- Lashmar, P. (2019). 7/7: A reflexive re-evaluation of journalistic practice. Journalism, 20(10), pp. 1307–1322. doi:10.1177/1464884918797210.
- Lashmar, P. (2019). From Silence to Primary Definer: The Emergence of an Intelligence Lobby in the Public Sphere. Critical Sociology, 45(3), pp. 411–430. doi:10.1177/0896920518780987.
- Lashmar, P. (2018). However Did They Find Time to File? British Journalism Review, 29(1), pp. 53–58. doi:10.1177/0956474818764600.
- Piazza, R. and Lashmar, P. (2017). Jeremy Corbyn according to the BBC: ideological representation and identity construction of the Labour Party leader. Critical Approaches to Discourse Analysis across Disciplines, 9(2).
- Lashmar, P. and Hobbs, D. (2017). Diamonds, gold and crime displacement: Hatton Garden, and the evolution of organised crime in the UK. Trends in Organized Crime. doi:10.1007/s12117-017-9320-9.
- Lashmar, P. (2017). Putting lives in danger? Tinker, tailor, journalist, spy: the use of journalistic cover. Journalism: Theory, Practice & Criticism pp. 146488491772430–146488491772430. doi:10.1177/1464884917724301.
- Lashmar, P. (2017). No More Sources?: The impact of Snowden’s revelations on journalists and their confidential sources. Journalism Practice, 11(6), pp. 665–688. doi:10.1080/17512786.2016.1179587.
- Lashmar, P. (2016). Review of Lownie, A., "Stalin's Englishman: The Lives of Guy Burgess" (2015). Socialist History, 50, pp. 115–118.
- Lashmar, P. (2016). Just move to a bigger flat. British Journalism Review, 27(3), pp. 53–58. doi:10.1177/0956474816668803.
- Lashmar, P. (2015). Jean Seaton, Pinkoes and Traitor: The BBC and the Nation 1974–1987 (London: Profile Books, 2015), pp. 384, ISBN 978 1 84668 4746 (hb), £30. Journal of British Cinema and Television, 12(4), pp. 595–598. doi:10.3366/jbctv.2015.0291.
- Lashmar, (2015). Spies at The Observer. British Journalism Review pp. 60–65.
- Lashmar, P. (2015). Review of Intercept: The Secret History of Computers and Spies by Gordon Corera •. Ethical Space: the international journal of communication ethics, 12(3/4), pp. 60–61.
- Lashmar, P. (2015). Cuckoo in a nest of spies. British Journalism Review, 26(3), pp. 60–64. doi:10.1177/0956474815604300.
- Lashmar, (2015). Spies and journalists: Towards an ethical framework? Ethical Space: the international journal of communication ethics, 12(3/4), pp. 4–14.
- Lashmar, P. (2014). Book review: Dick Hobbs, Lush Life: Constructing Organised Crime in the UK. Crime, Media, Culture: An International Journal, 10(1), pp. 91–94. doi:10.1177/1741659013498969.
- Lashmar, P. (2014). How to humiliate and shame: a reporter's guide to the power of the mugshot. Social Semiotics, 24(1), pp. 56–87. doi:10.1080/10350330.2013.827358.
- Lashmar, P. (2013). Urinal or conduit? Institutional information flow between the UK intelligence services and the news media. Journalism, 14(8), pp. 1024–1040. doi:10.1177/1464884912472139.
- Lashmar, P. (2010). Book review: Robert Dover and Michael S. Goodman (eds) Spinning Intelligence: Why Intelligence Needs the Media, Why the Media Needs Intelligence London: Hurst & Co, 2009. 265 pp. £15.99 (pbk) ISBN 978 1850659945. Media, War & Conflict, 3(2), pp. 230–232. doi:10.1177/1750635210368220.
- Lashmar, P. (2002). 'Operation Robin'and Kapustin Yar: a response. Intelligence and National Security, 17(4), pp. 192–193.
- Stafford, D. (2000). Paul Lashmar and James Oliver, Britain's Secret Propaganda War. Stroud: Sutton Publishing Company, 1998. 223 pp. £25.00. Journal of Cold War Studies, 2(3), pp. 147–148. doi:10.1162/jcws.2000.2.3.147.
- Corn, D. and Lashmar, P. (2000). Bush of Arabia - How to stretch a presidential pension: Talk podiatry with a prince. NATION, 270(12), pp. 19–21.
- Lashmar, P. (1994). Mr Waldegrave's Need to Know. History Today, 44(8).
- LASHMAR, P. (1994). LOOK OUT, THERES A THIEF ABOUT. NEW STATESMAN & SOCIETY, 7(295), pp. 16–17.
- LASHMAR, P. (1994). NO HOPE, NO DESPAIR. NEW STATESMAN & SOCIETY, 7(285), pp. 18–19.
- LASHMAR, P. (1994). LOCKEM UP, THROW AWAY THE KEY. NEW STATESMAN & SOCIETY, 7(296), pp. 20–22.
- LASHMAR, P. (1994). BUS STOP. NEW STATESMAN & SOCIETY, 7(289), pp. 20–21.
- LASHMAR, P. (1994). LICENSE TO KILL. NEW STATESMAN & SOCIETY, 7(301), p. 16.
- LASHMAR, P. (1994). THE CLASS OF 94. NEW STATESMAN & SOCIETY, 7(325), pp. 18–19.
- LASHMAR, P. (1994). GOING FOR BROKERS. NEW STATESMAN & SOCIETY, 7(306), pp. 24–25.
- LASHMAR, P. (1994). PRESSURE GROUP. NEW STATESMAN & SOCIETY, 7(321), pp. 14–15.
- LASHMAR, P. (1994). WALDEGRAVE NEED TO KNOW + HISTORIANS, THE 30-YEARS-RULE AND PUBLIC-RECORD RESTRICTIONS ON CONTEMPORARY-HISTORY. HISTORY TODAY, 44(8), pp. 5–9.
- (1993). Outsiders - in from the cold. British Journalism Review, 4(1), pp. 32–36. doi:10.1177/095647489300400108.
- LASHMAR, P. (1993). USA - THE WHISTLE-BLOWERS. NEW STATESMAN & SOCIETY, 6(234), pp. 20–21.
- LASHMAR, P. (1993). COME FLY WITH ME. NEW STATESMAN & SOCIETY, 6(258), pp. 18–20.
- LASHMAR, P. (1993). A SUITABLE CASE FOR TREATMENT. NEW STATESMAN & SOCIETY, 6(251), pp. 18–19.
- Lashmar, P. (1992). Equatorial Guinea: lurching toward democracy. Africa Report, 37(2), pp. 68–71.
- Lashmar, P. (1992). A fraudster's charter. British Journalism Review, 3(4), pp. 40–43.
London EC1V 0HB
Reader in Journalism.
Head of the Department of Journalism. 2019-2021
I joined City in September 2017. Investigative journalist and research academic.
Historical wealth inequality: interrogating the correlation between slavery in the colonies and agricultural work in Britain in the context of Landed Gentry's Estates.
British Cold War covert action and propaganda. Continuing research into the activities of the Foreign Office’s Information Research Department 1947-1977.
Most recent practice:
Lashmar P and Smith J (2023) ‘My forefathers did something horribly wrong’: British slave owners’ family to apologise and pay reparations. The Observer 5 February 2023
Lashmar P and Smith J (2023) Barbados plans to make Tory MP pay reparations for family’s slave past.The Observer 27 Nov 2022. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2022/nov/26/barbados-tory-mp-pay-reparations-family-slave-richard-drax-caribbean-sugar-plantation
Lashmar, P, Gilby N, and Oliver, J (2022) UK’s propaganda leaflets inspired 1960s massacre of Indonesian communists: Pamphlets attacked the president and foreign minister. The Observer 23 January 2022
Writing Drax of Drax Hall: A history of the Drax family of Dorset. Richard Drax MP, the Conservative MP for Dorset South owns the 621 acre sugar Plantation in Barbados. His ancestor was the first to cultivate sugar in the West Indies in the early 1620s and was an instigator of chattel slavery which lasted for 200 years.
Latest book: De Burgh, H and Lashmar, P (2021)(eds) Investigative Journalism. London: Routledge (3rd ed) April 2021
Lashmar, P: Spies, Spin and the Fourth Estate: British Intelligence and the Media. Edinburgh University Press. September 2020.
Successful research grants:
City internal grant (HEIF) £4825 to scope the potential to set up a repository to hold journalism’s personal/professional archives. The Journalism Archive Project is a partnership between City and London Metropolitan Archives. Jan 2023 for completion by July 2023.
Co-Investigator on the ESRC £30,000 seminar series Data-PSST! This post-Snowden project explored, from multi-disciplinary/end user perspectives, how different aspects of transparency (whether voluntarily entered into, or state/commercially/peer-imposed) affect questions of privacy, security, surveillance and trust. Seminars take place 2014-16.
Initiator and Co-Investigator on TSB funded "Interactive Social Experience Engine (iSEE) for History and Heritage - A Dorset Prehistoric Feasibility Study" a partnership project between Brunel University and Dorset County Museum. Principal Investigator: Dr David Bell, Co-Investigators: Dr Alan Serrano and Paul Lashmar Value £55,000. This six month project was completed on 31st August 2014.
‘Writers in Intelligence’. Awarder: AHRC. £415,000. PIs Jago Morrison (Brunel) Huw Dylan (Kings’ College) Awarded July 2021. 3 Years/ I interviewed Frederick Forsyth at a special event at Brunel University in November 2022.
ESRC Impact Acceleration grant administered by Bangor University: Intelligence Elites and Public Accountability. Investigates how civil society (the press/NGOs) can better hold political-intelligence elites publically to account. Value £6010. PI Prof Vian Bakir (Bangor) CI Paul Lashmar (Cuty), CI Sarah Kavanagh (NUJ).2019
PhD: Investigating the ‘Empire of Secrecy’. Brunel University. Awarded July 2015. The relationship between the Intelligence services and the media is a core research interest.
As a well-regarded investigative journalist I've worked in television, radio, online and print. I've been on the staff of The Observer, Granada Television’s World in Action current affairs series and Independent Newspapers. Over the years I've also produced a number of TV programmes for BBC’s Timewatch, Channel 4’s Dispatches series.
I've authored or co-authored six books.
I have been an adviser to The Centre for Investigative Journalism (TCIJ) and was a founder of the Bureau for Investigative Journalism BIJ.
From July 2011 - 2018 I was the Hon. Editor of the Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society(DNHAS), an annual semi-scholarly publication that has been published since 1874. My seventh, Volume 139 was published in January 2019.
Interview and consultant to: Bent Coppers: Beyond the Line of Duty. Three-part series on historic police corruption. Broadcast BBC2 2022.
Consultant to Film Producer Chris Morris for his feature Film Four Lions released in summer 2010.
Jury member: British Journalism Awards 2017-2022.
Portrait photograph by Robin Mills (Dorset)
- PHD, Brunel University London, Uxbridge, United Kingdom, 2012 – 2015
- PDAP (PGSHE Equivalent), Brunel University London, Uxbridge, United Kingdom, Jul 2011
- Head of Department of Journalism, City, University of London, Aug 2019 – Jul 2021
- Deputy Head of Department of Journalism, City, University of London, May 2018 – Jul 2019
- Head of Journalism, University of Sussex, Oct 2015 – Sep 2017
- Head of Journalism, Brunel University London, Uxbridge, Jul 2014 – Sep 2015
- Lecturer, Brunel University London, Uxbridge, Sep 2009 – Jun 2014
- Investigative Journalist, The Independent, Jun 1998 – May 2001
- Re-approval panel for BA Journalism at (a partnership with London Met), CESINE University, Santander, Spain, Sep 2015
- External adviser Carried out baseline assessment of provision of investigative journalism in Malawi, Malawi Institute of Journalism, Apr 2014 – present
- External to BA Journalism course (and in part MA Journalism), University of Winchester, Jul 2013 – Jul 2017
- External Examiner for MA Journalism, London College of Communication, Sep 2010 – Sep 2014
- External Academic Adviser to proposed MA course. One day visit, University of Central Lancashire, Jun 2010 – present
- External Examiner for MA Journalism, Brunel University, Sep 2007 – Sep 2009
- External assessor on the validation panel for BA Journalism(Hons), Kingston University., Jul 2003 – present
- Research Fellow, University of Bedfordshire, 2008 – 2010
- Iinvestigate the e-learning with special regard to the use of audio and video tools for the delivery of distance and blended pedagogy, University College Falmouth, 2008 – present
Attendance: Dec 2019 – Dec 2024, part-time
Thesis title: Understanding the impact of travel journalism on tourism in Eastern Caribbean islands
Role: 1st Supervisor
Attendance: Feb 2018 – present, full-time
Thesis title: research on the Opportunities and Cahlleneges of the Chinese Investigative Journalism on Reporting International Issues in the New Media era.
Role: 1st Supervisor
Dr Sawsun Tah
Attendance: 2013 – 2016, full-time
Thesis title: The Role of Broadcasting Media in Political Conflict; Representation of the Palestinian Internal Fighting in the Arab Satellite Channels
Role: 2nd Supervisor
Publications by category
- Lashmar, P. (2020). Spies, Spin and the Fourth Estate. Aldrich, R. (Ed.), Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-1-4744-4307-4.
- Hill, S. and Lashmar, P. (2013). Online Journalism The Essential Guide. SAGE. ISBN 978-1-4462-9323-2.
- Lashmar, P. and Oliver, J. (1998). Britain's Secret Propaganda War. Sutton Pub Limited.
- Lashmar, P. (1996). Spy Flights of the Cold War. Naval Inst Press.
- Jennings, A., Lashmar, P. and Simson, V. (1990). Scotland Yard's Cocaine Connection. Jonathan Cape.
- Brock, G., Trelford, D., Marks, L., Lustig, R. and Lashmar, P. (1980). Siege six days at the Iranian Embassy. london: Macmillan.
- de Burgh, H. and Lashmar, P. (Eds.), Investigative Journalism. Routledge.
- Lashmar, P. (2021). "Ventriloquists' dummies" or truth bringers? The journalist's role in giving whistle-blowers a voice. The Routledge Companion to Journalism Ethics (pp. 192–200). ISBN 978-0-429-26270-8.
- Lashmar, P. (2021). National Security and Investigative Journalism. In De Burgh, H and Lashmar, P, (Ed.), Investigative Journalism London: Routledge.
- Lashmar, P. (2021). National security. Investigative Journalism (pp. 30–43). ISBN 978-0-367-18246-5.
- Lashmar, P. (2021). Afterword: Manifesto for investigative journalism in the 21st century. Investigative Journalism (pp. 280–283). ISBN 978-0-367-18246-5.
- Lashmar, P. (2019). Source and Source Relations. In Vos, T.P. and Hanusch, F. (Eds.), The International Encyclopedia of Journalism Studies (pp. 1–9). London: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-84167-9.
- Lashmar, P. (2019). The Ivory Tower and the Fourth Estate. In Coulthart, S., Landon-Murray, M. and Van Puyvelde, D. (Eds.), Researching National Security Intelligence: Multidisciplinary Approaches. (pp. 193–210). Washington. DC: Georgetown University Press. ISBN 978-1-62616-703-2.
- Lashmar, P. (2018). Journalistic Freedom and the Surveillance of Journalists Post-Snowden. The Routledge Handbook of Developments in Digital Journalism Studies (pp. 360–372). Routledge.
- Lashmar, P. (2016). The Independent is Dead, Long Live The Independent. In Mair, J., Clark, T., Fowler, N., Snoddy, R. and Tait, R. (Eds.), Last Words - How Can Journalism Survive the Decline of Print? Cambridge: Abramis. ISBN 978-1-84549-696-8.
- Lashmar, P. (2013). From the Insight Team to Wikileaks, the continuing power of investigative journalism as a benchmark of quality news journalism. In Anderson, P.J., Ogola, G. and Williams, M. (Eds.), The Future of Quality News Journalism A Cross-Continental Analysis (pp. 35–52). New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-10850-3.
- Lashmar, P. (2013). Journalist, Folk Devil? In Petley, J., Critcher, C., Hughes, J. and Rohloff, A. (Eds.), Moral Panics in the Contemporary World (pp. 51–72). New York: Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 978-1-62356-893-1.
- Lashmar, P. (2011). Blonde on Blonde: Wikileaks versus the Official Sources. In Mair, J. and Keeble, R.L. (Eds.), Investigative Journalism: Dead or Alive. 107-121. Suffolk: Abramis. (pp. 107–121). Suffolk: Abramis.
- Lashmar, P. (2008). FROM SHADOW BOXING TO GHOST PLANE: English journalism and the War on Terror. Investigative Journalism, Second Edition (pp. 191–214). ISBN 978-0-415-44143-8.
- Lashmar, P. and Whitaker, R. (2003). MI6 and CIA: The New Enemy Within. In Sifry, M.C. and Cerf, C. (Eds.), The Iraq Reader (pp. 479–482). New York: Touchstone. ISBN 0-7432-5347-7.
- Lashmar, P. (2001). West Europe and North America. Global corruption report: Transparency International (pp. 138–151). London: Pluto Press p.
- Lashmar, P. (1994). Equatorial Guinea: Boys, Music of Bioko Island. In Broughton, S., Ellingham, M., Muddyman, D. and Trillo, R. (Eds.), World Music: The Rough Guide (pp. 333–335). London: The Rough Guides. ISBN 1-85828-017-6.
- Lashmar, P. (1984). Nuclear Veterans Exposed. In Ayrton, P., Engelhardt, T. and Ware, V. (Eds.), World View (pp. 23–25). London: Pluto Press. ISBN 0-86104-665-X.
- Lashmar, P. (1983). Information is Power. In Aubrey, C. and Chilton, P. (Eds.), Nineteen Eighty-Four in 1984 (pp. 79–89). London: Comedia. ISBN 0-906890-42-X.
- Lashmar, P. and Leigh, D. (1983). Our Forgotten A-Bomb victims. In Trelford, D. (Ed.), Sunday Best (pp. 240–244). Victor Gollancz.
- de Burgh, H. Investigative Journalism. In de Burgh, H. and Lashmar, P. (Eds.), Routledge.
- Lashmar, P. Crying Wolf - The abuse of national security to defend the indefensible. In Petley, J. and Steel, J. (Eds.), Routledge Companion to Censorship and Freedom of Expression. Abingdon: Routledge.
Conference papers and proceedings (2)
- Al Subhi, N.N., Bell, D. and Lashmar, P. (2016). User Experience (UX) of Heritage Journeys: Design Taxonomy for Quality Measurement. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-39510-4_23
- Lashmar, P., Bell, D. and Al Subhi,, N. (2015). Location based modelling for Heritage Mobile Applications.
Journal articles (37)
- Lashmar, P. and Griffith, F. (2016). Kind of Blue Revisited: A celebration of the Classic Davis album. Dorchester Arts Centre.
Scholarly editions (9)
- Lashmar, P. (2019). Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society.
- (2017). Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society.
- (2016). Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society.
- Lashmar et al, (2015). The Press, Intelligence and the Ethics Debate
Ethical Space Journal.
- Wilson, E.A. (2015). Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society.
- (2014). Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society.
- (2013). Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society.
- Best, J., Woodward, A. and Tyler, K. (2013). A Late Bronze Age Pottery Production Evidence from a 12th to 11th century Settlement at Tinney's Lane, Sherborne, Dorset.
- (2012). Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society.
- Gaber et al, (2010). Cutting edge analysis of the critical issues facing journalism today: An augmented podcasts series for Henry Stewart Talks.
Collaborations (academic) (2)
- of How to Hold Political-Intelligence-Elites Publicly to Account - Consultant project (Sep 2016 – Nov 2017)
Sponsored by ESRC
Other partners: Prof Vian Bakir, Bangor University, Wales UK
- of Advisor to The Centre for Investigative Journalism project (2003 – present)
Other partners: James Harkin
Collaborations (industrial) (25)
- Researcher of BBC Radio Wiltshire News interview on Sergie Skipral poisoning project (Mar 2018)
Other partners: Radio Wiltshire newsdesk
- of British Journalism Awards project (Nov – Dec 2017)
Sponsored by UK Press Gazette
- of Last Word BBC Radio 4. Interviewee on the life of Wing Commander Rex Sanders who flew Operation JuJitsu missions in the Cold War. project (Jun 2017 – present)
Sponsored by BBC Radio 4
Other partners: Julian Worricker
- of Jury Member Royal Television Society Journalism Awards project (Nov 2016 – present)
Sponsored by Royal Television Society
- of Thinking Allowed. Radio 4 Interviewed by Laurie Taylor on investigations into Blacklisting. project (Oct 2016 – present)
Sponsored by BBC Radio 4
Other partners: Laurie Taylor
- of Through the Night. Interviewed by Rhod Sharp on Mazher Mahmood conviction. project (Oct 2016 – present)
Sponsored by BBC Radio5 Live
Other partners: Rhod Sharp
- of Masterclass on Panama Papers project (Apr 2016 – present)
Sponsored by Radio Talk 702, South Africa
- of Interviewed on Journalism Leaks (Panama Papers) R5L project (Apr 2016 – present)
Sponsored by BBC Radio 5L Adrian Childs show.
Other partners: with Tom Holland and Ann Widdicombe.
- of Interviewed on ISIS arrests in Volvograd by RT project (Apr 2016)
Sponsored by RT
- of Interviewed on Journalism Leaks (Panama Papers) by BBC World Tonight project (Apr 2016 – present)
Sponsored by BBC R4 The World Tonight
- of Interviewed on Panama Papers by Radio New Zealand. One hour interview project (Apr 2016 – present)
Sponsored by Radio New Zealand.
- of Interviewed on Panama Papers by Sprit FM Chichester. project (Apr 2016 – present)
Sponsored by Sprit FM
- of Interviewed on Panama Papers by Juice FM project (Apr 2016 – present)
Sponsored by Juice FM
- of Brussels attacks: Why can't Europe close the gap in its intelligence sharing? project (Mar 2016 – present)
Sponsored by Christian Science Monitor.
Other partners: Elizabeth Braw
- of ITV Meridian interview on Hatton Garden robbery sentencing project (Mar 2016 – present)
Sponsored by ITV Meridian
- of Interviewed on Hatton Garden sentences project (Mar 2016 – present)
Sponsored by ITV/Meriden News.
- of Consultancy on London crime project (Feb 2016 – present)
Sponsored by New York Times
Other partners: New York Times London Correspondent
- of Blacklisting class action project (Feb 2016 – present)
Sponsored by O H Parsons
- of Protecting Sources and Whistleblowers in a Digital Age project (2016 – present)
Sponsored by NUJ and The Guardian
Other partners: The Institute for Advanced Legal Studies (Dr Judith Townend)
- of One Last Job: The Hatton Garden Robbery project (Oct 2015 – Oct 2016)
Sponsored by Daily Mirror
Other partners: Tom Pettifor and Nick Sommerlad
- of Interviewed on Panama Papers project (Apr 2015 – present)
Sponsored by RT
- of Steering committee member of the Wessex Media Group. project (2006 – 2008)
Sponsored by Bournemouth Universiity
Other partners: Wessex Media Group.
- of Four Lions - internationally released film project (Oct 2005 – Aug 2010)
Sponsored by Warp Films
Other partners: Chris Morris
- of (2001 – present)
Sponsored by Warner Brothers
Other partners: Jan Harlan
- Researcher of Flying the Flag, Arming the World project (Jun – Nov 1994)
Sponsored by ITV Network First
Other partners: John Pilger
- Logan Symposium: Conspiracy. (Conference) The Centre of Investigative Journalism, Goldsmiths College, London. (2018). Panel Member. Invited speaker.
Paper: Spies Like Us - The Return of the Espionage Act:
Description: Panel member on Spies Like Us - The Return of the Espionage Act: Logan Symposium: Conspiracy. The Centre of Investigative Journalism, Goldsmiths College, London. 19th-20th October 2018.
- Byline Festival. (Seminar) Ashford Forest (2017). Panel Member. Invited speaker.
Paper: Making the Press Honest?
- Open Rights Group seminar. (Seminar) Friends Meeting House, Brighton (2017). Panel Member. Invited speaker.
Paper: Proposals to revise the Official Secrets Act
- Sussex Surveillance Group Event. Dr Lina Dencik discusses results of Cardiff's Digital Citizenship and Surveillance Society project. (Seminar) University of Sussex, Humanities Lab (2016). Chair.
- One day-colloquium on 'Discourse: Multidisciplinary Perspective'. (Conference) University of Sussex (2016). Invited speaker.
Paper: Jeremy Corbyn according to the BBC: ideological representation and identity construction of the Labour Party leader
Author: Piazza, R
Co-authors: Lashmar, P
- Perspectives on UK Investigative Journalism. (Seminar) University of Westminster (2016). Invited speaker.
- Snooper’s Charter: GCHQ, Mass Surveillance and You seminar with Duncan Campbell and William Binney (ex-NSA Whistleblower). (Seminar) SHL, University of Sussex, Falmer, UK (2016). Chair.
- NCTJ Skills Conference Investigative Journalism Panel. (Seminar) (2015). Chair.
Paper: Local Investigative Journalism and the future
- TCIJ Summer School HSBC Panel. (Seminar) Goldsmiths College, London UK (2015). Chair. Invited speaker.
- Media Agenda setting on intelligence at DATA – PSST! Debating and Assessing Transparency Arrangements – Privacy, Security, Surveillance, Trust seminar. (Seminar) Brunel University, Uxbridge, UK (2015). Session/Day Chair.
- Lashmar P “From silence to primary definer: the rise of the intelligence lobby in the public sphere”, at the 'Understanding Conflict' conference at the University of Bath, 8-11 June 2015. (Conference) Bath (2015). Panel Member. Invited speaker.
Paper: From silence to primary definer: the rise of the intelligence lobby in the public sphere.
Author: Lashmar, P
- Format Photography Festival: Mugshots Seminar. (Seminar) The Quad, Derby, UK (2015). Panel Member. Invited speaker.
- International Studies Association annual conference. (Conference) New Orleans (2015). Panel Member.
Paper: Putting Lives in Danger? Tinker, Tailor, Journalist, Spy: the Use of Journalistic Cover”
Author: Lashmar, P
- 20 Years on from The State We Are In. (Seminar) Brunel University Council Chamber (2014). Chair. Invited speaker.
Paper: Discussion with Anthony Barnet
- "Never without Tension" - Intelligence Agencies and Media Relations. (Seminar) Reuters Institute of Journalism, .Oxford University,, Oxford. UK (2014). Invited speaker.
- International Studies Association annual conference. (Conference) Sheraton Hotel, Toronto, Canada . (2014). Panel Member.
Paper: Reflections in ‘a wilderness of mirrors’: Creating a framework for ethical relationships between intelligence agencies and the news media
Author: Lashmar, P
- MeCCSA Annual Conference. (Conference) Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, UK (2014). Panel Member.
Paper: The ‘Five Eyes’ are watching you: A new paradigm in the relationship between journalists and sources in age of meta-data
Author: Lashmar, P
- Future of Journalism Conference. (Conference) Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK (2011). Panel Member.
Paper: Who wants to be a journalist? Socio-economic imbalance in newsrooms and young people's career aspirations
Author: Lashmar, P
Co-authors: Niblock, S
- Is Wikileaks a one-off? Coventry Conversations. (Conference) Coventry University (2011). Panel Member. Invited speaker.
Paper: Has investigative journalism died off in Britain, apart from on the BBC and Channel 4? Can it be revived?
Author: Lashmar, P
- Moral Panics Conference. (Conference) Brunel University, Uxbridge, UK: (2010). Organising Committee.
Paper: Journalist, Folk Devil?
Author: Lashmar, P
- Centre for Investigative Journalism summer school. City University. (2009). Chair. Invited speaker.
Paper: Reporting the financial crisis
- Association for Journalism Education (AJE) annual conference. City University. (2009). Panel Member.
Paper: Virtual worlds in journalism education: Using video and audio in distance and blended learning
Author: Lashmar, P
- Journalism in Crisis Conference. (Conference) University of Westminster, London , UK (2009). Panel Member.
Paper: Investigative journalism: a case for intensive care?
Author: Lashmar, P
- Predicting the crash: Did the media fail in its scrutiny? (Seminar) Fronline Club, Paddington, London (2008). Panel Member. Invited speaker.
- End of Journalism? Conference,. (Conference) University of Bedfordshire, Luton Bedfordshire, UK (2008). Panel Member.
Paper: Subprime - the death of financial reporting or a failure of investigative journalism
Author: Lashmar, P
- Centre for Investigative Journalism summer school. (Conference) 18-20th July 2008 (2008). Panel Member.
Paper: The failure of journalism over the sub prime crisis.
Author: Lashmar, P
- 'Investigative Journalism goes Global' conference. (Conference) University of Westminster (2008). Panel Member.
Paper: Sourcing globally, reporting globally?
Author: Lashmar, P
- "In Conversation With Chris Morris". Bournemouth University (2007). Session/Day Chair. Invited speaker.
- TCIJ Summer School. (Seminar) The University of Westminster. (2003). Panel Member. Invited speaker.
Paper: The Police Customs and Organised Crime
Author: Lashmar, P
- “The Clandestine War in Asia, 1945-65”. (Conference) The School of Oriental and Asian Studies (SOAS) and Nottingham University. (1999). Panel Member. Invited speaker.
Paper: MI6 involvement in the overthrow of President Sukarno on Indonesia 1964-66”
Author: Lashmar, P
- Conference of International Television Documentary on Culture. (Conference) Taipei, Taiwan (1996). Panel Member. Invited speaker.
Paper: Spy Flights of the Cold War - New disclosures
Author: Lashmar, P
- The Korean War: An Assessment of the Historical Record conference. (Conference) Georgetown University, Washington DC. 24 and 25 July 1995 (1995). Panel Member. Invited speaker.
Paper: POWs, Soviet Intelligence and the MIA question
Author: Lashmar, P
Keynote lectures/speeches (9)
- Spies, Spin and the Fourth Estate. International Spy Museum, Potsdammer Plaz, Berlin (2019). Keynote to UK members of the International Intelligence History Association as part of the annual conference 9-12 May 20-19. Keynote based on forthcoming books that considers forty years of national security reporting.
- "Never without strain" - the relationship between spies and journalists. CMJ seminar at University of Sheffield. (2018). Wed 31st Oct 2018."Never without strain" - the relationship between spies and journalists. For the CMJ seminar at University of Sheffield.
- Digital transformation in the news media. Said Business School of Oxford University. (2018). To students from Zhejiang University
- Perspectives on UK Investigative Journalism. University of Westminster: (2017). China Media Centre: Lecture on for visiting Chinese Journalists and Editors.
- British Intelligence and Journalists. Royal United Services Institute (RUSI), Whitehall, London (2017). Study Group on Intelligence
- Perspectives on UK Investigative Journalism. Bratislava (2001). Lecture in aspects of investigative journalism to Slovakian journalists for the British Embassy in Bratislava organised by the British Association for Central and Eastern Europe
- Perspectives on UK organised Crime. BACEE London SW1 (2001). Speaker on “Organised Crime” for British Association for a Central and Eastern European week long seminar on investigative journalism for Romanian Journalists held in London.
- The Ethics of Investigative Journalism. Bournemouth University (2001). Speaker on for Ethics in Journalism conference
- Oversight of British Intelligence”. Institute of Commonwealth Studies, London SW1 (2000). Speaker for “Intelligence Agencies and Accountability Conference”, London. Commonwealth Policy Studies Unit, Institute of Commonwealth Studies.
Media appearances (8)
- How the 'woke wing' of Fleet Street took over the Society of Editors and threw its boss under the bu. Paul Lashmar quoted
- Times Radio on the Martin Bashir scandal. At 18.05 with Carole Walker on Drive Time
- Ethics of Journalism and Jeremy Kyle show. Contributed to discussion on Shelagh Fogarty programme on LBC discussing the canning of the Jeremy Kyle show on ITV 8 minutes. As expert of journalism ethics.
- Thinking Allowed BBC R4 Programme. Interviewed about the Mafia by Laurie Taylor for R4’s Thinking Allowed. I’m interviewed around 20 minutes in. Talking about the UK side of major crime and comparing to Italian Mafia and other organised crime groups.
- Last Word BBC Radio 4. Interviewee on the life of Wing Commander Rex Sanders who flew Operation JuJitsu missions in the Cold War.
- Through the Night. Radio5 Live:. Interviewed by Rhod Sharp on Mazher Mahmood conviction.
- Thinking Allowed. Radio 4. Interviewed by Laurie Taylor on investigations into Blacklisting.
- 'Secret Superpower Aircraft’ documentary (1 hr) transmitted by Forces TV. Interviewee on US Cold War airpower policy and operations for . 10.00pm Tuesday 22 November 2016
Online articles (47)
- The secret’s in: how technology is making public interest disclosures even harder. (2019). The Conversation A response to the firing of Defence Secretary Gavin Williamson
- Happy Birthday Hardy! The Thomas Hardy Victorian Fair is an exciting new event which has brought the whole town together to celebrate its most famous son in true Dorset fashion. (2019). Dorset Magazine I was originator of the concept and part of the organising team for the pilot Thomas Hardy Victorian Fair - part to engage a wider audience for Thomas Hardy in his home town and also engage in outreach to ;local schools. This article was to publicise the day.
- The path to hell…. an investigative journalist’s view of Leveson. (2017). Open Democracy
- Obituary of Gavin McFadyen. (2016). Three-D (Meccsa Journal)
- Snoopers’ Charter: why journalists (and the rest of us) should be afraid. (2016). The Conversation.
- Guardian interview finally brings an MI5 boss in from the cold – but why? (2016). The Conversation Lashmar P (2016) Guardian interview finally brings an MI5 boss in from the cold – but why? The Conversation, 3 Nov.
- REVEALED: The incredible story of how Hatton Garden mastermind Brian Reader became Britain's most prolific jewel raider. (2016). The Daily Mirror Interviewed and quoted fro this article by Tom Pettifor and Nick Sommerlad
- After Snowden, there is clear evidence of a paradigmatic shift in journalist-source relations. (2016). Journalism.co.uk. Lashmar, P. (2016) 7 June.
- Post-invasion Iraq: ‘Govt can’t overcome Shia-Sunni divide’. (2016). RT TV interview
- Investigatory Powers Bill. Interview. (2016). RT Lashmar, P. RT interview on Investigatory Powers Bill. 2 June 2016.
- Undigested Snowden. (2016). Open Democracy.
- From Panama to Sparta: A brief history of leaks by Paul Moss. (2016). BBC Online Interviewee for piece on leaks
- Panama Papers: remarkable global media operation holds rich and powerful to account,. (2016). The Conversation Lashmar P (2016) Panama Papers: remarkable global media operation holds rich and powerful to account, The Conversation. 3rd April.
- The Independent’s final edition summed up all that is powerful about newsprint. (2016). The Conversation Lashmar P (2016) The Independent’s final edition summed up all that is powerful about newsprint, The Conversation, March 26
- “The garden of British crime – how London’s jewellery district became a nursery for villains“. (2016). The Conversation Lashmar P and Hobbs D (2016) “The garden of British crime – how London’s jewellery district became a nursery for villains“, The Conversation. 9 March.
- “Hatton Garden ringleader Brian Reader also masterminded Lloyds Baker Street heist 45 years ago”. (2016). The Independent Lashmar P (2016) “Hatton Garden ringleader Brian Reader also masterminded Lloyds Baker Street heist 45 years ago”, The Independent. 15 Jan
- “Stranger than Strangelove: how the US planned for nuclear war in the 1950s”. (2015). The Conversation Lashmar P (2016) “Stranger than Strangelove: how the US planned for nuclear war in the 1950s”, The Conversation. 28 December.
- Prince Charles's efforts to control the media slammed by republicans. (2015). Independent Interviewee for Prince Charles has been demanding that broadcasters sign up to 15 pages of strict pre-conditions for interviews
- “Britain ramps up security to meet terror threat – but does more mean better?” (2015). The Conversation Lashmar P (2015) “Britain ramps up security to meet terror threat – but does more mean better?” The Conversation. 16 November.
- Who benefits when 'Panorama' sets out to criticise journalists? (2015). Independent Interviewed and quoted for this article by Ian Burrell.
The timing of Tuesday night's Panorama special, The VIP Paedophile Ring: What's the Truth?, was convenient indeed for the Prime Minister, coming hours ahead of his speech to the Conservative Party Conference in Manchester.
- The Media Column: The timing of last week’s ‘Panorama’ on child abuse worked well for the Conservatives. (2015). Independent The documentary pulled apart the Met's inquiry into historic claims of child sex abuse by Establishment figures
- “The rise of an intelligence lobby threatens the rights of lawyers, journalists – and all of us.” (2015). The Conversation Lashmar P (2015) “The rise of an intelligence lobby threatens the rights of lawyers, journalists – and all of us.” The Conversation. 27 January.
- Six journalists sue the British police over spying revelations;
Records reveal journalists were placed on a watchlist of 'domestic extremists'. (2014). Independent Interviewed and quoted in Zachary Davies Boren front page article
- UK police spied on reporters for years, docs show. (2014). Mail OnLine AP article quoting PL
- UK journalists sue police and Home Office for spying on them. (2014). Australaian Business Review Interviewed for article BY AP
- RUSSIAN SPIES RETURN TO EUROPE IN 'NEW COLD WAR'. (2014). Newseek article by Elisabeth Braw.
Interviewed and Quoted
- Ian Burrell: Investigative journalism is getting harder – but we need it more than ever. (2014). Independent PL interviewed and quoted
The media column: You can no longer protect your source like you used to
- Snowden will never be safe again. (2013). RT Interview for TV
- Indonesia's killers escape justice, but feature on the silver screen. (2012). Independent on Sunday PL quoted in article by Kim Sengupta. Death squads murdered half a million people. Now they star in a film about the Sixties reign of terror
- Tragedies of the Fourth Estate. (2012). Open Democracy Tragedies of the fourth estate
PAUL LASHMAR 20 November 2012
The recent crises must be understood in light of systemic pressures on the BBC's resources and the wider struggle to maintain healthy and well funded investigative journalism - an essential part of democratic accountability.
- Missiles next door: Rooftop London bases to protect Olympics. (2012). RT PL quoted in article. London residents were startled to discover that their housing complex was to be used as a military base to lodge a missile system. The UK Defense Ministry says it’s all part of an effort to counter a terror threat during the London Olympics.
- WikiLeaks, Anonymous and the ‘shadow CIA’. (2012). Channel 4 News online Interviewed for article on Stratfor
- The Future of Investigative Journalism: reasons to be cheerful. (2011). Open Democracy The general consensus is that investigative journalism is in decline. Yet the future looks hopeful, with the rise of journalism bureaus, the active involvement of the campaign sector, and a new generation of networked, web-savvy journalists pushing the field forward
- Key role in investigative journalism now played by NGOs. (2011). The Guardian by Roy Greenslade
Paul Lashmar, a former investigative journalist and now acting head of journalism at Brunel University, sees reasons to be cheerful about the state of investigative journalism in Britain.
He points to "the rise of journalism bureaus, the active involvement of the campaign sector, and a new generation of networked, web-savvy journalists pushing the field forward."
- Chechen terrorist claims responsibility for Domodedovo Airport bombing. (2011). RT Interviewed for TV and online
- Secrets of the story hunters: Are investigative journalists so high-minded? (2010). The Independent Interviewed by Ian Burrell
One of Britain's most experienced investigative journalists, Paul Lashmar, estimates that the number of serious operators in this highly specialised and often lonely discipline has fallen from around 150 during the Eighties to fewer than 90 today.
- Journalism in Crisis 09: 'Fifth estate' models could aid investigative journalism in the UK, says Paul Lashmar. (2009). Journalism.ac.uk by Judith Townend
Various options to address the current plight of investigative journalism are being discussed by the group of investigative journalists holding a series of private meetings in London, Paul Lashmar told the audience at the University of Westminster Journalism in Crisis event.
- Britain's FBI 'is a dismal failure'. (2008). The Independent Britain's answer to the FBI, the Serious Organised Crime Agency (Soca), has been branded a disaster by the law enforcement chief whose proposals in 2003 led to its creation.
- Mann ready to name names in exchange for early release. (2008). The Independent on Sunday Mann ready to name names in exchange for early release; Former SAS officer admits coup plot but his pact with lawyers rests on giving Equatorial Guinea hard evid...
Independent on Sunday
- The great class A drugs sale. (2008). The Independent on Sunday The great class A drugs sale - how prices have tumbled under Labour; 'Startling and shocking' figures alarm experts who say cities are awash with heroin and cocaine
- How to master the art of the two-way interview: part one. (2008). Press Gazette
- Victory to the traffickers Britain's drugs debâcle. (2007). The Independent on Sunday Heroin and cocaine prices on the street are at record lows as seizures plummet;
The Serious Organised Crime Agency was to be Tony Blair's FBI, and it took over as the lead agency in the battle against ever more sophisticated drug cartels last year. Unpublished figures demonstrate that - so far - it is losing. Paul Lashmar investigates
- UK's answer to FBI accused of spin in drug seizures claims. (2007). The Independent on Sunday
- Record £125m in assets recovered from criminals. (2007). The Guardian
- Wanted: The £200m crime lord. (2007). The Independent on Sunday He was 'suave and engaging', and made a fortune from white-collar crime. And now the record-breaking Mr Big seems to have escaped justice. Paul Lashmar reports
- Panic letter from jail tied big names to coup plot. (2004). Sydney Morning Herald By Jamie Wilson, David Pallister and Paul Lashmar
Languishing in solitary confinement in Zimbabwe's maximum security Chikurubi prison in March, Simon Mann was getting desperate. The former British SAS officer had been arrested at Harare airport two weeks earlier with a plane load of mercenaries after landing to pick up a consignment of AK-47 rifles, mortar bombs and 75,000 rounds of ammunition.
- HOW BRITAIN EAVESDROPPED ON DUBLIN. (1999). The Independent Duncan Campbell and Paul Lashmar on Echelon network
Production activity (2)
- Narrator for “Kind of Blue - Revisited”.
Exploring the best-selling jazz album of all time with the Frank Griffith Sextet.
Dorchester Arts at the Corn Exchange. 9 Sept 2016.
- Kind of Blue 27 May 2010 Bridport Arts Centre
A celebration of the classic Miles Davis album. In Part 1: Paul Lashmar tells the story of Kind of Blue with musical illustrations from the Frank Griffiths sextet. A jazz outreach project with Frank Griffith (Brunel University). First in series of Jazz Education. Sell out event.
Television programmes (35)
- Nick Ferrari Show. LBC Item on Corbyn, BBC and Class - interview
- Who Paid for Brexit? al-Jazeera English Presenter/Reporter for al-Jazeera International’s People and Power current affairs series programme Who Paid for Brexit? examining the irregularities, manipulation and non-UK interventions in the Brexit referendum. Broadcast the week from 12th December 2018 26 minutes
- Interviewee on US Cold War airpower policy and operations for 'Secret Superpower Aircraft’ documentary. Forces TV.
- "Britain’s Biggest Bank Job": Documentary on the 1971 Baker Street Robbery. Channel 5 Consultant and interviewee
- "Cold War, Hot Jets" BBC TV series. BBC TV Consultant and interviewee
- American and British spy flights during the Cold War Interview pt 1. Smart Monkey Paul Lashmar, Producer of BBC Timewatch programme Spies in the Sky on: the intelligence targets the spy flights were looking for; the Signals Intelligence spy flights that tracked Soviet defensive responses; why the Soviets found it difficult to shoot down the spy flights; how the British joined the spy flight programme; and the Soviet reaction to the spy flights. Part one
- Spies in the Sky and LeMay interview. Smart Monkey TV Paul Lashmar, Producer of BBC Timewatch programme Spies in the Sky on: the spy flight that a Soviet Mig managed to shoot; how the CIA came to run its own spy flight programme; the British U2 pilots; the current generation of spy aircraft; and Curtis Le May's belief in a preventative war. Part two
- "Supergrass" - BBC2 Drama Documentary. BBC2 Consultant and interviewee
- German TV documentary on spyflights: Playing with Fire – The Hot Sky in the Cold War. ARTE Consultant and interviewee: (Broadcast Summer of 2006) 52-minute version; Spring of 2007, MDR 45-minute version.
- "Thatcher and the Failed Coup" BBC3 documentary. BBC3 Originator and Associate Producer: A Touch Productions film for BBC3
- C5 series on Major Criminals. Channel5 Consultant: (Broadcast April 2005)
- "Underworld Rich List" BBC2 documentary series. BBC2 Consultant
- Kent and Canterbury smear test scandal. Channel 4 News Producer/Director – Channel 4 News Special on the anniversary of the Dispatches programme on the Kent and Canterbury cervical screening scandal (see below). Produced from the C4 News independent fund.
- INSPECTING THE INSPECTORS. Channel 4 Dispatches Producer – C4 Dispatches programme – investigation into the school’s inspection agency Ofsted and its controversial boss, Chris Woodhead.
- THE TEST – investigation into the scandal behind Britain’s biggest ever cervical smear rescreening. Channel 4 Dispatches Producer
- NHS Inquiry into cervical smear story. Channel 4 News Producer of Channel 4 News special report to coincide with NHS inquiry stemming from the original programme The Test (20 Oct 97).
- BAITING THE BEAR. BBC2 TV Timewatch programme 8 Oct 1996: Producer/originator – how the real life Dr Strangelove generals brought us close to Armageddon.
- RUSSIA’S SECRET WAR. BBC2 Timewatch mprogramme 21 Jan 1996: Producer/originator – on Stalin’s role in the Korean War.
- Death of a robber. BBC2’s Newsnight On screen reporter – a special Investigation into the shooting of unarmed man by police.
- The Torture Trail. Channel 4 Dispatches 11 Jan 95: Development Producer and consultant – For a one-hour special for Channel 4’s Dispatches. An undercover investigation into British companies who trade in weapons used in torture. Programme then passed to Martyn Gregory to complete
- "Tracking Down Maggie" Nick Bloomfield programme for C4. Channel 4 Consultant to Nick Broomfield for film investigating Margaret Thatcher.
- Rotting bones. BBC TV Newsnight On screen reporter on – Special Investigation into bone rotting disease that afflicts divers and tunnel workers.
- SPIES IN THE SKY. BBC2 TV Timewatch programme Producer/originator of investigation into allied spyplane operations during the Cold War for the BBC TV Timewatch series (and Arts & Entertainment Channel in the U.S.)
- Call 999. ITV Granada's World In Action series Reporter: An investigation into the slow response times of ambulances called to emergencies.
- Death in the Fast Lane. ITV Granada TV's World in Action series An expose on the number of people killed by speeding police vehicles - both high-speed chases and 999 calls. Reporter
- New Age Travellers. ITV Granada TV's Wolrd in Action series WIA followed a convoy of New Age Travellers as the journeyed across southern England for two weeks, documenting their confrontations with the police and local authorities.
- No Fixed Abode 3. ITV Granada TV's World in Action series Researcher. In this third and final part of series on homelessness we exposed unscrupulous landlords who had exploited the homeless, harassing tenants and milking the welfare benefits system. The programme pioneered the use of new concealed camera techniques.
- Old Money. ITV Granada TV's World in Action series Research. An investigation into sleazy mortgage brokers who had left 10,000 old age pensioners facing ruin. During the 80s boom many elderly couples were persuaded to re-mortgage their homes. Many faced repossession of their homes. WIA tracked down the culprits.
- Trawling for the Truth. ITV Granada TV's World in Action series Investigating why so many trawlermen had died in hit & run collisions in the English Channel. In particular by examining the case of the "Ocean Hound" we revealed the incompetence of the Government's maritime investigation branch. Reporter
- The Firm:. ITV Granada TV's World in Action series Reporter: An investigation into the Queen's tax status. It revealed secret deals that took the British Monarchy from taxpaying to a tax-free status in just 50 years. This programme created the debate over the Royal Family's finances
- Under the Curfew. ITV Granada TV's World in Action series Reporter: Undercover investigation into Palestinian support for Saddam Hussein and life in the West Bank under the Israeli imposed curfew during the Gulf War. Warned of the rise of Hamas, the Palestinian militant fundamentalists.
- In Bed with the Genera. ITV Granada TV's World In Action series Reporter: Investigation conducted in the US and Panama into General Noriega's links with the CIA over a 30 year period
- The Child Killers of Brazil:. ITV Granada TV's World in Action series Reporter: Tracking down and confronting the death squad killers who murdered street children in Rio and Recife.
- Send for the Sisters. ITV Granada TV's World in Action series Reporter: How British Football clubs discriminate against women both as players and spectators.
- A Question of Conviction:. ITV Granada TV's Researcher: Comparison of the cases of the newly released Guildford Four and then still jailed Birmingham Six.
- Western Journalists and China in 2008
Toured China in August 2007 with other UK experts organising seminars for Chinese journalists and information officers in Beijing, Guangzhou, Chongqing and Nanjing. The courses were a joint partnership between University of Westminster's China Media Centre and Tshinghau University and funded by the British Embassy in Beijing..