1. About our research
  2. Spotlight on research
  3. Research in our departments and centres
  4. Research publications
  5. Research and Enterprise
  6. City's Research Excellence Framework 2014
  7. Research Degrees
  1. Framework for Good Practice in Research
  2. Categories of misconduct

Categories of misconduct

Misconduct in this context is defined as behaviour that represents a serious breach of the principles of good practice in research conduct and/or is based on deliberate deception and dishonesty as opposed to unintentional error. Poor practices, such as weak procedures or inadequate record-keeping which may jeopardise the integrity of the research but might only require further training or development rather than formal disciplinary action, are strongly discouraged but are not the focus of this aspect of the framework.

Misconduct, or unacceptable research conduct, takes various forms and includes (although is not restricted to) the following:

  • Plagiarism – the copying of ideas, data, text or any other form of material or intellectual property without permission from or acknowledgement of the author.
  • Fabrication or falsification – the creation of false data or other aspects of research, including documentation and participant consent or the inappropriate selection and/or manipulation of data, imagery, consents and/or findings with an intention to deceive.
  • Piracy – the deliberate exploitation of the ideas of others without permission or acknowledgement, including the use of material that has been provided in a privileged way for review, examination, assessment or appraisal.
  • Negligence or breach of duty of care - the failure to follow and apply appropriate duty of care to contemporary legal, administrative and ethical practices and codes of conduct for research, particularly that which involves other human or animal subjects. This includes improper disclosure of the identity of research participants and placing others in danger without consent or without
    proper safeguards, including both reputational danger, where this can be anticipated, and physical safety.
  • Malicious accusation – alleging a charge of misconduct against another person with wrongful intention.
  • Interference - the intentional damage to, or removal of, the research-related property and data of another person.
  • Bullying – including the persistent and unjustifiable denigration of the work of another person.
  • Non-recognition – the failure to give fair and appropriate credit for work done by others, including failure by (i) senior staff to recognise formally work done by junior staff and (ii) students to recognise formally contributions from staff/supervisors.
  • Misrepresentation – in addition to misrepresentation of data, this includes undisclosed duplication of publication, including undisclosed duplicate submission of manuscripts for publication; misrepresentation of interests, including failure to declare material interests either of the researcher or of the funders of the research; misrepresentation of involvement such as inappropriate claims to authorship and/or attribution of work where there has been no significant contribution; and misrepresentation of qualifications and/or experience.
  • Victimisation –To subject a person to detrimental treatment due to the fact that they had brought a charge in good faith against another.
  • Non-compliance - the failure to adhere to whatever terms and conditions have been freely entered into in order to receive public or private funds from outside City. This may include mismanagement or inadequate preservation of data and/or primary materials in breach of funders' or City's policy or relevant legislation.
  • Collusion – the conscious participation with another in any of the above.