering conceptual change. Stephann is also an advocate of innovative teaching methods.


Information Architecture (module leader)
Information Management (module leader)
Human-Computer Interaction (lecturer)
Research Methods & Professional Issues (guest lecturer)

Other Activities

Events/Conferences Attended (4)

  • Dundee Contemporary Arts, Dundee, UK Jun 2012, Serendipity in interactive systems
  • 75th Annual Meeting of the Association of Information Science and Technology, Baltimore, MD, USA Oct 2012, Presentation: Coming across academic social media content serendipitously
  • The Royal Institution of Great Britain, London, UK Apr 2012, Invited panel discussion: Business success: what’s luck got to do with it.
  • IRMSS Research Methods conference, Limerick, Ireland Jun 2013, Kenote presentation: See right through me: achieving transparency in qualitative research.

Keynote Lectures/Speeches (1)

  • Keynote presentation at IRMSS Research Methods conference 2013, 07 Jun 2013, Limerick, Ireland. Title: See Right Through Me: Achieving Transparency in Qualitative Research

Editorial Activities (1)

  • Guest editor of thematic Issue of Information Research on ‘Information by Chance: Opportunistic Discovery of Information,’ 16(3). Available at

Other Activities (11)

  • 2006 Provided user-centred consultancy to Marie Curie Cancer Care, United Response, Help the Hospices, LexisNexis Butterworths, The British Library, Paperstone, UCL Management Systems and Library Services, Allianz, the BBC.
  • Feb 2007 Invited talk on lawyers’ digital information behaviour to partners at systems development team, Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer, London, UK.
  • Feb 2008 Organised and ran a tutorial to LexisNexis Butterworths on user-centred evaluation methods.
  • Mar 2008 Co-organised information interaction research workshop with attendees from British Telecom.
  • Jul 2009 Invited to participate in open debate on ’20 Years of the Web,’ BBC Media Centre, London, UK.
  • Oct 2011 Co-organised information interaction research workshop with attendees from FXPal and The British Library.
  • Jul 2012 Invited to run ‘serendipity stories’ workshop with Extra Special People group, Eastside Projects Gallery, Birmingham, UK.
  • Oct 2012 Invited talk to User Experience Professionals Association (UXPA), London, UK.
  • Feb 2013 Invited talk at Soho House member’s club for those in the film, media and creative industries.
  • Mar 2013 Co-organised ‘Serendipity Salons’ design workshop for design professionals at Future Everything festival and innovation lab, Manchester, UK.
  • Jun 2013 Invited to run a seminar for creative business professionals at Wysing Arts Centre, Cambridge, UK.

Find us

City, University of London

Northampton Square

London EC1V 0HB

United Kingdom

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