School of Mathematics, Computer Science & Engineering
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  1. Research Centre for Adaptive Computing Systems (CeNACS)
School of Mathematics, Computer Science & Engineering

Research Centre for Adaptive Computing Systems (CeNACS)

CeNACS conducts research on engineering adaptive cyber physical systems with a special focus on the fundamental control structures and algorithms required for adaptation and the strategies for preserving quality and security properties in this process.

The need for adaptive capabilities arises in every type of computing system but becomes essential in highly distributed systems with heterogeneous components operating under non centralised forms of control such as cyber–physical systems interacting with the physical world (e.g. systems embedded in vehicles or medical devices; systems in smart devices such as smartphones, smart appliances; systems controlling critical infrastructures), and systems advocating a computing-as-a-utility approach (e.g. service and cloud based systems).

Our research aims to address fundamental issues related to the engineering of such systems including the fundamental control structures and algorithms for computing system adaptation (e.g. autonomic, semi- or fully-supervised structures), and the strategies for preserving quality and security properties in this process. It also focuses on adaptation centric system modelling, the verification of properties of adaptive systems using static and runtime verification techniques, and the development of mechanisms to enable context aware system adaptation.

Our research has been applied in domains including cloud infrastructures and services, cyber-physical systems and systems involving the use of IoT technologies, and systems supporting healthcare and ambient assisted living.

People

Centre director

Academic staff

Professorial Fellows

Research fellows/assistants

  • Dr Maria Krotsiani
  • Dr Ioannis Basdekis
  • Dr Suresh Veluru
  • Dr Rahul Yougachandran
  • Mr. Konstantinos Mantzoukas
  • Mr. Michalis Smyrlis
  • Dr Bin Ye

Research (PhD) students

  • Konstantinos Mantzoukas
  • Xin Meng
  • Nikolaos Petroulakis
  • Marios Prasinos
  • Icamaan Silva
  • Ali Sajjad
  • Saritha Arun
  • Labiba Gillani
  • Kamran Zaidi
  • Florian Adamsky
  • Riyanat Shittu
  • Pramod Parwar
  • Waqar Asif
  • Fei Li
  • Minou Parhizkar
  • Mohammad Rangiha
  • Yasmin Nashvatar

Projects

Ongoing projects

CYBER Security InSURancE — A Framework for Liability Based Trust (Cybersure)

Principal investigator: George Spanoudakis
Funding: €270,000 (City University London) (€1,647,000 for the entire project)
Funding source: EU
Duration: 01/2017 - 31/12/2020 (subject to contract)
Overview:CyberSure is a programme of collaborations and exchanges between researchers aimed at developing a framework for creating and managing cyber insurance policy for cyber systems. The purpose of creating such policies will be to enhance the trustworthiness of cyber systems and provide a sound basis for liability in cases of security and privacy breaches in them. The framework will be supported by a platform of tools enabling an integrated risk cyber system security risk analysis, certification and cyber insurance, based on the analysis of objective evidence during the operation of such systems. CyberSure will develop its cyber insurance platform at TRL-7 by building upon and integrating state of the art tools, methods and techniques. These will include: (1) the state of the art continuous certification infrastructure (tools) for cloud services developed by the EU project CUMULUS; (2) the risk management tool of NIS enhanced by the NESSOS risk management methodology; and (3) insurance management tools of HELLAS DIRECT. The development of the CyberSure platform will be driven by certification, risk analysis and cyber insurance scenarios for cyber system pilots providing cloud and e-health services. Through these, CyberSure will address the conditions required for offering effective cyber insurance for interoperable service chains cutting across application domains and jurisdictions.
The partners involved in this project can be found here.

EVidenced based management of hearing impairments: Public health pΟlicy making based on fusing big data analytics and simulaTION (EVOTION)

Principal investigator: George Spanoudakis
Funding: €548,475 (City University London) (€4,963,776.25 for the entire project)
Funding source: EU
Duration: 09/2016 - 08/2018 (subject to contract)
Overview:The holistic management of Hearing Loss (HL) requires appropriate public health policies for HL prevention, early diagnosis, long-term treatment and rehabilitation; detection and prevention of cognitive decline; protection from noise; and socioeconomic inclusion of HL patients. To utilise these data in forming holistic HL management policies, EVOTION aims to develop an integrated platform supporting: (a) the analysis of the above datasets to enable the identification of causal and other effects among them, (b) policy decision making focusing on the selection of effective interventions related to the holistic management of HL, based on the outcomes of (a) and the formulation of related public health policies, and (c) the specification and monitoring of such policies in a sustainable manner.
More details about the project can  be found here.

Trustworthy model-aware analytics data platform (TOREADOR)

Principal investigator: George Spanoudakis
Funding: €499,437 (City University London) (€6.3+ m for the entire project)
Funding source: EU Horizon 2020
Duration: 01/2016 - 12/2018
Overview: TOREADOR aims to develop a model driven approach for automating and ensuring compliance of data analytics in the domains of smart systems for energy production and consumption, aerospace manufacturing, software applications security and online marketing.
More details about the project can be found here.

Privacy Preserving Speech Processing in the Cloud

Principal investigator: Muttukrishnan Rajarajan
Funding: £110,000
Funding source: Innovate UK/EPSRC
Duration: 11/2015 - 06/2017
Overview: Develop novel privacy preserving classification techniques for encrypted speech signals in the Cloud

VMware

Principal investigator: Evangelina Kalyvianaki
Funding: $62,000 (City University London) ($124,000 for the entire project, jointly with Imperial College London)
Funding source: VMware
Duration: 2015 - open ended
Overview: Real-time VM Management with Stateful Stream Processing.

Completed projects

Multi-scale Balance Hypermodel towards early diagnostic Evaluation and efficient Management plan formulation (EMBalance)

Principal investigator: George Spanoudakis
Funding: €350,476 (City University London) (€3.5m for the entire project)
Funding source: EU (F7, STREP Project)
Duration: December 2013 - November 2016
Overview: The project aims to develop a multi-scale and patient-specific diagnostic model for balance problems and a Decision Support System (DSS) implementing it in order to provide early diagnosis, prediction and the efficient treatment planning of balance disorders. City's research focuses on the use of data mining techniques for the development of the diagnosis model. City contributes also to the development of DSS.
A video for the project description can be found here.

ORTCITY - An Automated Framework for Architecturing Large-Scale Parallel Computing Software Systems

Principal investigator: Christos Kloukinas and George Spanoudakis
Funding: £7,625
Funding source: Foreign & Commonwealth Office, Science and Innovation Fund - Uruguay, UK
Duration: 11/2015 - 03/2016
Overview: The project investigates automated transformations of programs, starting from high-level formal specifications that exhibit architecture constraints and parallelism, that can produce correct and predictably efficient large-scale parallel software for a variety of architecture and concurrency models.

Software Defined Networks Threat Landscape and Good Practice Guide

Principal investigator: George Spanoudakis
Funding: €30,000 (City University London) (€30,000 for the entire project)
Funding source: ENISA
Duration: 7/2015 - 11/2015
Overview: Investigation of threats and risk landscape and generation of good practice guide for software defined networking and network function virtualisation.

Certification Infrastructure for Multi-Layer Cloud Services (CUMULUS)

Principal investigator: George Spanoudakis
Funding: €380,900 (City University London) (€3m for the entire project)
Funding source: EU (F7, STREP Project)
Duration: October 2012 - September 2015
Overview: Development of techniques to enable multi-layer, incremental and hybrid certification of infrastructure, platform and software layer cloud services.

Advanced Security Service cERTificate for SOA (ASSERT4SOA)

Principal investigator: George Spanoudakis
Funding: €380,980 (City University London) (€3m for the entire project)
Funding source: EU (F7, STREP Project)
Duration: 2010 - 2013
Overview: Development of techniques to enable certificate-based assurance of services and service-based systems.

IoT@Work

Principal investigator: Christos Kloukinas
Funding: €398,624 (City University London) (€3.5m for the entire project)
Funding source: EU (F7, STREP Project)
Duration: June 2010 - June 2013
Overview: The project aimed to reduce operational costs in configuring, commissioning and maintaining manufacturing solutions, mainly by targeting disruption times due to reconfigurations or other types of changes to the system. It focused on enhancing the current communication and middleware infrastructure, so as to construct new self-managing and resilient networks and middleware and service-oriented application architectures that are well adapted for use in a factory environment. City's research focused on the overall design, analysis of security threats, architectural specification of systems and run-time monitoring/adaptation.

Empowering the Service Economy with SLA-aware Infrastructures (SLA@SOI)

Principal investigator: George Spanoudakis
Funding: €575,775 (City University London) (€9.6m for the entire project)
Funding source: EU (F7, Integrated Project)
Duration: 2008 - 2011
Overview: SLA@SOI aims to provide a technological framework that will address major needs of
the emerging software-service intensive economy, namely:

  1. The need for predicting and enforcing software service quality at runtime,
  2. The need for transparent management of Service Level Agreements (SLAs) determining the exact conditions under which software services are provided/consumed, and
  3. The need for highly automated  negotiation, provision, and monitoring of services running on evolving and adaptable IT infrastructures. To address these needs the project will provide an open source SLA management framework with capabilities for prediction, monitoring and adaptation of software service provision on heterogeneous and distributed service-oriented infrastructure. Key innovative features of this framework will be: (i) the provision of e-contracting, (2) the systematic grounding of SLAs from the business level down to the infrastructure, (3) the exploitation of virtualization technologies at infrastructure level for SLA enforcement, and (4) advanced engineering methodologies for the creation of predictable and manageable services (more details).

Software Services and Systems Network (S-Cube)

Principal investigators: George Spanoudakis (Computing) and Neil Maiden (Human Computer Interaction Design (HCID))
Co-Investigator: Andrea Zisman (Computing)
Funding: €331,290 (Computing, City University London) and € 331,290 (HCID, City University London) (€8.5m for the entire project)
Funding source: EU (F7, Network of Excellence)
Duration: 2008 - 2012
Overview: Network of Excellence in Software services whose mission is to establish a unified, multidisciplinary, vibrant research community enabling Europe to lead the software-services revolution and shape the software service based Internet that will underpin future society.

SERENITY-System Engineering for Security and Dependability

Principal investigator: George Spanoudakis
Funding: €587,232 (City University London) (€7.25m for the entire project)
Funding source: EU (F6 Integrated Project)
Duration: 2006 - 2009
Overview: The project is concerned with the development of a framework supporting the automated integration, configuration, monitoring and adaptation of security and dependability mechanisms for AmI ecosystems. Own work focuses on development of mechanisms for monitoring and diagnosis of threats and violations of security requirements and recovery from such violations.

GREDIA - Grid Enabled Access to  Rich Media Content

Principal investigator: Andrea Zisman
Co-investigators: George Spanoudakis, Bill Karakostas
Funding: €330,000 (City University London) (€2.4m for the entire project)
Funding source: EU (F6 STREP Project)
Duration: 2006 - 2009
Overview: The main goal of GREDIA is to design, implement and validate a reliable platform for the design, development and operational deployment of secure Grid business applications. This platform will support services allowing mobile devices to participate in the Grid applications in a secure way supported by the existence of a dedicated security framework.

XCO2 Energy Portal (XCO2)

Principal investigator: Bill Karakostas
Funding: £10,000 (City University London)
Funding source: London Development Agency (LDA)
Duration: May - December 2009
Overview: In this project CITY designed and developed a software tool for calculating energy efficiency for buildings.

PEPERS-Mobile Peer-to-Peer Security Infrastructure

Principal investigator: George Spanoudakis
Co-investigator: Andrea Zisman
Funding: €323,164 (City University London) (€1.9m for the entire project)
Funding source: EU (F6 STREP Project)
Duration: 2006 - 2008
Overview: PEPERS is aimed at designing, implementing and validating a reliable platform with high-level support for the design, development and operational deployment of secure mobile peer-to-peer applications.

SeCSE-Service Centric Systems Engineering

Principal investigators: George Spanoudakis (Computing) and Neil Maiden (HCID)
Co-Investigator: Andrea Zisman (Computing)
Funding: €387,500 (Computing) and €387,500 (HCID) (€8.5m for the entire project)
Funding source: EU (F6 Integrated Project)
Duration: 2004 - 2008
Overview: Development of methods, tools and techniques for developing and deploying web service based systems. The group focuses on run-time monitoring of service based systems and service discovery driven by architectural models and run-time violations of functional and quality-of-service requirements. It is also looking at mechanisms for context aware run time service discovery and service composition.

Seminar & Event

For a list of upcoming events, please see the foot of this page.

Past events:

24 May 2017

New Frontiers in Cloud Computing for Big Data and Internet-of-Things (IoT) Applications, by Prof. Rajkumar Buyya.

9 May 2017

Overview of Risk Assessment Practices & Tools for Cyber Systems, by Matteo Mangini.

26 April 2017

Attack of the content clones: Saving the Internet from on-demand streaming, by Nishanth Sastry.

9 December 2016

Preserving Privacy in the Cloud, Half day Workshop by Muttukrishnan Rajarajan

2 March 2016

Formal Specification, Design and Implementation of a Parallel Programming Framework by Dr Sergio Yovine

27 January 2016

Durability and Access Control for Scalable Distributed Filesystems, by Professor Anastasiadis of the University of Ioannina (currently visiting Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge)

11 December 2015

Towards forensic-readiness-by-design, by Professor Antonio Mana (Secure Society Labs Ltd, University of Malaga)

12 October 2015

The Global Technology Outlook, by Dr Waggett

16 March 2015

The CSA OCF/STAR Programme: The future of cloud assurance delivered today, by Daniele Catteddu, Cloud Security Alliance

10 December 2014

Cluster Management at Google, with John Wilkins, Google

8 October 2014

Storage, Processing & Reliability on Google's Distributed Systems, with Dr Dario Freni, Google

21 May 2014

Monitoring & Analysis Big Data Streams, with Professor Ernesto Damiani, University of Milan

15 May 2014

Two-sided Marketing to Incent Internetworking Networks of Things, with Professor Jon Crowcroft, University of Cambridge

Portrait of Christos Kloukinas

Dr Christos Kloukinas

News & Jobs

Professor Spanoudakis is a member of the Programme Committee ICSOC 2017

Professor George Spanoudakis is a member of the Programme Committee of the 15th International Conference on Service-Oriented Computing (ICSOC 2017). ICSOC is the premier international forum for academics, industry researchers, developers, and practitioners to report and share groundbreaking work in service-oriented computing. ICSOC 2017 will take place in Malaga, Spain, on 13-16 November, 2017.

Professor Spanoudakis is a member of the Technical Programme Committee SCC 2017

Professor George SPanoudakis is a member of the Technical Programme Committee (TPC) of the 14th IEEE International Conference on Services Computing (SCC 2017). SCC conferences cover the whole lifecycle of innovation research and enabling technologies, which includes enterprise modeling, business consulting, solution creation, services delivery, services orchestration, services optimization, services management, services marketing, services delivery and cloud computing, service-oriented architecture (SOA), business process integration and management, and Web services technologies and standards. SCC 2017 will be held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, on  25-30 June, 2017.

Professor Spanoudakis co-chairs ENASE 2017

Professor George Spanoudakis has been appointed as co-chair of the Programme Committee of the 12th International Confernce on Novel Approaches to Software Engineering (ENASE 2017). ENASE conferences are aimed at advancing knowledge and research in software engineering, including and emphasizing service-oriented, business-process driven, and ubiquitous mobile computing. Their overarching objective is to identify most promising trends and new directions in software development, integration, deployment, delivery, maintenance and evolution, with a special focus in the computing paradigms identified above. ENASE 2017 will be held in Porto Portugal from 28-29 April 2017.

New Job: Research Fellow in Data Analytics

The Research Centre of Adaptive Computing Systems invites applications for a full-time Research Assistant/Fellow post involving research in big data analytics for public health policy making as part EU Horizon 2020 project EVOTION.Applicants should have BSc, MSc and PhD degrees in Computer Science. They should also demonstrate knowledge and practical experience in the development and use of big data analytic technologies.The selected applicant will be given an initial contract for one year that may be extended for one more year.

You may submit your application through the following link.

CeNACS has been awarded a new EU grant on Big Data Analytics for public health policy decision making.

CeNACS has been awarded a project to develop a framework to support decision making in public health policy related to the management of hearing impairments through hearing aids through the use of continuous big data analytics and simulation. The project will involve two of the largest NHS Trusts in the UK (Guys and St Thomas and St Marys/UCL), and two more hospitals in other EU countries (Hippokrateion Hospital and Athens Medical Centre in Greece). The project will be led by Oticon, the leading hearing aid manufacturer in Europe. Professor George Spanoudakis of CeNACS will be the Technical Coordinator of the project.

CeNACS researcher to give a keynote presentation in TRUST 2015

Professor George Spanoudakis has been invited to give a keynote presentation at the 8th International Conference on Trust and Trustworthy Computing. The keynote will focus on the challenges of security certification for cloud services and City’s research on developing a framework for continuous and automated certification of cloud services at infrastructure, platform and software level.

Prospective PhD student projects

Security Assurance in the Cloud Based on Hybrid Assessement Schemes

Supervisor: Professor George Spanoudakis

Ensuring the security of cloud platforms is on ongoing problem, as organisations increasingly use such platforms to host their data and the applications operating on them. Despite the use of security controls of increasing sophistication, security attacks are still being experienced and most of them have previously unknown characteristics that make it hard to build effective defences against them. Developing effective security assurance freameworks, i.e., frameworks capable of continually assessing the security of such platforms, is of paramountimportance.

This PhD project will be aimed at building a cloud security assurance framework using hybrid assessment techniques that combine continuous runtime monitoring,and static and dynamic testing of security controls. The framework will be model driven and will be built as an extension of the CUMULUS continuous certification framework build in CENACS.

Operational System Evidence Models for Cyberinsurance

Supervisor: Professor George Spanoudakis

The increasing number of security attacks on cyber systems of all types (healthcare systems, transport systems, banking systems) has led enterprises and organisations to seeking affective finacial coverage against the negative impact that such attacks may have (loss of data, unavailability of service, bad publicity). This is complementary to building technical defences against such attacks. In response to this need, the insurance industry has started offering cyber insurance policies (aka data insurance policies). One of the key challenges in setting up (i.e., establishing the levels and types of coverage that they offer and the premiums to be paid) and managing such policies is a challenging problem. This is due to the difficulty in estimating the risk and impact of cyber attacks.

This PhD project will be aimed at developing a computational model for the estimation of cyber risk and impact for the purposes of cyber insurance policy management. This model will be based on evidence arising from continuous monitoring and static/dynamic testing of cyber systems operations.

Advanced Diagnostic Models for Cyber Systems Security

Supervisor: Professor George Spanoudakis

One of the key barriers for building effective responses to cyber security attacks is the inability and/or the time required to come up with comprehensive diagnoses of such attacks, i.e., the identification of the system vulnerabilities that provided the opportunity for the attackers to launch the attack affectively.

This PhD project  will be aimed at developing a computational model for diagnosing cyber attacks. The development of this model will be based on integrating three key Techniques: (a) model based assessment of security assurance that can help establish a baseline for diagnosis; (b) data mining and/or causal analysis that can help analyse operational system data to characterise attacks and vulnerabilities in security controls; and (c) abductive reasoning enabling the attribution of attacks to cyber system components and vulnerabilities.

Rock-Solid Distributed Systems

Supervisor: Dr Christos Kloukinas

Web-based and Cloud-based systems have quickly become extremely important for society, as we depend on them for many of our day-to-day activities. Errors in their design and implementation can have severe repercussions - both for the cost of correcting them once they are discovered due to their complexity and for the consequences they have on their users.
But testing distributed systems like these is an extremely difficult task. Concurrently executing components make it very difficult to write reproducible test cases and one can usually cover only a very small subset of the possible system behaviours.

In this strain of research we want to explore automatic methods for identifying errors early on in the conception of a system, when it is relatively cheap to correct them, and methods for automatically producing parts of the system so as to further reduce errors due to manual translation of high-level designs to low-level code. You will be able to choose the aspects of this work that best fit your interests - either working mainly at a high level, on approaches to make it easier to describe such systems in a modular manner with the least possible effort, or investigating lower-level code production techniques where these are possible.
There are various areas where you could make your mark, some of which are sketched out (at different levels of detail) here: http://www.staff.city.ac.uk/c.kloukinas/project-ideas.html

Traffic-Based Botnet Detection & Propagation Modelling

Principle Investigator: Prof Muttukrishnan Rajarajan (City, University of London)

Co-Investigators: Dr Nikos Komninos (City, University of London), Dr Ian Herwono (British Telecom plc)

Researchers: Dilara Acarali (City, University of London)

Funding: British Telecom plc (BT)

Project Description

Botnets are formed when multiple end-systems become infected with bot malware, making them accessible to a remote adversary known as the botmaster. These individual bots, connected through a command and control infrastructure, provide a resource pool of memory, bandwidth and data that the botmaster can exploit. Botnets are a complex and growing threat, as demonstrated by the recent 2017 WannaCry ransomware attacks, propagated over the Mirai botnet. Botnet detection is typically based on the observation of unusual or systematic activity on hosts and the network.

However, the variety of infection vectors, communication structures and attack methods, combined with the sheer quantity of data, requires an inclusive and efficient solution. This system will make use of existing knowledge of botnet-generated network activity and process data into activity graphs for quicker, intuitive detection. Understanding the spread of bot malware is vital to predicting the impact of threats and to properly mitigate them. To this end, ecological modelling will be adapted (including and beyond popular epidemic models), and combined with network metrics to determine the current state of the threat to the network.

A Novel Human Visual Psychophysics Based Approach to Distinguish Between Human Users and Computer Robots

Principal Investigator:  Prof Muttukrishnan Rajarajan

Co-Investigators:  Prof Panos Liatsis

Researchers: S. Mohammad Reza Saadatbeheshti

Funding:  Self-Funding

Project Description

Demand for the use of online services such as free emails, social networks, and online polling is increasing at an exponential rate. Due to this, online service providers and retailers feel pressurised to satisfy the multitude of end-user expectations. Meanwhile, automated computer robots (known as ‘bots’) are targeting online retailers and service providers by acting as human users and providing false information in order to abuse their service provisioning. CAPTCHA is a set of challenge/response protocol, which was introduced to protect online retailers and service providers from misuse and automated computer attacks. Text-based CAPTCHAs are the most popular form, and are used by most online service providers to differentiate between the human users and bots. However, the vast majority of text-based CAPTCHAs have been broken using the Optical Character Recognition (OCR) techniques and thus, reinforces the need for developing a secure and robust CAPTCHA model. Security and usability are the two fundamental issues that pose a trade-off in the design of a CAPTCHA; a hard CAPTCHA model could also be difficult for human users to resolve, which affects its usability, and vice versa. The model developed in this study uses the unsurpassed abilities of the Human Visual System (HVS) to superimpose and integrate complex information presented in individual frames, using the mechanism of trans-saccadic memory. In this context, the model integrates in its design the concept of persistence of vision, which enables humans to see the world in a continuous fashion.

Project: Privacy in IoT Eco System

Principal Investigator: Prof Muttukrishnan Rajarajan

Researchers: Dr Indranil Gosh Ray

Funder: EPSRC

Project Description

The Internet of Things (IoT) concept refers to the seamless integration of physical objects, sensors and mobile devices onto the Internet. The IoT encompasses many different technologies, services and standards and is seen by many as the cornerstone of the ICT market in the coming years. However, IoT solutions comprise more than just the hardware and software necessary to realize the technical infrastructure, as they also include the human actors, organisations, policies and regulatory systems involved. With some estimates predicting 50 billion devices by 2020, and the proportion of data collected passively through machine-to-machine transactions surpassing that actively generated by individuals - solutions are needed to strengthen trust.  Using an existing community Internet of Things testbed located in the Tillydrone district of Aberdeen, we will explore what it means to realize solutions that are transparent, accountable, and which empower end-users. The TrustLens is our vision of a future toolset that will enable individuals, and the communities of which they are a part, to better understand and manage the data about them. However, before we can realize the TrustLens, several key issues will be investigated.

Project: Continuous authentication in mobile devices

Principal Investigator: Prof Muttukrishnan Rajarajan

Researcher: Max Creasey

Funder: British Telecommunications (BT)

Project Description

In this project we produce a continuous authentication scheme for mobile devices that adjusts an adaptive threshold for touchscreen interactions based on trust in passively collected sensor data. Our framework unobtrusively compares real-time sensor data of a user to historic data and adjusts a trust parameter based on the similarity. We show that the trust parameter can be used to adjust an adaptive threshold in continuous authentication schemes. The framework passively models temporal, spatial and activity scenarios using sensor data such as location, surrounding devices, Wi-fi networks, ambient noise, movements, user activity, ambient light, proximity to objects and atmospheric pressure from study participants. Deviations from the models increase the level of threat the device perceives from the scenario. We also model the user touchscreen interactions. The touchscreen interactions are authenticated against a threshold that is continually adjusted based on the perceived trust. This scheme provides greater nuance between security and usability, enabling more refined decisions. We present our novel framework and threshold adjustment criteria and validate our framework on two state-of-the-art sensor datasets. Our framework more than halves the false acceptance and false rejection rates of a static threshold system.

Project: Investigating Android Permissions and Intents for Malware Detection Project Details

Principal Investigator: Prof Muttukrishnan Rajarajan

Co-Investigators: Prof Thomas M. Chen (City University London); Dr Yogachandran Rahulamathavan (Loughborough University London) Researchers: Fauzia Idrees

Funding: ERASMUS MUNDUS Strong ties

Project Description

The extensive use of smartphones has been a major driving force behind the drastic increase of malware attacks. Covert techniques used by the malware make them hard to detect with signature based methods. Limited resource of mobile phones also poses significant challenge in developing efficient and accurate malware detection solutions. The development of a low cost, efficient and accurate solution to identify malware for Android based smartphones is proposed. The proposed malware detection system: PIndroid exploits the vital security features of Android which cannot be obfuscated or concealed through stealthy methods mostly used by the malicious applications. This solution would improve the mobile phone’s security against cyber-attacks and facilitate precise detection of malware applications including the obfuscated ones. PIndroid will use a combination of permissions and intents supplemented with Ensemble methods to detect malware targeting the Android system.

Project: Searching in the large scale encrypted databases

Principal Investigator: Prof Muttukrishnan Rajarajan

Researchers: Dr Indranil Gosh Ray

Funding: Innovate UK

Project Description

Searchable Encryption is a postmodern approach that has emerged with the existence of the cloud to store large encrypted databases. Before the advent of Searchable Encryption it was not possible to search over the encrypted databases. Searchable Encryption allows the client to identify the keyword(s) that are contained within the encrypted documents outsourced to the Cloud while preserving the privacy of the client, search query and the encrypted set of documents. Unlike most of the existing frameworks, the aim of this project is to develop schemes that help maintain a balance between security & privacy, efficiency and query effectiveness. The designed schemes will propose probabilistic trapdoors to resist distinguishability attacks. To enhance the query effectiveness, the designed schemes will facilitate single keyword queries, multi-keyword disjunctive queries, fuzzy keyword queries and string searching. Existing Searchable Encryption schemes lack in effectiveness and efficiency hence cannot be deployed onto a real cloud platform. The main objective of this research includes designing practical solutions that are not only effective (theoretically) but can also be deployed onto the existing Cloud platforms and tested across a real corpus of encrypted documents. This will help increase the client’s trust onto the Cloud service providers as all the outsourced data is encrypted. Furthermore, it will reduce the network latency incurred due to the communication between the Cloud and the client by downloading the most relevant documents.

Publications

Krotsiani, M., Kloukinas, C. & Spanoudakis, G. (2017). Cloud Certification Process Validation using Formal Methods. Paper presented at the 15th International Conference on Service Oriented Computing (ICSOC 2017), 13-16 Nov 2017, Malaga, Spain.

Petroulakis, N. E., Spanoudakis, G. & Askoxylakis, Y. (2017). Fault Tolerance Using an SDN Pattern Framework. Paper presented at the IEEE Global Communications Conference 2017, 4-8 Dec 2017, Singapore.

Idrees, F., Rajarajan, M., Conti, M., Chen, T. & Rahulamathavan, Y. (2017). PIndroid: A novel Android malware detection system using ensemble learning methods. Computers and Security, 68, pp. 36-46. doi: 10.1016/j.cose.2017.03.011

Krotsiani, M., Kloukinas, C. & Spanoudakis, G. (2017). Validation of Service Level Agreements using Probabilistic Model Checking. Paper presented at the 14th IEEE International Conference on Services Computing, 25-30 Jun 2017, Honolulu, USA.

Prasinos, M., Spanoudakis, G. & Koutsouris, D. (2017). Towards a Model-Driven Platform for Evidence based Public Health Policy Making. Paper presented at the The 29th International Conference on Software Engineering & Knowledge Engineering, 5-7 Jul 2017, Pittsburgh, USA.

Pino, L., Spanoudakis, G., Krotsiani, M. & Mahbub, K. (2017). Pattern Based Design and Verification of Secure Service Compositions. IEEE Transactions on Services Computing, doi: 10.1109/TSC.2017.2690430

Fysarakis, K., Petroulakis, N., Roos, A., Abbasi, K., Vizarreta, P., Petropoulos, G., Sakic, E., Spanoudakis, G. & Askoxylakis, I. G. (2017). A Reactive Security Framework for Operational Wind Parks Using Service Function Chaining. In: Proceedings of 2017 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communication (ISCC). . IEE.

Arunkumar, S., Soyluoglu, B., Sensoy, M., Srivatsa, M. & Rajarajan, M. (2017). Location attestation and access control for mobile devices using GeoXACML. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 80, pp. 181-188. doi: 10.1016/j.jnca.2016.11.028

Arsalan, M., Qureshi, A., Khan, A. U. & Rajarajan, M. (2017). Protection of medical images and patient related information in healthcare: Using an intelligent and reversible watermarking technique. Applied Soft Computing Journal, 51, pp. 1668-179. doi: 10.1016/j.asoc.2016.11.044

Somani, G., Gaur, M. S., Sanghi, D., Conti, M., Rajarajan, M. & Buyya, R. (2017). Combating DDoS attacks in the cloud: Requirements, trends, and future directions. IEEE Cloud Computing, 4(1), pp. 22-32. doi: 10.1109/MCC.2017.14

Rajarajan, M. & Yogachandran, R. (2017). Efficient Privacy-Preserving Facial Expression Classification. IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, 14(3), pp. 326-338. doi: 10.1109/TDSC.2015.2453963

Sarkar, S., Weyde, T., Garcez, A., Slabaugh, G.G., Dragicevic, S. & Percy, C. (2016). Accuracy and interpretability trade-offs in machine learning applied to safer gambling. CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 1773,

Somani, G., Gaur, M. S., Sanghi, D., Conti, M. & Rajarajan, M. (2016). DDoS victim service containment to minimize the internal collateral damages in cloud computing. Computers and Electrical Engineering, doi: 10.1016/j.compeleceng.2016.12.004

Asif, W., Lestas, M., Khaliq Qureshi, H. & Rajarajan, M. (2016). Optimization based spectral partitioning for node criticality assessment. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 75, pp. 279-292. doi: 10.1016/j.jnca.2016.09.003

Acarali, D., Rajarajan, M., Komninos, N. & Herwono, I. (2016). Survey of Approaches and Features for the Identification of HTTP-Based Botnet Traffic. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, doi: 10.1016/j.jnca.2016.10.007

Exarchos, T. P., Rigas, G., Bibas, A., Kikidis, D., Nikitas, C., Wuyts, F. L., Ihtijarevic, B., Maes, L., Cenciarini, M., Maurer, C., Macdonald, N., Bamiou, D. E., Luxon, L., Prasinos, M., Spanoudakis, G., Koutsouris, D. & Fotiadis, D. I. (2016). Mining balance disorders' data for the development of diagnostic decision support systems. Computers in Biology and Medicine, 77, pp. 240-248. doi: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2016.08.016

Ali, H., Tran, S.N., Benetos, E. & d'Avila Garcez, A. S. (2016). Speaker recognition with hybrid features from a deep belief network. Neural Computing and Applications, doi: 10.1007/s00521-016-2501-7

Rahulamathavan, Y., Rajarajan, M. & Phan, R. C. W. (2016). Smart, secure and seamless access control scheme for mobile devices. 2016 IEEE International Conference on Communications, ICC 2016, pp. 1088-1093. doi: 10.1109/ICC.2016.7510837

Kalyvianaki, E., Fiscato, M., Salonidis, T. & Pietzuch, P. (2016). THEMIS: Fairness in Federated Stream Processing under Overload. Paper presented at the 2016 ACM International Conference on Management of Data (SIGMOD), 26 Jun - 01 Jul 2016, San Francisco, USA.

Cherla, S., Tran, S.N., Weyde, T. & Garcez, A. (2016). Generalising the Discriminative Restricted Boltzmann Machine.

Asif, W., Qureshi, H. K., Rajarajan, M. & Lestas, M. (2016). Combined Banzhaf & Diversity Index (CBDI) for critical node detection. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 64, pp. 76-88. doi: 10.1016/j.jnca.2015.11.025

Forechi, A., De Souza, A.F., Neto, J.D.O., de Aguiar, E., Badue, C., Garcez, A. & Oliveira-Santos, T. (2016). Fat-Fast VG-RAM WNN: A high performance approach. NEUROCOMPUTING, 183, pp. 56-69. doi: 10.1016/j.neucom.2015.06.104

Petroulakis, N. E., Spanoudakis, G., Askoxylakis, I. G., Miaoudakis, A. & Traganitis, A. (2016). A Pattern-Based Approach for Designing Reliable Cyber-Physical Systems. In: 2015 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM). . IEEE. ISBN 978-1-4799-5952-5

Rahulamathavan, Y., Veluru, S., Han, J., Li, F., Rajarajan, M. & Lu, R. (2016). User Collusion Avoidance Scheme for Privacy-Preserving Decentralized Key-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption. IEEE Transactions on Computers, 65(9), pp. 2939-2946. doi: 10.1109/TC.2015.2510646

Meng, X. & Spanoudakis, G. (2016). MBotCS: A mobile botnet detection system based on machine learning. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 9572, pp. 274-291. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-31811-0_17

Percy, C., Garcez, A., Dragicevic, S., França, M. V. M., Slabaugh, G.G. & Weyde, T. (2016). The Need for Knowledge Extraction: Understanding Harmful Gambling Behavior with Neural Networks. Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, 285, pp. 974-981. doi: 10.3233/978-1-61499-672-9-974

Petroulakis, N. E., Spanoudakis, G. & Askoxylakis, I. G. (2016). Patterns for the design of secure and dependable software defined networks. Computer Networks, 109(1), pp. 39-49. doi: 10.1016/j.comnet.2016.06.028

Rajarajan, M., Zaidi, K., Nallanathan, A,, Rakocevic, V. & Milojevic, M, (2016). Host Based Intrusion Detection for VANETs: A statistical approach to Rogue Node Detection. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 65(8), pp. 6703-6714. doi: 10.1109/TVT.2015.2480244

Belmonte Martin, A., Marinos, L., Rekleitis, E., Spanoudakis, G. & Petroulakis, N. E. (2015). European Union Agency for Network and Information Security (ENISA).

Fahad, L. G. & Rajarajan, M. (2015). Integration of discriminative and generative models for activity recognition in smart homes. Applied Soft Computing Journal, 37, pp. 992-1001. doi: 10.1016/j.asoc.2015.03.045

Sigtia, S., Benetos, E., Boulanger-Lewandowski, N., Weyde, T., Garcez, A. & Dixon, S. (2015). A Hybrid Recurrent Neural Network For Music Transcription. Paper presented at the 40th IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP) 2015, 19-04-2015 - 24-04-2015, Brisbane, Australia.

Li, F., Rahulamathavan, Y., Conti, M. & Rajarajan, M. (2015). Robust access control framework for mobile cloud computing network. Computer Communications, 68(Sept), pp. 61-72. doi: 10.1016/j.comcom.2015.07.005

Zaidi, K. & Rajarajan, M. (2015). Vehicular Internet: Security & Privacy Challenges and Opportunities. Future Internet, 7, pp. 257-275. doi: 10.3390/fi7030257

Sajjad, A., Rajarajan, M., Zisman, A. & Dimitrakos, T. (2015). A scalable and dynamic application-level secure communication framework for inter-cloud services. Future generation computer systems: the international journal of grid computing and escience, 48(July), pp. 19-27. doi: 10.1016/j.future.2015.01.018

Rajarajan, M. (2015). A review paper on preserving privacy in mobile environments. Journal of Computer Networks and Applications, 53, pp. 74-90. doi: 10.1016/j.jnca.2015.01.008

Shittu, R., Healing, A., Ghanea-Hercock, R., Bloomfield, R. & Rajarajan, M. (2015). Intrusion alert prioritisation and attack detection using post-correlation analysis. Computers & Security, 50, pp. 1-15. doi: 10.1016/j.cose.2014.12.003

Fahad, L. G., Khan, A. U. & Rajarajan, M. (2015). Activity recognition in smart homes with self verification of assignments. Neurocomputing, 149(C), pp. 1286-1298. doi: 10.1016/j.neucom.2014.08.069

Palacios, M., García-Fanjul, J., Tuya, J. & Spanoudakis, G. (2015). Automatic test case generation for WS-Agreements using combinatorial testing. Computer Standards and Interfaces, 38, pp. 84-100. doi: 10.1016/j.csi.2014.10.003

Asif, W., Lestas, M., Qureshi, H. K. & Rajarajan, M. (2015). Spectral Partitioning for Node Criticality. 2015 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communication (ISCC), pp. 877-882. doi: 10.1109/ISCC.2015.7405624

Köhnen, C., Überall, C., Rajarajan, M., Jager, R. & Rakocevic, V. (2015). Autonomous QoS Management and Policing in Unmanaged Local Area Networks. Journal of Computer Networks and Communications, 2015, e790375. doi: 10.1155/2015/790375

Pino, L., Spanoudakis, G., Fuchs, A. & Guergens, S. (2015). Generating Secure Service Compositions. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 512, pp. 81-99. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-25414-2_6

Rangiha, M. E., Comuzzi, M. & Karakostas, B. (2015). Role and task recommendation and social tagging to enable social business process management. Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, 214, pp. 68-82. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-19237-6_5

Egea, M., Spanoudakis, G., Mahbub, K. & Vieira, M. R. (2015). A Certification Framework for Cloud Security Properties: The Monitoring Path. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 8937, pp. 63-77. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-17199-9_3

Arunkumar, S., Sensoy, M., Srivatsa, M. & Rajarajan, M. (2015). Reasoning with Streamed Uncertain Information from Unreliable Sources. Expert Systems with Applications, 42(22), pp. 8381-8392. doi: 10.1016/j.eswa.2015.04.031

Faruki, P., Bharmal, A., Laxmi, V., Ganmoor, V., Gaur, M. S., Conti, M. & Rajarajan, M. (2015). Android Security: A Survey of Issues, Malware Penetration, and Defenses. IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, 17(2), pp. 998-1022. doi: 10.1109/COMST.2014.2386139

França, M. V. M., Zaverucha, G. & Garcez, A. (2015). Neural Relational Learning Through Semi-Propositionalization of Bottom Clauses. Paper presented at the 2015 AAAI Spring Symposium Series, 23-03-2015 - 25-03-2015, Stanford University, USA.

Garcez, A., Besold, T. R., Raedt, L., Foldiak, P., Hitzler, P., Icard, T., Kuhnberger, K-U., Lamb, L. C., Miikkulainen, R. & Silver, D. L. (2015). Neural-Symbolic Learning and Reasoning: Contributions and Challenges. Paper presented at the 2015 AAAI Spring Symposium Series, 23-03-2015 - 25-03-2015, Stanford University, USA.

Krotsiani, M., Spanoudakis, G. & Kloukinas, C. (2015). Monitoring-Based Certification of Cloud Service Security. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 9415, pp. 644-659. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-26148-5_44

Naval, S., Laxmi, V., Rajarajan, M., Gaur, M. S. & Conti, M. (2015). Employing Program Semantics for Malware Detection. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, 10(12), pp. 2591-2604. doi: 10.1109/TIFS.2015.2469253

Palacios, M., García-Fanjul, J., Tuya, J. & Spanoudakis, G. (2015). Coverage Based Testing for Service Level Agreements. IEEE Transactions on Services Computing, 8(2), pp. 299-313. doi: 10.1109/TSC.2014.2300486

Perotti, A., Boella, G. & Garcez, A. (2014). Runtime Verification Through Forward Chaining. Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science, 169, pp. 68-81. doi: 10.4204/EPTCS.169.8

Asif, W., Qureshi, M., Lestas, M. & Rajarajan, M. (2014). CBDI: Combined Banzhaf & Diversity Index for Finding Critical Nodes. Paper presented at the IEEE Globecom, 08-12-2014 - 12-12-2014, Texas, USA.

Katopodis, S., Spanoudakis, G. & Mahbub, K. (2014). Towards hybrid cloud service certification models. In: 2014 IEEE International Conference on Services Computing (SCC). (pp. 394-399). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.. ISBN 9781479950669

Adamsky, F., Khayam, S. A., Jaeger, R. & Rajarajan, M. (2014). Stealing bandwidth from BitTorrent seeders. Computers & Security, 46, pp. 126-140. doi: 10.1016/j.cose.2014.07.009

Kloukinas, C. & Ozkaya, M. (2014). Realizable, Connector-Driven Software Architectures for Practising Engineers. Communications in Computer and Information Science, 457, pp. 273-289. doi: 10.1007/978-3-662-44920-2_17

Zaidi, K., Milojevic, M., Rakocevic, V. & Rajarajan, M. (2014). Data Centric Rogue Node Detection in VANETs. Paper presented at the IEEE Trustcom, 24-09-2014 - 26-09-2014, Beijing, China.

Fahad, L. G., Tahir, S. F. & Rajarajan, M. (2014). Activity Recognition in Smart Homes using Clustering based Classification. Paper presented at the 22nd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR), 24-08-2014 - 28-08-2014, Stockholm, Sweden.

Van Gorp, P., Comuzzi, M., Jahnen, A., Kaymak, U. & Middleton, B. (2014). An open platform for personal health record apps with platform-level privacy protection. Computers in Biology and Medicine, 51, pp. 14-23. doi: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2014.04.019

Ali, H., D'Avila Garcez, A.S., Tran, S.N., Zhou, X. & Iqbal, K. (2014). Unimodal late fusion for NIST i-vector challenge on speaker detection. Electronics Letters, 50(15), pp. 1098-1100. doi: 10.1049/el.2014.1207

Kalyvianaki, E., Charalambous, T. & Hand, S. (2014). Adaptive Resource Provisioning for Virtualized Servers Using Kalman Filters. ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems, 9(2), p. 10. doi: 10.1145/2626290

Asif, W., Qureshi, A., Iqbal, M. & Rajarajan, M. (2014). On the Complexity of Average Path length for Biological Networks and Patterns. International Journal of Biomathematics, 7(4), doi: 10.1142/S1793524514500387

Raoufi, N., Surre, F., Rajarajan, M., Sun, T. & Grattan, K. T. V. (2014). Optical sensor for pH monitoring using a layer-by-layer deposition technique emphasizing enhanced stability and re-usability. Sensors and Actuators B Chemical, 195, pp. 692-701. doi: 10.1016/j.snb.2014.01.080

Li, F., Rahulamathavan, Y. & Rajarajan, M. (2014). LSD-ABAC: Lightweight Static and Dynamic Attributes Based Access Control Scheme for Secure Data Access in Mobile Environment. 2014 IEEE 39th Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN), doi: 10.1109/LCN.2014.6925791

Van Gorp, P. & Comuzzi, M. (2014). Lifelong personal health data and application software via virtual machines in the cloud. IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics, 18(1), pp. 36-45. doi: 10.1109/JBHI.2013.2257821

Adamsky, F., Khayam, S. A., Jager, R. & Rajarajan, M. (2014). Who is going to be the next BitTorrent Peer Idol?. Paper presented at the 12th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing, 26-08-2014 - 28-08-2014, Milan, Italy.

Adnan, M., Rosi, L., Veluru, S., Mouseli, M., Longley, P. A. & Rajarajan, M. (2014). Using Digital Traces for User Profiling: the Uncertainty of Identity Toolset. Paper presented at the ACM Security in Information and Networks, (SIN 2014), 09-09-2014 - 11-09-2014, Glasgow, UK.

Arunkumar, S., Srivatsa, M. & Rajarajan, M. (2014). Location Security - Where to Enforce?. Paper presented at the IEEE MILCOM, 06-10-2014 - 08-10-2014, Baltimore, USA.

Comuzzi, M. & Martinez, R.I.R. (2014). Customized Infrastructures for Monitoring Business Processes. 2014 IEEE 8th International Symposium on Service Oriented System Engineering (SOSE), pp. 122-127. doi: /10.1109/SOSE.2014.19

Fernandez, R. C., Migliavacca, M., Kalyvianaki, E. & Pietzuch, P. (2014). Making State Explicit for Imperative Big Data Processing. Paper presented at the USENIX ATC ’14: 2014 USENIX Annual Technical Conference, 19-06-2015 - 20-06-2015, Philadelphia, USA.

Fiaz, M., Yousaf, R., Hanfi, M., Asif, W., Qureshi, H. K. & Rajarajan, M. (2014). Adding the reliability on tree based topology construction algorithms for wireless sensor networks. Wireless Personal Communications, 74(2), pp. 989-1004. doi: 10.1007/s11277-013-1334-2

França, M. V. M., Zaverucha, G. & Garcez, A. (2014). Fast relational learning using bottom clause propositionalization with artificial neural networks. Machine Learning, 94(1), pp. 81-104. doi: 10.1007/s10994-013-5392-1

Hudic, A., Tauber, M., Lorünser, T., Krotsiani, M., Spanoudakis, G., Mauthe, A. & Weippl, E. (2014). A Multi-Layer and Multi-Tenant Cloud Assurance Evaluation Methodology. Paper presented at the 2014 IEEE 6th International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science (CloudCom), 15-18 Dec 2014, Singapore.

Krotsiani, M. & Spanoudakis, G. (2014). Continuous certification of non-repudiation in cloud storage services. Proceedings - 2014 IEEE 13th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom), pp. 929-934. doi: 10.1109/TrustCom.2014.122

Li, F., Rahulamathavan, Y. & Rajarajan, M. (2014). Lightweight Static and Dynamic Attributes Based Access Control Scheme for Secure Data Access in Mobile Environment. Paper presented at the 39th IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks, 08-09-2014 - 11-09-2014, Edmonton, Canada.

Ozkaya, M. & Kloukinas, C. (2014). Architectural specification and analysis with XCD: The aegis combat system case study. In: 2014 2nd International Conference on Model-Driven Engineering and Software Development (MODELSWARD). (pp. 368-375). IEEE. ISBN 978-9-8975-8065-9

Ozkaya, M. & Kloukinas, C. (2014). Design-by-contract for reusable components and realizable architectures. In: CBSE '14 Proceedings of the 17th international ACM Sigsoft symposium on Component-based software engineering. (pp. 129-138). New York, USA: ACM. ISBN 9781450325776

Pawar, P. S., Rajarajan, M., Dimitrakos, T. & Zisman, A. (2014). Trust Assessment Using Cloud Broker. In: J. Zhou, N. Gal-Oz, J. Zhang & E, Gudes (Eds.), Trust Management VIII. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, 430. (pp. 237-244). Springer. ISBN 9783662438121

Pino, L., Mahbub, K. & Spanoudakis, G. (2014). Designing Secure Service Workflows in BPEL. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 8831, pp. 551-559. doi: 10.1007/978-3-662-45391-9_48

Pino, L., Spanoudakis, G., Fuchs, A. & Gürgens, S. (2014). Discovering secure service compositions. CLOSER 2014 - Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science,

Rahulamathavan, Y., Moonsamy, V., Batten, L., Shunliang, S. & Rajarajan, M. (2014). An Analysis of Tracking Service Settings in Blackberry 10 and Windows Phone 8 Smartphones. In: Information Security and Privacy. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 14 (8544). (pp. 430-437). Springer. ISBN 9783319083438

Rahulamathavan, Y., Veluru, S., Phan, R. C., Chambers, J. A. & Rajarajan, M. (2014). Privacy-preserving clinical decision support system using gaussian kernel-based classification. IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics, 18(1), pp. 56-66. doi: 10.1109/JBHI.2013.2274899

Sajjad, A., Rajarajan, M. & Dimitrakos, T. (2014). A low-overhead secure communication framework for an inter-cloud environment. Paper presented at the International Conference on Intelligent Cloud Computing 2014, 24-02-2014 - 26-02-2014, Muscat, Oman.

Shittu, R., Healing, A., Ghanea-Hercock, R., Bloomfield, R. E. & Rajarajan, M. (2014). A New Metric for Prioritising Intrusion Alerts Using Correlation and Outlier Analysis. Paper presented at the 39th IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks, 08-09-2014 - 11-09-2014, Edmonton, Canada.

Sigtia, S., Benetos, E., Boulanger-Lewandowski, N., Weyde, T., Garcez, A. & Dixon, S. (2014). A Hybrid Recurrent Neural Network For Music Transcription. CoRR, 14(11), p. 1623.

Sigtia, S., Benetos, E., Cherla, S., Weyde, T., Garcez, A. & Dixon, S. (2014). An RNN-based Music Language Model for Improving Automatic Music Transcription. Paper presented at the 15th International Society for Music Information Retrieval Conference (ISMIR), 27-10-2014 - 31-10-2014, Taipei, Taiwan.

Tran, S., Benetos, E. & Garcez, A. (2014). Learning motion-difference features using Gaussian restricted Boltzmann machines for efficient human action recognition. Paper presented at the 2014 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN), 06-07-2014 - 11-07-2014, Beijing, China.

Tran, S. & Garcez, A. (2014). Low-cost representation for restricted Boltzmann machines. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 8834, pp. 69-77. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-12637-1_9

Veluru, S., Rahulamathavan, Y., Manandhar, S. & Rajarajan, M. (2014). Correlated Community Estimation Models Over a Set of Names. Paper presented at the IEEE Technically Co-Sponsored Science and Information Conference, 27-08-2014 - 29-08-2014, London, UK.

d'Avila Garcez, A. S., Gabbay, D. M. & Lamb, L. C. (2014). A neural cognitive model of argumentation with application to legal inference and decision making. Journal of Applied Logic, 12(2), pp. 109-127. doi: 10.1016/j.jal.2013.08.004

Rahulamathavan, Y., C.-W. Phan, R., Veluru, S., Cumanan, K & Rajarajan, M. (2013). Privacy-Preserving Multi-Class Support Vector Machine for Outsourcing the Data Classification in Cloud. IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, 11(5), pp. 467-479. doi: 10.1109/TDSC.2013.51

Raoufi, N., Surre, F., Rajarajan, M., Sun, T. & Grattan, K. T. V. (2013). Fibre Optic pH Sensor Using Optimized Layer-by-Layer Coating Approach. IEEE Sensors Journal, 14(1), pp. 47-54. doi: 10.1109/JSEN.2013.2280283

Modi, C., Patel, D., Borisaniya, B., Patel, A. & Rajarajan, M. (2013). A survey on security issues and solutions at different layers of Cloud computing. The Journal of Supercomputing, 63(2), pp. 561-592. doi: 10.1007/s11227-012-0831-5

Ueberall, C., Koehnen, C., Rakocevic, V., Jaeger, R., Hoy, E. & Rajarajan, M. (2013). Recommendations in a heterogeneous service environment. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 62(3), pp. 785-820. doi: 10.1007/s11042-011-0874-2

Qureshi, H. K., Rizvi, S., Saleem, M., Khayam, S. A., Rakocevic, V. & Rajarajan, M. (2013). Evaluation and improvement of CDS-based topology control for wireless sensor networks. Wireless Networks, 19(1), pp. 31-46. doi: 10.1007/s11276-012-0449-9

Bibas, A., Spanoudakis, G., Bellos, C., Fotiadis, D. I. & Koutsouris, D. (2013). Biologically Inspired Near Extinct System Reconstruction. In: 2013 IEEE 13th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Bioengineering (BIBE). (p. 14026394). IEEE.

Besbes, H., Smart, G., Buranapanichkit, D., Kloukinas, C. & Andreopoulos, Y. (2013). Analytic Conditions for Energy Neutrality in Uniformly-Formed Wireless Sensor Networks. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 12(10), pp. 4916-4931. doi: 10.1109/TWC.2013.092013.121649

Charalambous, T., Kalyvianaki, E., Hadjicostis, C. N. & Johansson, M. (2013). Distributed Offline Load Balancing in MapReduce Networks. Paper presented at the 2013 IEEE 52nd Annual Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), 10-12-2013 - 13-12-2013, Florence, Italy.

Cherla, S., Weyde, T., Garcez, A. & Pearce, M. (2013). A Distributed Model For Multiple-Viewpoint Melodic Prediction. In: A. de Souza Britto Jr, F. Gouyon & S. Dixon (Eds.), Proceedings of the 14th International Society for Music Information Retrieval Conference. (pp. 15-20). International Society for Music Information Retrieval. ISBN 978-0-615-90065-0

Cherla, S., Weyde, T., Garcez, A. & Pearce, M. (2013). Learning Distributed Representations for Multiple-Viewpoint Melodic Prediction. Paper presented at the 14th International Society for Music Information Retrieval Conference, 4 - 8 Nov 2013, Curtiba, PR, Brazil.

Comuzzi, M., Jacobs, G. & Grefen, P. (2013). Understanding SLA elements in cloud computing. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, 408, pp. 385-392.

Comuzzi, M., Vanderfeesten, I. T. P. & Wang, T. (2013). Optimized cross-organizational business process monitoring: Design and enactment. Information Sciences, 244, pp. 107-118. doi: 10.1016/j.ins.2013.04.036

Fernandez, R. C., Migliavacca, M., Kalyvianaki, E. & Pietzuch, P. (2013). Integrating scale out and fault tolerance in stream processing using operator state management. Paper presented at the 2013 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, 22-06-2013 - 27-06-2013, New York, USA.

Fernandez, R. C., Migliavacca, M., Kalyvianaki, E. & Pietzuch, P. (2013). Scalable and Fault-tolerant Stateful Stream Processing.. Paper presented at the 2013 Imperial College Computing Student Workshop, 26-09-2013 - 27-09-2013, London, UK.

Krotsiani, M., Spanoudakis, G. & Mahbub, K. (2013). Incremental certification of cloud services. Paper presented at the SECURWARE 2013 - 7th International Conference on Emerging Security Information, Systems and Technologies, 25th - 31st August 2013, Barcelona, Spain.

Mai, L., Kalyvianaki, E. & Costa, P. (2013). Exploiting Time-Malleability in Cloud-based Batch Processing Systems. Paper presented at the LADIS '13: 7th Workshop on Large-Scale Distributed Systems and Middleware, 02-11-2013 - 03-11-2013, Pennsylvania, USA.

Modi, C., Patel, D., Patel, H., Borisaniya, B., Patel, A. & Rajarajan, M. (2013). A survey of intrusion detection techniques in Cloud. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 36(1), pp. 42-57. doi: 10.1016/j.jnca.2012.05.003

Ozkaya, M. & Kloukinas, C. (2013). Are we there yet? Analyzing architecture description languages for formal analysis, usability, and realizability. Paper presented at the 39th Euromicro Conference Series on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2013, 4th - 6th September 2013, Santander, Spain.

Ozkaya, M. & Kloukinas, C. (2013). Towards Design-by-Contract based software architecture design. Paper presented at the 2013 IEEE 12th International Conference on Intelligent Software Methodologies, Tools and Techniques (SoMeT), 22nd September - 24 September 2013, Budapest, Hungary.

Ozkaya, M. & Kloukinas, C. (2013). Towards a design-by-contract based approach for realizable connector-centric software architectures. Paper presented at the ICSOFT 2013 - Proceedings of the 8th International Joint Conference on Software Technologies, 29 - 31 Jul 2013, Rejkyavik, Iceland.

Petroulakis, N. E., Askoxylakis, I. G., Traganitis, A. & Spanoudakis, G. (2013). A privacy-level model of user-centric cyber-physical systems. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 8030, pp. 338-347. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-39345-7-36

Petroulakis, N. E., Tragos, E. Z., Fragkiadakis, A. G. & Spanoudakis, G. (2013). A lightweight framework for secure life-logging in smart environments. Information Security Technical Report, 17(3), pp. 58-70. doi: 10.1016/j.istr.2012.10.005

Tsigritis, T. & Spanoudakis, G. (2013). Assessing the genuineness of events in runtime monitoring of cyber systems. Computers and Security, 38, pp. 76-96. doi: 10.1016/j.cose.2013.03.011

Veluru, S., Rahulamathavan, Y., Viswanath, P., Longley, P. & Rajarajan, M. (2013). E-mail address categorization based on semantics of surnames. Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Data Mining, CIDM 2013 - 2013 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence, SSCI 2013, pp. 222-229. doi: 10.1109/CIDM.2013.6597240

Zisman, A., Spanoudakis, G., Dooley, J. & Siveroni, I. (2013). Proactive and reactive runtime service discovery: a framework and its evaluation. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 39(7), doi: 10.1109/TSE.2012.84

Raoufi, N., Surre, F., Sun, T., Rajarajan, M. & Grattan, K. T. V. (2012). Wavelength dependent pH optical sensor using the layer-by-layer technique. Sensors and Actuators B Chemical, 169, pp. 374-381. doi: 10.1016/j.snb.2012.05.024

Rizvi, S., Qureshi, H. K., Khayam, S. A., Rakocevic, V. & Rajarajan, M. (2012). A1: An energy efficient topology control algorithm for connected area coverage in wireless sensor networks. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 35, pp. 597-605. doi: 10.1016/j.jnca.2011.11.003

Adamsky, F., Khayam, S. A., Jager, R. & Rajarajan, M. (2012). Security analysis of the micro transport protocol with a misbehaving receiver. Paper presented at the 2012 International Conference on Cyber-Enabled Distributed Computing and Knowledge Discover, 10 - 12 October 2012, Sanya, China.

Comuzzi, M., Angelov, S. & Vonk, J. (2012). Patterns to Enable Mass-Customized Business Process Monitoring. Paper presented at the CAiSE 2012, 24th International Conference, 25-06-2012 - 29-06-2012, Gdansk, Poland.

Comuzzi, M., Vonk, J. & Grefen, P. (2012). Measures and mechanisms for process monitoring in evolving business networks. Data & Knowledge Engineering, 71(1), pp. 1-28. doi: 10.1016/j.datak.2011.07.004

Foster, H. & Spanoudakis, G. (2012). Taming the cloud: Safety, certification and compliance for software services - Keynote at the Workshop on Engineering Service-Oriented Applications (WESOA) 2011. In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science. (pp. 3-8). Springer. ISBN 9783642318757

Foster, H., Spanoudakis, G. & Mahbub, K. (2012). Formal Certification and Compliance for Run-Time Service Environments. In: L. E. Moser, M. Parashar & P. C. K. Hung (Eds.), 2012 IEEE Ninth International Conference on Services Computing (SCC),. (pp. 17-24). IEEE. ISBN 978-0-7695-4753-4

Foster, H., Spanoudakis, G. & Mahbub, K. (2012). Formal certification and compliance for run-time service environments. Paper presented at the 2012 IEEE Ninth International Conference on Services Computing (SCC), 24 - 29 June 2012, Honolulu, USA.

Gorp, P. V., Comuzzi, M., Fialho, A. S. & Kaymak, U. (2012). Addressing health information privacy with a novel cloud-based PHR system architecture. Paper presented at the 2012 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC), 14-10-2012 - 17-10-2012, Seoul, Korea.

Houyou, A. M., Huth, H-P., Kloukinas, C., Trsek, H. & Rotondi, D. (2012). Agile manufacturing: General challenges and an IoT@Work perspective. In: UNSPECIFIED (pp. 1-7). IEEE. ISBN 978-1-4673-4735-8

Kloukinas, C. & Ozkaya, M. (2012). XCD – Simple, Modular, Formal Software Architectures (Report No. TR/2012/DOC/01). .

Kloukinas, C. & Ozkaya, M. (2012). Xcd - Modular, Realizable Software Architectures. Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Formal Aspects of Component Software, 7684, pp. 152-169. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-35861-6_10

Ozkaya, M. & Kloukinas, C. (2012). Highly analysable, reusable, and realisable architectural designs with XCD. Communications in Computer and Information Science, 340, pp. 72-79. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-35267-6_10

Palacios, M., García-Fanjul, J., Tuya, J. & Spanoudakis, G. (2012). Identifying Test Requirements by Analyzing SLA Guarantee Terms. In: C. A. Goble, P. P. Chen & J. Zhang (Eds.), 2012 IEEE 19th International Conference on Web Services (ICWS). (pp. 351-358). IEEE. ISBN 978-1-4673-2131-0

Pawar, P. S., Nair, S. K., El-Mousaa, F., Dimitrakos, T., Rajarajan, M. & Zisman, A. (2012). Opinion Model Based Security Reputation Enabling Cloud Broker Architecture. Paper presented at the CloudComp 2012 - 3rd International Conference on Cloud Computing, 24 - 26 Sep 2012, Vienna, Austria.

Pawar, P. S., Rajarajan, M., Nair, S. K. & Zisman, A. (2012). Trust Model for Optimized Cloud Services. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, 374, pp. 97-112. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-29852-3_7

Pino, L. & Spanoudakis, G. (2012). Constructing secure service compositions with patterns. Paper presented at the 2012 IEEE 8th World Congress on Services, SERVICES 2012, 24 -29 June 2012, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Pino, L. & Spanoudakis, G. (2012). Finding secure compositions of software services: Towards a pattern based approach. 2012 5th International Conference on New Technologies, Mobility and Security - Proceedings of NTMS 2012 Conference and Workshops, pp. 1-5. doi: 10.1109/NTMS.2012.6208741

Plebani, P., Cappiello, C., Comuzzi, M., Pernici, B. & Yadav, S. (2012). MicroMAIS: executing and orchestrating Web services on constrained mobile devices. Software: Practice and Experience, 42(9), pp. 1075-1094. doi: 10.1002/spe.1106

Rajarajan, M., Sajjad, A., Zisman, A., Nair, S. K. & Dimitrakos, T. (2012). Secure communication using dynamic VPN provisioning in an Inter-Cloud environment. Paper presented at the ICON 2012: 18th IEEE International Conference on Networks, 12 - 14 Dec 2012, Singapore.

Spanoudakis, G., Damiani, E. & Maña, A. (2012). Certifying Services in Cloud: The Case for a Hybrid, Incremental and Multi-layer Approach. Paper presented at the High-Assurance Systems Engineering (HASE), 2012 IEEE 14th International Symposium on, 25 - 27 Oct 2012, Omaha, US.

Van Gorp, P. & Comuzzi, M. (2012). MyPHRMachines: Lifelong Personal Health Records in the Cloud. Paper presented at the 2012 25th International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems (CBMS),, 20-06-2012 - 22-06-2012, Rome, Italy.

Borges, Rafael, Garcez, A. & Lamb, L. C. (2011). Learning and Representing Temporal Knowledge in Recurrent Networks. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 22(12), pp. 2409-2421. doi: 10.1109/TNN.2011.2170180

Spanoudakis, G. & Zisman, A. (2011). Designing and Adapting Service-based Systems: A Service Discovery Framework. In: Service Engineering. (pp. 261-297). BERLIN: SPRINGER-VERLAG. ISBN 978-3-7091-0414-9

Ardagna, D., Baresi, L., Comai, S., Comuzzi, M. & Pernici, B. (2011). A Service-Based Framework for Flexible Business Processes. IEEE Software, 28(2), pp. 61-67. doi: 10.1109/MS.2011.28

Bezzi, M., Sabetta, A. & Spanoudakis, G. (2011). An architecture for certification-aware service discovery. Proceedings - 2011 1st International Workshop on Securing Services on the Cloud, IWSSC 2011, pp. 14-21. doi: 10.1109/IWSSCloud.2011.6049020

Comuzzi, M. & Vanderfeesten, I. T. P. (2011). Product-Based Workflow Design for Monitoring of Collaborative Business Processes. Paper presented at the CAiSE 2011, 23rd International Conference, 20-06-2011 - 24-06-2011, London, UK.

Foster, H. & Spanoudakis, G. (2011). Advanced service monitoring configurations with SLA decomposition and selection. Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, pp. 1582-1589. doi: 10.1145/1982185.1982519

Foster, H. & Spanoudakis, G. (2011). SMaRT: A Workbench for reporting the monitorability of services from SLAs. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Principles of Engineering Service-Oriented Systems. (pp. 36-42). New York; USA: ACM. ISBN 978-1-4503-0591-4

Kalyvianaki, E., Wiesemann, W., Vu, Q. H., Kuhn, D. & Pietzuch, P. (2011). SQPR: Stream query planning with reuse. Paper presented at the 2011 IEEE 27th International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE), 11-04-2011 - 16-04-2011, Hannover, Germany.

Kloukinas, C. & Yovine, S. (2011). A model-based approach for multiple QoS in scheduling: from models to implementation. Automated Software Engineering, 18(1), pp. 5-38. doi: 10.1007/s10515-010-0074-8

Lekeas, G., Kloukinas, C. & Stathis, K. (2011). Producing Enactable Protocols in Artificial Agent Societies. Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Agents in Principle, Agents in Practice, 7047, pp. 311-322. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-25044-6_25

Lorenzoli, D. & Spanoudakis, G. (2011). Predicting software service availability: Towards a runtime monitoring approach. In: 2011 IEEE International Conference on Web Services (ICWS 2011). (pp. 736-737). IEEE. ISBN 978-1-4577-0842-8

Mahbub, K. & Spanoudakis, G. (2011). Proactive SLA negotiation for service based systems: Initial implementation and evaluation experience. Proceedings - 2011 IEEE International Conference on Services Computing, SCC 2011, pp. 16-23. doi: 10.1109/SCC.2011.34

Mahbub, K., Spanoudakis, G. & Zisman, A. (2011). A monitoring approach for runtime service discovery. Automated Software Engineering, 18(2), pp. 117-161. doi: 10.1007/s10515-010-0077-5

Qureshi, H. K., Rizvi, S., Saleem, M., Khayam, S. A., Rakocevic, V. & Rajarajan, M. (2011). Poly: A Reliable and Energy Efficient Topology Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks. Computer Communications, 34(10), pp. 1235-1242. doi: 10.1016/j.comcom.2010.12.016

Rajarajan, M., Adamsky, F., Khan, H., Khayam, S. A. & Jager, R. (2011). Destabilizing BitTorrent's clusters to attack high bandwidth lechers. Poster presented at the 18th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS 2011), 17 Oct 2011 - 21 Oct 2011, SWISSÔTEL Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Rajarajan, M., Sajjad, A., Zisman, A., Nair, S. K. & Dimitrakos, T. (2011). Dynamic virtual private network provisioning from multiple cloud infrastructure service providers. Paper presented at the 4th European Conference, ServiceWave 2011, 26 - 28 Oct 2011, Poznan, Poland.

de Penning, L., Garcez, A., Lamb, L. C. & Meyer, J. J. (2011). A Neural-Symbolic Cognitive Agent for Online Learning and Reasoning. In: Proceedings of the Twenty-Second international joint conference on Artificial Intelligence. (pp. 1653-1658). International Joint Conferences on Artificial Intelligence. ISBN 978-1-57735-514-4

Garcez, A. (2010). Neurons and symbols: a manifesto. Paper presented at the Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings 10302. Learning paradigms in dynamic environments, 25 - 30 July 2010, Dagstuhl, Germany.

Spanoudakis, G. & Zisman, A. (2010). Discovering Services during Service-Based System Design Using UML. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 36(3), pp. 371-389. doi: 10.1109/TSE.2009.88

Anisetti, M., Ardagna, C. A., Guida, F., Gürgens, S., Lotz, V., Maña, A., Pandolfo, C., Pazzaglia, J., Pujol, G. & Spanoudakis, G. (2010). ASSERT4SOA: Toward Security Certification of Service-Oriented Applications. OTM Workshops, 6428, pp. 38-40. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16961-8_11

Charalambous, T. & Kalyvianaki, E. (2010). A min-max framework for CPU resource provisioning in virtualized servers using ℋ∞ Filters. Decision and Control (CDC), 2010 49th IEEE Conference on, pp. 3778-3783. doi: 10.1109/CDC.2010.5717375

Comuzzi, M. & Spanoudakis, G. (2010). Dynamic set-up of monitoring infrastructures for service based systems. In: S. Y. Shin, S. Ossowski, M. Schumacher, M. J. Palakal & C. Hung (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2010 ACM Symposium on Applied Computing. (pp. 2414-2421). ACM. ISBN 978-1-60558-639-7

Comuzzi, M., Vonk, J. & Grefen, P. (2010). Continuous Monitoring in Evolving Business Networks. Paper presented at the Confederated International Conferences: CoopIS, IS, DOA and ODBASE,, 25-10-2010 - 29-10-2010, Crete, Greece.

Guillame-Bert, M., Broda, K. & Garcez, A. (2010). First-order logic learning in artificial neural networks. International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN 2010), doi: 10.1109/IJCNN.2010.5596491

Kalyvianaki, E., Charalambous, T. & Hand, S. (2010). Resource Provisioning for Multi-Tier Virtualized Server Applications. Computer Measurement Group (CMG) Journal, 126, pp. 6-17.

Komendantskaya, E., Broda, K. & Garcez, A. (2010). Using inductive types for ensuring correctness of neuro-symbolic computations. Paper presented at the 6th Conference on Computability in Europe, CiE 2010, 30 June - 4 July 2010, Ponta Delgada, Portugal.

Lorenzoli, D. & Spanoudakis, G. (2010). EVEREST+: Run-time SLA violations prediction. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Middleware for Service Oriented Computing. (pp. 13-18). New York: ACM. ISBN 978-1-4503-0452-8

Mahbub, K. & Spanoudakis, G. (2010). A Framework for Proactive SLA Negotiation. In: J.A.M. Cordeiro, M. Virvou & B. Shishkov (Eds.), A Framework for Proactive SLA Negotiation. (pp. 251-256). SciTePress.

Mahbub, K. & Spanoudakis, G. (2010). Proactive SLA Negotiation for Service Based Systems. 2010 6th World Congress on Services (SERVICES-1), pp. 519-526. doi: 10.1109/SERVICES.2010.15

Mohanty, V., Moliya, D., Hota, C. & Rajarajan, M. (2010). Secure Anonymous Routing for MANETs Using Distributed Dynamic Random Path Selection. Intelligence and Security Informatics, 6122, pp. 65-72. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-13601-6_8

Nair, S. K., Porwal, S., Dimitrakos, T., Ferrer, A. J., Tordsson, J., Sharif, T., Sheridan, C., Rajarajan, M. & Khan, A. U. (2010). Towards secure cloud bursting, brokerage and aggregation. Paper presented at the IEEE European conference on Web Services, 1 Dec 2010 - 3 Dec 2010, Cyprus.

Siveroni, I., Zisman, A. & Spanoudakis, G. (2010). A UML-based static verification framework for security. Requirements Engineering, 15(1), pp. 95-118. doi: 10.1007/s00766-009-0091-y

Themistos, C., Rajarajan, M., Rahman, B. M. & Grattan, K. T. V. (2009). Characterization of Silica Nanowires for Optical Sensing. Journal of Lightwave Technology, 27(24), pp. 5537-5542.

Comuzzi, M., Kotsokalis, C., Spanoudakis, G. & Yahyapour, R. (2009). Establishing and Monitoring SLAs in complex Service Based Systems. In: E. Damiani, J. Zhang & R. Chang (Eds.), 2009 IEEE International Conference on Web Services. Los Alamitos, California, I & II. (pp. 783-790). IEEE. ISBN 9780769537092

Comuzzi, M. & Spanoudakis, G. (2009). A Framework for Hierarchical and Recursive Monitoring of Service Based Systems. In: H. Sasaki, G. O. Bellot, M. Ehmann & O. Dini (Eds.), Fourth International Conference on Internet and Web Applications and Services, 2009. ICIW '09. (pp. 383-388). IEEE. ISBN 978-1-4244-3851-8

Spanoudakis, G. & LoPresti, S. (2009). Web Service Trust: Towards A Dynamic Assessment Framework. Paper presented at the International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security, 2009. ARES '09, 16 - 19 Mar 2009, Fukuoka Institute of Technology, Fukuoka, Japan.

Tsigkritis, T., Spanoudakis, G., Kloukinas, C. & Lorenzoli, D. (2009). Diagnosis and Threat Detection Capabilities of the SERENITY Monitoring Framework. In: G. Spanoudakis, A. Gomez & S. Kokolakis (Eds.), Security and Dependability for Ambient Intelligence. Advances in Information Security, 45. (pp. 239-271). USA: Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-88774-6

Kloukinas, C. (2009). Better abstractions for reusable components & architectures. Paper presented at the 31st International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE-Companion 2009), 16 - 24 May 2009, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Lorenzoli, D. & Spanoudakis, G. (2009). Detection of Security and Dependability Threats: A Belief Based Reasoning Approach. In: R. Falk, W. Goudalo, E. Y. Chen, R. Savola & M. Popescu (Eds.), Emerging Security Information, Systems and Technologies, 2009. SECURWARE '09. Third International Conference on. (pp. 312-320). IEEE.

Rajarajan, M., Spackova, B., Piliarik, M., Kvasnicka, P., Themistos, C. & Homola, J. (2009). Novel concept of multi-channel fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 139(5), pp. 199-203. doi: 10.1016/j.snb.2008.12.020

Spanoudakis, G. & Comuzzi, M. (2009). Describing and Verifying Monitoring Capabilities for Service Based Systems. Paper presented at the CAiSE 2009 Forum, 8-12 Jun 2009, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Elmufti, K., Weerasinghe, D., Rajarajan, M., Rakocevic, V., Khan, S. & MacDonald, J. (2008). Mobile Web services authentication using SAML and 3GPP generic bootstrapping architecture. International Journal of Information Security, 8(2), pp. 77-87. doi: 10.1007/s10207-008-0065-y

Amálio, N. & Spanoudakis, G. (2008). From Monitoring Templates to Security Monitoring and Threat Detection. 2008 Second International Conference on Emerging Security Information, Systems and Technologies, pp. 185-192. doi: 10.1109/SECURWARE.2008.58

Kloukinas, C., Lekeas, G. & Stathis, K. (2008). From Agent Game Protocols to Implementable Roles. Paper presented at the Sixth European Workshop on Multi-Agent Systems - EUMAS, 18 - 19 Dec 2008, Bath, UK.

Kloukinas, C., Spanoudakis, G. & Mahbub, K (2008). Estimating Event Lifetimes for Distributed Runtime Verification. Paper presented at the 20th International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, 1 - 3 Jul 2008, Redwood City, CA, US.

Renou, L. & d'Avila Garcez, A. S. (2008). Rule Extraction from Support Vector Machines: A Geometric Approach. Technical Report (Report No. TR/2008/DOC/01). Department of Computing, City University London: .

Siveroni, I., Zisman, A. & Spanoudakis, G. (2008). Property specification and static verification of UML models. Paper presented at the Availability, Reliability and Security, 2008. ARES 08. Third International Conference on, 4 - 7 Mar 2008, Barcelona, Spain.

Spanoudakis, G., Kloukinas, C. & Androutsopoulos, K. (2008). Dynamic verification and control of mobile peer-to-peer systems. Paper presented at the 3rd International Conference on Internet Monitoring and Protection, 29 Jun - 5 Jul 2008, Bucharest, Romania.

Tsigkritis, T. & Spanoudakis, G. (2008). A Temporal Abductive Diagnostic Process for Runtime Properties Violations. ExaCt, 391, ISSN CEUR Workshop Proceedings

Weerasinghe, D., Rajarajan, M., Elmufti, K. & Rakocevic, V. (2008). Patient privacy protection using anonymous access control techniques. Methods of Information in Medicine, 47(3), pp. 235-240. doi: 10.3414/ME9116

Garcez, A., Lamb, L. C. & Gabbay, D. M. (2007). Connectionist modal logic: Representing modalities in neural networks. Theoretical Computer Science, 371(1-2), pp. 34-53. doi: 10.1016/j.tcs.2006.10.023

Kloukinas, C. & Spanoudakis, G. (2007). A pattern-driven framework for monitoring security and dependability. Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Trust, Privacy and Security in Digital Business, 4657, pp. 210-218. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-74409-2_23

Child, C. H. T., Stathis, K. & Garcez, A. (2007). Learning to Act with RVRL Agents. Paper presented at the 14th RCRA Workshop, Experimental Evaluation of Algorithms for Solving Problems with Combinatorial Explosion, Jul 2007, Rome, Italy.

Garcez, A., Gabbay, D. M., Ray, O. & Woods, J. (2007). Abductive reasoning in neural-symbolic learning systems. Topoi: An International Review of Philosophy, 26(1), pp. 37-49. doi: 10.1007/s11245-006-9005-5

Spanoudakis, G., Kloukinas, C. & Androutsopoulos, K. (2007). Towards security monitoring patterns. Paper presented at the 22nd Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, 11 - 15 March 2007, Seoul, Korea.

d'Avila Garcez, A. S., Hitzler, P. & Tamburrini, G. (2006). Proceedings of ECAI International Workshop on Neural-Symbolic Learning and reasoning NeSy 2006 (Report No. TR/2006/DOC/02). .

Stathis, K., Lekeas, G. & Kloukinas, C. (2006). Competence Checking for the Global E-Service Society Using Games. Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Engineering Societies in the Agents World VII, 4457, pp. 384-400. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-75524-1_22

Garcez, A., Gabbay, D. M. & Lamb, L. C. (2005). Value-based argumentation frameworks as neural-symbolic learning systems. Journal of Logic and Computation, 15(6), pp. 1041-1058. doi: 10.1093/logcom/exi057

Broda, K., Garcez, A. & Gabbay, D. M. (2005). Metalevel priorities and neural networks. Paper presented at the Workshop on the Foundations of Connectionist-Symbolic Integration ECAI2000, 20 - 25 August 2005, Berlin.

Garcez, A. (2005). Fewer epistemological challenges for connectionism. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 3526, pp. 289-325. doi: 10.1007/11494645_18

Dafas, P. & d'Avila Garcez, A. S. (2005). Applied temporal Rule Mining to Time Series (Report No. TR/2006/DOC/01). .

Hitzler, P., Bader, S. & Garcez, A. (2005). Ontology learning as a use-case for neural-symbolic integration. Paper presented at the IJCAI Workshop on Neural-Symbolic Learning and Reasoning NeSy05, 1 August 2005, Edinburgh.

Kloukinas, C. (2005). Thunderstriking constraints with JUPITER. Paper presented at the Third ACM and IEEE International Conference on Formal Methods and Models for Co-Design (MEMOCODE '05), 11 - 14 Jul 2005.

d'Avila Garcez, A. S. (2005). Proceedings of IJCAI International Workshop on Neural-Symbolic Learning and Reasoning NeSy 2005 (Report No. TR/2005/DOC/01). .

Garcez, A., Gabbay, D. M. & Lamb, L. C. (2004). Argumentation Neural Networks: Value-based Argumentation Frameworks as Neural-Symbolic Learning Systems (Report No. TR/2004/DOC/01). .

Kloukinas, C. & Verimag, G. (2004). Data-Mining Synthesised Schedulers for Hard Real-Time Systems. Paper presented at the 19th International Conference on Automated Software Engineering, 24 Sep 2004, Linz, Austria.

Garcez, A. & Gabbay, D. M. (2003). Fibring Neural Networks (Report No. TR/2003/SEG/03). .

Garcez, A., Spanoudakis, G. & Zisman, A. (2003). Proceedings of ACM ESEC/FSE International Workshop on Intelligent Technologies for Software Engineering WITSE03 (Report No. TR/2003/DOC/01). .

Kloukinas, C., Nakhli, C. & Yovine, S. (2003). A Methodology and Tool Support for Generating Scheduled Native Code for Real-Time Java Applications. Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Embedded Software, 2855, pp. 274-289. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-45212-6_18

Kloukinas, C. & Yovine, S. (2003). Synthesis of Safe, QoS Extendible, Application Specific Schedulers for Heterogeneous Real-Time Systems. Paper presented at the 15th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems, 2003, Porto, Portugal.

Zarras, A., Kloukinas, C. & Issarny, V. (2003). Quality Analysis of Dependable Systems: A Developer Oriented Approach. Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Architecting Dependable Systems, 2677, pp. 197-218. doi: 10.1007/3-540-45177-3_9

Garcez, A., Broda, K. & Gabbay, D. M. (2001). Symbolic knowledge extraction from trained neural networks: A sound approach. Artificial Intelligence, 125(1-2), pp. 153-205. doi: 10.1016/S0004-3702(00)00077-1

Kloukinas, C. & Issarny, V. (2001). SPIN-ning Software Architectures: A Method for Exploring Complex Systems. In: UNSPECIFIED (pp. 67-76). IEEE Computer Society. ISBN 0-7695-1360-3

Zarras, A., Issarny, V., Kloukinas, C. & Nguyen, V. (2001). Towards a Base UML Profile for Architecture Description. Paper presented at the 1st ICSE Workshop on Describing Software Architecture with UML, held in conjunction with the 23rd International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE-2001), 15 May 2001, Toronto, Canada.

Kloukinas, C. & Issarny, V. (2000). Automating the Composition of Middleware Configurations. Paper presented at the he Fifteenth IEEE International Conference on Automated Software Engineering, 11 - 15 Sep 2000, Grenoble, France.

Garcez, A. & Zaverucha, G. (1999). The connectionist inductive learning and logic programming system. Applied Intelligence Journal, 11(1), pp. 59-77. doi: 10.1023/A:1008328630915

Kloukinas, C., Saridakis, T. & Issarny, V. (1999). Fault Tolerant Access to Dynamically Located Services for CORBA Applications. Paper presented at the Computer Applications in Industry and Engineering (CAINE-99), 12th Int'l. Conference, 4 - 6 Nov 1999, Atlanta, GE, US.

Comuzzi, M. Aligning Monitoring and Compliance Requirements in Evolving Business Networks. Paper presented at the OnTheMove Federated Conferences & Workshops, 27-10-2014 - 31-10-2014, Amantea, Italy.

Perotti, A., d'Avila Garcez, A. S. & Boella, G. Neural-Symbolic Monitoring and Adaptation. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN 2015). . IEEE.

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City, University of London is an independent member institution of the University of London. Established by Royal Charter in 1836, the University of London consists of 18 independent member institutions with outstanding global reputations and several prestigious central academic bodies and activities.