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Contact Information


Visit Kizito Salako

A309B, College Building

Postal Address

City, University of London
Northampton Square
United Kingdom



Dr Kizito Salako is an applied mathematician and software developer at the Centre for Software Reliability (CSR), City University London. He holds a first-class double honours degree in Mathematics and Statistics from the University of Lagos; a Master of Advanced Study in Mathematics degree from the University of Cambridge (where he was both a Shell Centenary Scholar and a Commonwealth Scholar); and a PhD in Computer Science from City, University of London.

Kizito is passionate about applications of probability theory, Bayesian statistics, geometry and machine-learning techniques, when trying to simulate, assess and forecast the (failure) behaviour of software-based systems. His doctoral thesis clarifies and significantly extends the applicability of a family of probabilistic models used to describe the failure behaviour of multi-version software. He also developed a novel geometric approach to extremising the expected system reliability of a class of fault-tolerant software-based systems; so-called 1-out-of-N systems. Currently, he is particularly interested in the assessment/forecasting challenges that arise when these systems rely on evolving machine-learning solutions.

Since joining CSR, Kizito has contributed to several projects (e.g. DISPO, DIRC, IRRIIS, PIA-FARA, AFTER, DIDERO-PC, DISIEM) both as a mathematician and as a software developer.

He is experienced in building simulations of complex systems using C++, and was instrumental in developing the PIA-FARA simulation engine -- creating modular software that implements and analyses the probabilistic, functional and process relationships that may exist between the components of large-scale interdependent complex critical infrastructure.


Research interests

- Mathematical Modelling of interdependent complex systems/critical infrastructure dependability
- Monte-Carlo simulation of Complex Systems, using models that are generalisations of Stochastic Activity Networks
- Geometric approaches to optimisation problems in Software Reliability modelling.




Chapters (2)

  1. (2019). Resilience of Cyber-Physical Systems. In Springer International Publishing. ISBN 978-3-319-95596-4.
  2. Netkachov, O., Popov, P. and Salako, K. (2019). Quantitative evaluation of the efficacy of defence-in-depth in critical infrastructures. Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications (pp. 89–121).

Conference papers and proceedings (7)

  1. Salako, K. (2020). Loss-size and Reliability Trade-offs Amongst Diverse Redundant Binary Classifiers. 17th International Conference on the Quantitative Evaluation of SysTems (QEST 2020) 31 Aug 2020 – 3 Sep 2020, Online.
  2. Zhao, X., Robu, V., Flynn, D., Salako, K. and Strigini, L. (2019). Assessing the Safety and Reliability of Autonomous Vehicles from Road Testing.
  3. Popov, P., Salako, K.O. and Stankovic, V. (2015). Stochastic modeling for performance evaluation of database replication protocols. 12th International Conference on Quantitative Evaluation of Systems 1-3 September, Madrid, Spain.
  4. Jones, K. and Salako, K. (2013). Modeling Security Policy and the Effect for End-Users. HCI International 2013: 15th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 21-26 July, Las Vegas, Nevada, US.
  5. Bloomfield, R.E., Chozos, N. and Salako, K. (2009). Current Capabilities, Requirements and a Proposed Strategy for Interdependency Analysis in the UK.
  6. Bloomfield, R.E., Buzna, L., Popov, P.T., Salako, K. and Wright, D. (2009). Stochastic Modelling of the Effects of Interdependencies between Critical Infrastructure.
  7. Salako, K. (2007). Bounds on the Reliability of Fault-Tolerant Software Built by Forcing Diversity.

Internet publication

  1. Salako, K. Home Page.

Journal articles (6)

  1. Zhao, X., Salako, K., Strigini, L., Robu, V. and Flynn, D. (2020). Assessing Safety-Critical Systems from Operational Testing: A Study on Autonomous Vehicles. Information and Software Technology pp. 106393–106393. doi:10.1016/j.infsof.2020.106393.
  2. Littlewood, B., Salako, K., Strigini, L. and Zhao, X. (2020). On reliability assessment when a software-based system is replaced by a thought-to-be-better one. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 197. doi:10.1016/j.ress.2019.106752.
  3. Bloomfield, R.E., Popov, P., Salako, K., Stankovic, V. and Wright, D. (2017). Preliminary interdependency analysis: An approach to support critical-infrastructure risk-assessment. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 167, pp. 198–217. doi:10.1016/j.ress.2017.05.030.
  4. Netkachov, O., Popov, P. and Salako, K. (2016). Model-based evaluation of the resilience of critical infrastructures under cyber attacks. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 8985, pp. 231–243. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-31664-2_24.
  5. Netkachov, O., Popov, P. and Salako, K. (2014). Quantification of the impact of cyber attack in critical infrastructures. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 8696 LNCS, pp. 316–327. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-10557-4_35.
  6. Salako, K. and Strigini, L. (2013). When does "Diversity" in Development Reduce Common Failures? Insights from Probabilistic Modelling. IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, 99(preprints). doi:10.1109/TDSC.2013.32.

    [publisher’s website]

Software (3)

  1. Salako, K., Stankovic, V. and Popov, P. (2015). Stochastic model for performance evaluation of database replication protocols..
  2. Popov, P., Salako, K. and Stankovic, V. (2015). Stochastic modeling for performance evaluation of database replication protocols..
  3. Netkachov, O., Popov, P. and Salako, K. Simulation model of the extended Nordic32 network..