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Visit Justin Phillips

C113, Tait Building

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Postal Address

City, University of London
Northampton Square
London
EC1V 0HB
United Kingdom

About

Overview

Please note I am currently at Google.

I normally divide my time between teaching and research in physics/engineering applied to medicine. Last academic year (2015/16) I have been working on a Senior Research Fellowship awarded jointly from the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Leverhulme Trust, which funded a replacement academic to cover my teaching and administration activities, enabling me to concentrate on research. During 2017 I will be at Google working on health monitoring applications.

I graduated in Physics from Durham University in 1992 and started my career at Ciba Corning Diagnostics in the UK where I worked on the design and evaluation of prototype biomedical instrumentation. Since 1998 I worked at the Royal Brompton Hospital and later St Bartholomew's Hospital where I was involved in research in anaesthesia and physiological measurement. I completed my PhD from Queen Mary, University of London for work developing new methods of monitoring cerebral oxygen saturation in head injury patients using fibreoptic sensors. I am a member of the Institute of Physics (IoP), Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM) and the Institute of Electronic and Electrical Engineers (IEEE). I am also a co-author of 'Physics in Anaesthesia', a key textbook for medical students and postgraduate trainees studying for their FRCA (Fellow of the Royal College of Anaesthesia) examinations.

I am also the Course Director for the MEng/BEng in Biomedical Engineering degree here at City.

Qualifications

PhD Biomedical Engineering, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry/Queen Mary University of London, 2009
BSc (Hons) Physics, Durham University, 1992

Employment

06/2011 - to date RAEng/Leverhulme Trust Senior Research Fellow
06/2011 - to date City University London, Senior Lecturer in Biomedical Engineering
09/2008 - 06/2011 City University London, Lecturer in Biomedical Engineering
10/1999 - 09/2008 Anaesthetic Laboratory, St Bartholomew's Hospital, Principal Technologist
03/1998 - 10/1999 Royal Brompton Hospital, Respiratory Physiologist
02/1996 - 11/1997 Ciba Corning Diagnostics Ltd, Research Assistant

Honorary Appointments

11/2008 - to date Dept of Anaesthesia, St Bartholomew's Hospital, Honorary Research Fellow

Membership of professional bodies

2007 Institute of Physics & Engineering in Medicine (IPEM), Corporate Member
2007 Institute of Physics (IoP), Member
2007 Institute of Electrical & Electronic Engineering (IEEE), Member

Research

Research website: http://www.justinphillips.org

My research is focused on developing new devices and signal processing methods for non-invasive health monitoring for all levels of healthcare; from wearable cardiovascular monitors to critical care and anaesthetic monitoring applications. This work also extends to the development of new technologies for screening patients for cardiovascular disease as well as developing solutions for monitoring patients in their homes.

My main research interests are as follows:
• photoplethysmography (PPG)
• optical bio-sensors
• wearable sensors
• bio-signal processing
• non-invasive cardiovascular monitoring
• cerebral monitoring
• medical device clinical trials

Photoplethysmography and Wearable Sensors

Much of my research focuses on photoplethysmography, acquisition and analysis of optical pulse signals collected from tissue, usually the skin. This signal, the photoplethysmogram (or PPG), arises from the small arteries as they fill and empty over the cardiac cycle and therefore contains information about the function of the cardiovascular system. Simple analysis of the PPG waveform reveals the pulse rate, from the interval between PPG pulses, while more sophisticated examination of the signal may produce new clinical diagnostic tools. The factors affecting the exact shape and characteristics of the PPG signal, which vary according to the sensor and patient, are poorly understood, however there has been recent renewed interest in the potential of PPG due to the explosion in wearable health monitoring technology.

My work is based on developing new algorithms and methods of extracting clinical data from PPG signals as well as developing sensors to collect PPG signals of optimum quality from internal end external monitoring sites. This work should uncover an abundance clinically relevant data from this enigmatic signal, including heart rate variability data, measurement of respiratory volume, oxygen consumption, body hydration levels, blood pressure, arterial stiffness etc. etc.

Vascular Biomechanical Modelling

Understanding the physics and physiology of the vascular system is key to developing new tools for diagnosing cardiovascular disease, the largest cause of death in the developed world. In our labs at City we study use physical models of the heart and vascular system to study the effects of changes in cardiac function on the behaviour of the large and small arteries over the cardiac cycle. The models, which comprise artificial blood, programmable pumps, synthetic and real blood vessels and ‘phantoms’ of specific organs (such as the cerebro-cranial tissue) enable us to control many of the variables that influence the signals (such as heart rate, stroke volume, extravascular pressure, vascular resistance) and better understand measurable variables such as pulse wave velocity. This will enable better interpretation of ‘real’ signals from the body and allow us to develop sensors and software for analysing them to provide useful clinical data. An example application is analysing PPG data (see above) from a wearable heart rate monitor so the wearer can be alerted to an underlying heart condition.

Publications

Conference Papers and Proceedings (18)

  1. Abdollahi, Z., Kyriacou, P.A. and Phillips, J.P. (2015). Evaluation of optical interference in a combined measurement system used for assessment of tissue blood flow. .
  2. Kyriacou, P. and Phillips, J. (2014). Comparison of methods for determining pulse arrival time from Doppler and photoplethysmography signals. 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) 26-30 August, Chicago.
  3. Phillips, J.P. and Kyriacou, P.A. (2014). Comparison of methods for determining pulse arrival time from Doppler and photoplethysmography signals. .
  4. Kyriacou, P., Phillips, J.P. and Hickey, M. (2011). Electro-optical Plethysmography for Non-invasive Estimation of Hemoglobin Concentration. Boston.
  5. Kyriacou, P. and Phillips, J.P. (2011). Photoplethysmographic sensors for perfusion measurements in spinal cord tissue. .
  6. Phillips, J., Langford, R., Kyriacou, P. and Jones, D. (2010). Fibreoptic Oesophageal Pulse Oximetry. Annual National Conference of the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM) September, Nottingham, UK.
  7. Shafique, M., Phillips, J.P. and Kyriacou, P.A. (2010). Evaluation of a multimode photoplethysmographic sensor during cuff-induced hypoperfusion. United States.
  8. Phillips, J.P., Kyriacou, P.A., George, K.J. and Langford, R.M. (2010). Optical measurement of blood flow changes in spinal cord injury. .
  9. Shafique, M., Phillips, J.P. and Kyriacou, P. (2009). Design and development of a new non-invasive trans-reflectance photoplethysmographic probe. Annual National Conference of the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM) 14-16 September, Liverpool, UK.
  10. Phillips, J.P., George, K.J., Kyriacou, P.A. and Langford, R.M. (2009). Investigation of photoplethysmographic changes using a static compression model of spinal cord injury. United States.
  11. Phillips, J.P., Langford, R.M., Chang, S.H., Maney, K., Kyriacou, P.A. and Jones, D.P. (2009). Measurements of cerebral arterial oxygen saturation using a fiber-optic pulse oximeter. .
  12. Shafique, M., Phillips, J.P. and Kyriacou, P.A. (2009). A novel non-invasive trans-reflectance photoplethysmographic probe for use in cases of low peripheral blood perfusion. United States.
  13. Phillips, J.P., Langford, R.M., Chang, S.H., Maney, K., Kyriacou, P.A. and Jones, D.P. (2009). An oesophageal pulse oximetry system utilising a fibre-optic probe. .
  14. Phillips, J.P., Langford, R.M., Chang, S.H., Maney, K., Kyriacou, P.A. and Jones, D.P. (2009). Evaluation of a fiber-optic esophageal pulse oximeter. United States.
  15. Nikolic, S., Mehta, V., Ratcliffe, S., Phillips, J.P., Kyriacou, P. and Langford, R.M. (2008). A prospective, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled trial to assess the respiratory effects of buprenorphine versus morphine in anaesthetised patients. The 14th World Congress of Anaesthesiologists Cape Town, S Africa.
  16. Phillips, J.P., Kyriacou, P. and Langford, R.M. (2006). Calibration of an optical fibre cerebral oximeter using a Monte Carlo model. 12th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine, .
  17. Phillips, J.P., Kyriacou, P.A., George, K.J., Priestley, J.V., Langford, R.M. and IEEE, (2006). An optical fiber photoplethysmographic system for central nervous system tissue. .
  18. PHILLIPS, J.P., LANGFORD, R.M., Kyriacou, P. and JONES, D.P. (2004). Optical Fibre Catheter Photoplethysmography. The X Mediterranean Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing (MEDICON 2004) 31 Jul 2004 – 5 Aug 2004, Ischia, Italy.

Journal Articles (29)

  1. Belhaj, A.M., Phillips, J.P., Kyriacou, P.A. and Langford, R.M. (2016). Comparison of non-invasive peripheral venous saturations with venous blood co-oximetry. Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing pp. 1–8. doi:10.1007/s10877-016-9959-9.
  2. Hickey, M., Phillips, J.P. and Kyriacou, P.A. (2016). Investigation of peripheral photoplethysmographic morphology changes induced during a hand-elevation study. Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing, 30(5), pp. 727–736. doi:10.1007/s10877-015-9761-0.
  3. Davenport, J.J., Hickey, M., Phillips, J.P. and Kyriacou, P.A. (2016). Fiber-optic fluorescence-quenching oxygen partial pressure sensor using platinum octaethylporphyrin. Applied Optics, 55(21), pp. 5603–5609. doi:10.1364/AO.55.005603.
  4. Davenport, J.J., Hickey, M., Phillips, J.P. and Kyriacou, P.A. (2016). Method for producing angled optical fiber tips in the laboratory. Optical Engineering, 55(2) . doi:10.1117/1.OE.55.2.026120.
  5. Davenport, J.J., Hickey, M., Phillips, J.P. and Kyriacou, P.A. (2015). A fiberoptic sensor for tissue carbon dioxide monitoring. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS, 2015-November, pp. 7942–7945. doi:10.1109/EMBC.2015.7320234.
  6. McGuinness-Abdollahi, Z., Thaha, M.A., Ramsanahie, A., Ahmed, S., Kyriacou, P.A. and Phillips, J.P. (2015). Intraoperative monitoring of intestinal viability: Evaluation of a new combined sensor. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS, 2015-November, pp. 5126–5129. doi:10.1109/EMBC.2015.7319545.
  7. Chatterjee, S., Phillips, J.P. and Kyriacou, P.A. (2015). Differential pathlength factor estimation for brain-like tissue from a single-layer Monte Carlo model. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS, 2015-November, pp. 3279–3282. doi:10.1109/EMBC.2015.7319092.
  8. Hemon, M.C. and Phillips, J.P. (2015). Comparison of foot finding methods for deriving instantaneous pulse rates from photoplethysmographic signals. Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing, 30(2), pp. 157–168. doi:10.1007/s10877-015-9695-6.
  9. Hickey, M., Phillips, J.P. and Kyriacou, P.A. (2015). The effect of vascular changes on the photoplethysmographic signal at different hand elevations. Physiological Measurement, 36(3), pp. 425–440. doi:10.1088/0967-3334/36/3/425.
  10. Hickey, M., Phillips, J.P. and Kyriacou, P.A. (2015). Venous pooling and drainage affects photoplethysmographic signals at different vertical hand positions. Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE, 9332 . doi:10.1117/12.2076732.
  11. Cibert-Goton, V., Phillips, J.P. and Shortland, P.J. (2015). Vascular changes associated with spinal root avulsion injury. SOMATOSENSORY AND MOTOR RESEARCH, 32(3), pp. 158–162. doi:10.3109/08990220.2015.1018511.
  12. Abdollahi, Z., Phillips, J.P. and Kyriacou, P.A. (2013). Evaluation of a combined reflectance photoplethysmography and laser Doppler flowmetry surface probe. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS pp. 1728–1731. doi:10.1109/EMBC.2013.6609853.
  13. Phillips, J.P., Cibert-Goton, V., Langford, R.M. and Shortland, P.J. (2013). Perfusion assessment in rat spinal cord tissue using photoplethysmography and laser Doppler flux measurements. JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL OPTICS, 18(3) . doi:10.1117/1.JBO.18.3.037005.
  14. Phillips, J.P., Belhaj, A., Langford, R.M. and Kyriacou, P.A. (2013). Effect of respiratory-induced intensity variations on finger SpO2 measurements in volunteers. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc, 2013, pp. 3937–3940. doi:10.1109/EMBC.2013.6610406.
  15. Kyriacou, P.A., Hickey, M. and Phillips, J.P. (2013). Pulse oximetry of body cavities and organs. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc, 2013, pp. 2664–2667. doi:10.1109/EMBC.2013.6610088.
  16. Phillips, J.P., Belhaj, A., Shafqat, K., Langford, R.M., Shelley, K.H. and Kyriacou, P.A. (2012). Modulation of finger photoplethysmographic traces during forced respiration: venous blood in motion? Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference pp. 3644–3647.
  17. Phillips, J.P., Hickey, M. and Kyriacou, P.A. (2012). Evaluation of electrical and optical plethysmography sensors for noninvasive monitoring of hemoglobin concentration. Sensors (Basel), 12(2), pp. 1816–1826. doi:10.3390/s120201816.
  18. Phillips, J.P., Hickey, M. and Kyriacou, P.A. (2011). Electro-optical plethysmography for non-invasive estimation of hemoglobin concentration. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS pp. 4348–4351. doi:10.1109/IEMBS.2011.6091079.
  19. Phillips, J.P., Langford, R.M., Chang, S.H., Kyriacou, P.A. and Jones, D.P. (2011). Photoplethysmographic measurements from the esophagus using a new fiber-optic reflectance sensor. J Biomed Opt, 16(7), p. 077005. doi:10.1117/1.3598858.
  20. Phillips, J.P., Langford, R.M., Chang, S.H., Maney, K., Kyriacou, P.A. and Jones, D.P. (2010). Cerebral arterial oxygen saturation measurements using a fiber-optic pulse oximeter. Neurocrit Care, 13(2), pp. 278–285. doi:10.1007/s12028-010-9349-y.
  21. Phillips, J., Chang, S.H., Maney, K.M., Langford, R.M. and Mehta, V. (2010). A comparison of the respiratory effects of oxycodone vs morphine in anaesthetized patients. Anaesthesia, 65(10), pp. 1007–1012.
  22. Phillips, J.P. (2010). Monitoring brain oxygenation in head-injury patientsOpen URL for this publication. Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering, 38(1-2), pp. 107–137.
  23. Phillips, J.P., Langford, R.M., Kyriacou, P.A. and Jones, D.P. (2008). Preliminary evaluation of a new fibre-optic cerebral oximetry system. Physiol Meas, 29(12), pp. 1383–1396. doi:10.1088/0967-3334/29/12/003.
  24. Phillips, J.P., Kyriacou, P.A., Jones, D.P., Shelley, K.H. and Langford, R.M. (2008). Pulse oximetry and photoplethysmographic waveform analysis of the esophagus and bowel. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol, 21(6), pp. 779–783. doi:10.1097/ACO.0b013e328317794d.
  25. Phillips, J.P., Langford, R.M. and Jones, D.P. (2007). Investigation of an optical fiber cerebral oximeter using a Monte Carlo model. Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings pp. 1113–1116. doi:10.1109/IEMBS.2007.4352491.
  26. Phillips, J.P., Kyriacou, P.A., Chang, S.H., Maney, K., George, K.J. and Langford, R.M. (2007). Photoplethysmographic measurements from central nervous system tissue. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 85(1) . doi:10.1088/1742-6596/85/1/012029.
  27. Phillips, J.P., Jones, D.P., Kyriacou, P., Chang, S.H., Maney, K. and Langford, R.M. (2007). Preliminary evaluation of a fiber optic cerebral oximetry system in patients undergoing neurosurgery. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 105, p. S113.
  28. Phillips, J.P., Langford, R.M., Kyriacou, P.A. and Jones, D.P. (2006). Optical fibre catheter photoplethysmograph. Measurement and Control, 39(3), pp. 84–87.
  29. Phillips, J.P., Kyriacou, P.A., George, K.J., Priestley, J.V. and Langford, R.M. (2006). An optical fiber photoplethysmographic system for central nervous system tissue. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc, 1, pp. 803–806. doi:10.1109/IEMBS.2006.259690.

Patents (2)

  1. Kyriacou, P., PHILLIPS JUSTIN P, , LANGFORD RICHARD M, and JONES DERIC P, Optical Fibre Catheter Pulse Oximeter. Patent no. WO2005060825
  2. Kyriacou, P. and Phillips, J. Method for monitoring blood components. Patent no. GB1000532.0

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