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Contact Information


Visit Kizito Salako

A304B, College Building

Postal Address

City, University of London
Northampton Square
United Kingdom



Dr Kizito Salako is an applied mathematician and software developer at the Centre for Software Reliability (CSR), City University London. He holds a first-class double honours degree in Mathematics and Statistics from the University of Lagos (2000); a Master of Advanced Study in Mathematics degree from the University of Cambridge (where he was both a Shell Centenary Scholar and a Commonwealth Scholar, 2001); and a PhD from City University London (2012).

Kizito is passionate about mathematics (in particular, Differential Geometry and Probability theory) and its application to modelling complex systems. His doctoral thesis clarifies and significantly extends the applicability of a family of probabilistic models used to describe the failure behaviour of multi-version software. Further still, he developed a novel geometric approach to extremising the expected system reliability of a class of fault-tolerant software-based systems; so-called 1-out-of-N systems.

Since joining CSR in October 2002, Kizito has contributed to several projects (for instance, DISPO, DIRC, IRRIIS and AFTER) both as a mathematician and as a software developer. His research activities have ranged from "understanding the impact of process diversity on the reliability of fault-tolerant software-based systems" to "studying the interdependencies that exist between complex systems and how these affect system resilience and dependability". More recently, in addition to developing a methodology for evaluating the effectiveness of password security policies, he is also working on a simulation-based approach to assessing the performance of Database Replication Protocols, particularly those protocols which guard against non-self-evident failures (e.g. failures such as incorrect results of read or write operations) as part of the DIDERO-PC project.

Kizito was instrumental in developing the PIA-FARA simulation engine, creating modular software that implements and analyses the probabilistic, functional and process relationships that may exist between the components of large-scale interdependent complex critical infrastructure. His programming language of choice is C++.


Research interests

- Mathematical Modelling of interdependent complex systems/critical infrastructure dependability
- Monte-Carlo simulation of Complex Systems, using models that are generalisations of Stochastic Activity Networks
- Geometric approaches to optimisation problems in Software Reliability modelling.




Chapters (2)

  1. (2019). Resilience of Cyber-Physical Systems. In Springer International Publishing. ISBN 978-3-319-95596-4.
  2. Netkachov, O., Popov, P. and Salako, K. (2019). Quantitative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Defence-in-Depth in Critical Infrastructures. Resilience of Cyber-Physical Systems (pp. 89–121). Springer International Publishing. ISBN 978-3-319-95596-4.

Conference papers and proceedings (5)

  1. Popov, P., Salako, K.O. and Stankovic, V. (2015). Stochastic modeling for performance evaluation of database replication protocols. 12th International Conference on Quantitative Evaluation of Systems 1-3 September, Madrid, Spain.
  2. Jones, K. and Salako, K. (2013). Modeling Security Policy and the Effect for End-Users. HCI International 2013: 15th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 21-26 July, Las Vegas, Nevada, US.
  3. Bloomfield, R.E., Chozos, N. and Salako, K. (2009). Current Capabilities, Requirements and a Proposed Strategy for Interdependency Analysis in the UK.
  4. Bloomfield, R.E., Buzna, L., Popov, P.T., Salako, K. and Wright, D. (2009). Stochastic Modelling of the Effects of Interdependencies between Critical Infrastructure.
  5. Salako, K. (2007). Bounds on the Reliability of Fault-Tolerant Software Built by Forcing Diversity.

Internet publication

  1. Salako, K. Home Page.

Journal articles (4)

  1. Bloomfield, R.E., Popov, P., Salako, K., Stankovic, V. and Wright, D. (2017). Preliminary interdependency analysis: An approach to support critical-infrastructure risk-assessment. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 167, pp. 198–217. doi:10.1016/j.ress.2017.05.030.
  2. Netkachov, O., Popov, P. and Salako, K. (2016). Model-based evaluation of the resilience of critical infrastructures under cyber attacks. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 8985, pp. 231–243. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-31664-2_24.
  3. Netkachov, O., Popov, P. and Salako, K. (2014). Quantification of the impact of cyber attack in critical infrastructures. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 8696 LNCS, pp. 316–327. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-10557-4_35.
  4. Salako, K. and Strigini, L. (2013). When does "Diversity" in Development Reduce Common Failures? Insights from Probabilistic Modelling. IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, 99(preprints). doi:10.1109/TDSC.2013.32.

    [publisher’s website]

Software (2)

  1. Salako, K., Stankovic, V. and Popov, P. (2015). Stochastic model for performance evaluation of database replication protocols..
  2. Netkachov, O., Popov, P. and Salako, K. Simulation model of the extended Nordic32 network..