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  1. Ronald Douglas
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Contact Information

Contact

Visit Ronald Douglas

GG06, Gloucester Building

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Postal Address

City, University of London
Northampton Square
London
EC1V 0HB
United Kingdom

About

Background

Ron is a biologist specialising in the visual system who joined City University London in 1984. He was previously a Royal Society post-doctoral fellow at the University of Ulm (Germany) and a research assistant at the University of Sussex. Ron graduated with a BSc in Biological Sciences from the University of Sussex in 1977 and obtained a PhD on 'spectral sensitivity and visual adaptation in the rainbow trout' from the University of Stirling in 1980. This was followed by post-doctoral fellowships at the Universities of Ulm and Sussex, before joining City University London in 1984.

Qualifications

BSc, PhD

Languages: French, German

Employment

1984 - 1989 City University London, Lecturer, Department of Optometry & Visual Science
1989 - 1992 City University London' Senior Lecturer, Department of Optometry & Visual Science
1992 - 1999 City University London, Reader, Department of Optometry & Visual Science
1999 - present City University London, Professor, Department of Optometry & Visual Science

Awards

- City University Teaching prize (April 2003)
- Honorary Professor, University College London (April 2006 - May 2011
- August 2012 - July 2017).
- Colour Group of Great Britain Teaching Fellowship (September 2008 - September 2011).
- Student Voice Award nomination, City University 2009, 2011, 2013
- AOP lecturer of the year runner-up 2013
- Elected to Fellowship of the Linnean Society, London.

Administrative roles/Clinical activity

- Senate Ethics Committee (Chair)
- School of Health Sciences Ethics Committee (Deputy chair)
- University Senate
- Academic governance committee
- University Research Committee
- Editorial Board of Visual Neuroscience

Memberships of professional bodies

- Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom
- Fisheries Society of the British Isles
- Colour Group (Great Britain)
- Applied Vision Association

Research

Research overview

Ron's research covers 2 broad areas: Mammalian pupillometry and ocular adaptations in lower vertebrates.

Since 2001 he has used the pupil response of mice to monitor visual function in transgenic animals. Using this technique he has, in collaboration with colleagues in Oxford, Cardiff and Manchester, helped characterise a novel photoreceptor class in the mammalian retina, elucidated visual function in retinal mitochondrial disease and been involved with developing the use of retinal rod precursor cells to reverse retinal degeneration.

At school Ron's only talent was as a swimmer. By diverse routes this indirectly led to an interest in the way the eyes of various vertebrates, especially fish, have adapted to suit their environments. A particular interest has been the eyes of deep-sea animals living in the depths of the oceans, which has resulted in his participation in numerous research expeditions throughout the world's oceans. His interest cover; colour vision (especially in the ultraviolet), depth perception, circadian rhythms, lens pigmentation, visual pigments and ocular anatomy. Findings include; the use of chlorophyll to enhance longwave sensitivity in dragonfish, an eye that focuses light using a mirror, and a relationship between latitude and the reliance on circadian clocks.

Grants

- Antarctic Funding Initiative (grant no. CGS6/12) - Visual ecology of Antarctic Myctophid fish (2004)
- Royal Society - 'The visual pigments of members of the family Myctophidae' (2007)
- Nuffield Foundation  - The visual pigments of the African clawed toad, Xenopus laevis' (2010)
- Royal Society - Aspects of the visual systems of mesopelagic deep-sea fish (ocular structure, visual pigments and optics) and possible light sensitivity of their lateral lines (2010)

Research centres

- Applied Vision Research Centre

Principal collaborators

- Prof HJ Wagner (University of Tubingen)
- Prof NJ Marshall (University of Queensland)
- Prof JC Partridge (University of Bristol, University of Western Australia)
- Prof RG Foster, FRS, CBE (University of Oxford)
- Prof G. Jeffery (UCL)

Publications

  1. Baker, G.E., de Grip, W.J., Turton, M., Wagner, H.J., Foster, R.G. and Douglas, R.H. (2015). Light sensitivity in a vertebrate mechanoreceptor? The Journal of Experimental Biology, 218, pp. 2826–2829. doi:10.1242/jeb.125203.

Books (4)

  1. Douglas, R.H., Moan, J. and Ronto, G. (1991). Light in Biology and Medicine 2. Douglas, R.H. and Moan, J. (Eds.), Plenum Press.
  2. Valenzeno, D., Pottier, R., Mathis, P. and Douglas, R.H. (1991). Photobiological Techniques. Valenzeno, D., Pottier, R., Mathis, P. and Douglas, R.H. (Eds.), Plenum Press.
  3. Douglas, R.H. and Djamgoz, M.B.A. (1990). The Visual System of Fish. Douglas, R.H. and Djamgoz, M.B.A. (Eds.), Chapman and Hall.
  4. Douglas, R.H., Moan, J. and Dall'Acqua, (1988). Light in Biology and Medicine 1. Douglas, R.H., Moan, J. and Dall'Acqua, (Eds.), Plenum Press.

Chapters (16)

  1. Douglas, R.H. and Cronin, T.W. (2015). Visual matched filtering in vertebrates. The Ecology of Animal Senses: Matched Filters for Economical Sensing (pp. 169–204). ISBN 978-3-319-25492-0.
  2. Douglas, R.H. and Partridge, J.C. (2011). Visual adaptat ions to the deep sea. In Farrell, A.P. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Fish Physiology Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-374545-3.
  3. Douglas, R.H. and Partridge, J.C. (2011). Vision. Encyclopedia of Fish Physiology (pp. 166–182). ISBN 978-0-08-092323-9.
  4. Douglas, R.H. (2010). Vision: Vertebrates. In Breed, M.D. and Moore, J. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior Academic Pr. ISBN 978-0-08-045333-0.
  5. Lawrenson, J.G. and Douglas, R.H. (2008). The orbit and accessory visual apparatus. In Gray, H. and Hinkler Books Pty, L. (Eds.), Gray's Anatomy (pp. 665–674). ISBN 978-1-74182-706-4.
  6. Douglas, R.H. and Lawrenson, J.G. (2008). The eye. In Gray, H. and Hinkler Books Pty, L. (Eds.), Gray's Anatomy ISBN 978-1-74182-706-4.
  7. Douglas, R.H., Bowmaker, J.K. and Hunt, D.M. (2003). Spectral sensitivity tuning in the deep-sea. In Collin, S.P. (Ed.), Sensory Processing in the Aquatic Environment (pp. 323–342). Springer verlag.
  8. Douglas, R.H., Bowmaker, J.K. and Mullineaux, C.W. (2002). A possible retinal longwave detecting system in a myctophid fish without far-red bioluminescence; evidence for a sensory arms race in the deep-sea. In Stanley, P.E. and Kricka, L.J. (Eds.), Bioluminescence and chemiluminescence; progress and current applications (pp. 391–394). New Jersey: World Scientific.
  9. Douglas, R.H. (2001). Fish vision. In FRS, S.T. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of ocean sciences ISBN 978-0-12-227432-9.
  10. Douglas, R.H. (2001). The ecology of teleost visual pigments: a good example of sensory adaptation to the environment? In Barth, F.G. and Schmid, A. (Eds.), Ecology of sensing Springer Verlag. ISBN 978-3-540-66901-2.
  11. Douglas, R.H. and MarshaLL, N.J. (1999). A review of vertebrate and invertebrate ocular filters. In Archer, S.N., Djamgoz, M.B.A., Loew, E.R. and Partridge, J.C. (Eds.), Adaptive mechanisms in the ecology of vision Springer. ISBN 978-0-7923-5319-5.
  12. Wagner, H.J., Kirsch, M. and Douglas, R.H. (1992). Light dependent and endogenous circadian control of adaptation in teleost retinae. In Ali, M.A. and Division, N.A.T.O.S.A. (Eds.), Rhythms in fishes Springer. ISBN 978-0-306-44318-3.
  13. Douglas, R.H. (1991). The aquatic environment as a natural laboratory for vision research: fish as a model system. In Covacci, R., Djamgoz, M.B.A. and Vallerga, S. (Eds.), Aspects of marine biology with an amphasis on the Mediterranean IMC Publications.
  14. Douglas, R.H. (1991). Measurement of retinal function using the electroretinogram: effect of light/dark adaptation on frog spectral sensitivity. In Valenzeno, D., Pottier, R. and Mathis, P. (Eds.), Photobiological techniques Plenum Press.
  15. Douglas, R.H. and Hawryshyn, C.W. (1990). Behavioural studies of fish vision: an analysis of their capabilities. In Douglas, R.H. and Djamgoz, M. (Eds.), The Visual system of fish Chapman & Hall. ISBN 978-0-412-33050-6.
  16. Douglas, R.H., Bowmaker, J.K. and Kunz, Y.W. (1989). Ultraviolet vision in fish. In Kulikowski, J.J., Dickinson, C.M. and Murray, I.J. (Eds.), Seeing contour and colour Pergamon.

Conference Papers and Proceedings (15)

  1. Davies, J.R., Douglas, R.H., Davies, V.J. and Quantock, A. (2009). Pupillary and visual dysfunction in OPA3 p.L122P mutation mouse model. .
  2. Hasegawa, E., Toyama, M. and Douglas, R.H. (2008). Behavioural pattern and visual characteristics of myctophid fish. .
  3. Hasegawa, E.I., Uchikawa, K., Sawada, K., Toyama, M. and Douglas, R.H. (2008). Behavioural pattern and visual characteristics of myctophid fish. .
  4. Douglas, R.H., Bowmaker, J.K. and Mullineaux, C.W. (2002). A possible retinal longwave detecting system in a myctophid fish without far red bioluminescence; evidence for a sensory arms race in the deep-sea. .
  5. Behrens, U.D., Douglas, R.H., Sugden, D. and Wagner, H.J. (1998). The effect of melatonergic drugs in horizontal cell spinule dynamics. .
  6. Douglas, R.H. and Harper, R.D. (1997). The pupil response of a teleost fish, Porichthys notatus. .
  7. Douglas, R.H. and Thorpe, A. (1992). Short-wave absorbing compounds in the ocular lenses of fish. .
  8. Douglas, R.H. and Thorpe, A. (1992). Absorption of short-wave radiation by the vertebrate ocular media. .
  9. Thorpe, A. and Douglas, R.H. (1990). Thje effect of age on ultraviolet absorbing pigments in the fish lens. .
  10. Douglas, R.H., Then, E.M., Swainson, M. and Thorpe, A. (1990). Goldfish use visual angle to determine the distance of a food source from a familiar 'landmark'. .
  11. Kirsch, M., Wagner, H.J. and Douglas, R.H. (1988). Different cone types are functionally coupled during retinomotor responses to monochromatic light stimuli. .
  12. Douglas, R.H. (1986). Spectral sensitivity of a teleost fish, the roach. .
  13. Douglas, R.H., Collett, T.S. and Finch, D.J. (1984). Accommodation in anuran amphibia. .
  14. Douglas, R.H. and Wagner, H.J. (1982). Endogenous patterns of photomechanical movements in teleosts. .
  15. Wagner, H.J. and Douglas, R.H. (1982). Morphological changes in teleost primary and secondary retinal cells following brief exposure to light. .

Journal Articles (78)

  1. Douglas, R.H., Genner, M.J., Hudson, A.G., Partridge, J.C. and Wagner, H.-.J. (2016). Localisation and origin of the bacteriochlorophyll-derived photosensitizer in the retina of the deep-sea dragon fish Malacosteus niger. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 6 . doi:10.1038/srep39395.
  2. Simões, B.F., Sampaio, F.L., Douglas, R.H., Kodandaramaiah, U., Casewell, N.R., Harrison, R.A., Hart, N.S., Partridge, J.C., Hunt, D.M. and Gower, D.J. (2016). Visual Pigments, Ocular Filters and the Evolution of Snake Vision. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 33(10), pp. 2483–2495. doi:10.1093/molbev/msw148.
  3. Hogg, C., Neveu, M., Folkow, L., Stokkan, K.A., Kam, J.H., Douglas, R.H. and Jeffery, G. (2015). The eyes of the deep diving hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) enhance sensitivity to ultraviolet light. Biology Open, 4(7), pp. 812–818. doi:10.1242/bio.011304.
  4. Baker, G.E., de Grip, W.J., Turton, M., Wagner, H.J., Foster, R.G. and Douglas, R.H. (2015). Light sensitivity in a vertebrate mechanoreceptor? The Journal of Experimental Biology, 218, pp. 2826–2829. doi:10.1242/jeb.125203.
  5. Votruba, M., Davies, J.R., Douglas, R.H. and Davies, V.J. (2014). Visual dysfunction and pupillary responses are dissociated in the Opa3 mutant mouse with retinal degeneration. ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA, 92 . doi:10.1111/j.1755-3768.2014.1767.x.
  6. Partridge, J.C., Douglas, R.H., Marshall, N.J., Chung, W.S., Jordan, T.M. and Wagner, H.J. (2014). Reflecting optics in the diverticular eye of a deep-sea barreleye fish (Rhynchohyalus natalensis). Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 281(1782) . doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.3223.
  7. Cronin, T.W. and Douglas, R.H. (2014). Seeing and doing: How vision shapes animal behaviour. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 369(1636) . doi:10.1098/rstb.2013.0030.
  8. Douglas, R.H. and Jeffery, G. (2014). The spectral transmission of ocular media suggests ultraviolet sensitivity is widespread among mammals. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 281(1780) . doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.2995.
  9. Perganta, G., Barnard, A.R., Katti, C., Vachtsevanos, A., Douglas, R.H., MacLaren, R.E., Votruba, M. and Sekaran, S. (2013). Non-Image-Forming Light Driven Functions Are Preserved in a Mouse Model of Autosomal Dominant Optic Atrophy. PLoS One, 8(2) . doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056350.
  10. Hogg, C., Neveu, M., Stokkan, K.A., Folkow, L., Cottrill, P., Douglas, R., Hunt, D.M. and Jeffery, G. (2011). Arctic reindeer extend their visual range into the ultraviolet. Journal of Experimental Biology, 214(12), pp. 2014–2019. doi:10.1242/jeb.053553.
  11. Yammouni, R., Bozzano, A. and Douglas, R.H. (2011). A latitudinal cline in the efficacy of endogenous signals: evidence derived from retinal cone contraction in fish. J Exp Biol, 214(Pt 3), pp. 501–508. doi:10.1242/jeb.048538.
  12. Longbottom, R., Fruttiger, M., Douglas, R.H., Martinez-Barbera, J.P., Greenwood, J. and Moss, S.E. (2009). Genetic ablation of retinal pigment epithelial cells reveals the adaptive response of the epithelium and impact on photoreceptors. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 106(44), pp. 18728–18733. doi:10.1073/pnas.0902593106.
  13. Wagner, H.-.J., Douglas, R.H., Frank, T.M., Roberts, N.W. and Partridge, J.C. (2009). A Novel Vertebrate Eye Using Both Refractive and Reflective Optics. CURRENT BIOLOGY, 19(2), pp. 108–114. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.11.061.
  14. Turner, J., White, E.M., Collins, M., Partridge, J.C. and Douglas, R.H. (2009). Vision in lanternfish (Myctophidae): adaptations for viewing bioluminescence in the deep-sea. Deep-Sea Research. Part 1: Oceanographic Research Papers, 56(6) .
  15. Hasegawa, E.I., Sawada, K., Abe, K., Watanabe, K., Uchikawa, K., Okazaki, Y., Toyama, M. and Douglas, R.H. (2008). The visual pigments of a deep-sea myctophid fish Myctophum nitidulum Garman; an HPLC and spectroscopic description of a non-paired rhodopsin-porphyropsin system. JOURNAL OF FISH BIOLOGY, 72(4), pp. 937–945. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01772.x.
  16. Hasegawa, E., Uchikawa, K., Sawada, K., Toyama, M. and Douglas, R.H. (2007). Behavioural pattern and visual characteristics of myctophid fish. COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY B-BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, 148(3), pp. 346–346. doi:10.1016/j.cbpb.2007.07.048.
  17. Douglas, R. (2007). Professor William R.A. Muntz (1936-2005). VISUAL NEUROSCI, 24(3), pp. 237–238. doi:10.1017/S0952523807070344.
  18. Douglas, R. (2007). General Editorial - Fish vision. VISUAL NEUROSCIENCE, 24(3), pp. 231–231. doi:10.1017/S0952523807070332.
  19. MacLaren, R.E., Pearson, R.A., MacNeil, A., Douglas, R.H., Salt, T.E., Akimoto, M., Swaroop, A., Sowden, J.C. and Ali, R.R. (2006). Retinal repair by transplantation of photoreceptor precursors. NATURE, 444(7116), pp. 203–207. doi:10.1038/nature05161.
  20. Partridge, J.C., White, E.M. and Douglas, R.H. (2006). The effect of elevated hydrostatic pressure on the spectral absorption of deep-sea fish visual pigments. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 209(2), pp. 314–319. doi:10.1242/jeb.01984.
  21. Douglas, R.H. (2006). Visions of the deep; the eyes of deep-sea fish. Biological Sciences Review, 19(1), pp. 36–41.
  22. Douglas, R.H. (2005). Gordon L. Ruskell: optometrist, teacher and anatomist. Journal of anatomy, 206(3), pp. 209–215.
  23. Douglas, R.H., Williamson, R. and Wagner, H.-.J. (2005). The pupillary response of cephalopods. J Exp Biol, 208(Pt 2), pp. 261–265. doi:10.1242/jeb.01395.
  24. Barnard, A.R., Appleford, J.M., Sekaran, S., Chinthapalli, K., Jenkins, A., Seeliger, M., Biel, M., Humphries, P., Douglas, R.H., Wenzel, A., Foster, R.G., Hankins, M.W. and Lucas, R.J. (2004). Residual photosensitivity in mice lacking both rod opsin and cone photoreceptor cyclic nucleotide gated channel 3 alpha subunit. VISUAL NEUROSCIENCE, 21(5), pp. 675–683. doi:10.1017/S095252390404502X.
  25. Douglas, R. and Yousaf, Y. (2003). The eyes have it. NEW SCIENTIST, 180(2424), pp. 65–65.
  26. Douglas, R. (2003). Circadian biology: the physiology of inner retinal photoreceptors. Curr Biol, 13(17), pp. R667–R669.
  27. Hattar, S., Lucas, R.J., Mrosovsky, N., Thompson, S., Douglas, R.H., Hankins, M.W., Lem, J., Biel, M., Hofmann, F., Foster, R.G. and Yau, K.W. (2003). Melanopsin and rod-cone photoreceptive systems account for all major accessory visual functions in mice. NATURE, 424(6944), pp. 76–81. doi:10.1038/nature01761.
  28. Douglas, R.H., Collin, S.P. and Corrigan, J. (2002). The eyes of suckermouth armoured catfish (Loricariidae, subfamily Hypostomus): pupil response, lenticular longitudinal spherical aberration and retinal topography. J Exp Biol, 205(Pt 22), pp. 3425–3433.
  29. Barbur, J.L., Prescott, N.B., Douglas, R.H., Jarvis, J.R. and Wathes, C.M. (2002). A comparative study of stimulus-specific pupil responses in the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus) and the human. Vision Research, 42(2), pp. 249–255. doi:10.1016/S0042-6989(01)00279-6.
  30. Barbur, J.L., Prescott, N.B., Douglas, R.H., Jarvis, J.R. and Wathes, C.M. (2002). A comparative study of stimulus-specific pupil responses in the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus) and the human. Vision Res, 42(2), pp. 249–255.
  31. Lucas, R.J., Douglas, R.H. and Foster, R.G. (2001). Characterization of an ocular photopigment capable of driving pupillary constriction in mice. NATURE NEUROSCIENCE, 4(6), pp. 621–626. doi:10.1038/88443.
  32. Lucas, R.J., Douglas, R.H. and Foster, R.G. (2001). Spectral sensitivity of pupillary light reflexes in mice (C3H rd/rd cl) bearing lesions of both rod and cone photoreceptorsrd/rd cl. INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE, 42(4), pp. S766–S766.
  33. Lucas, R.J., Douglas, R.H. and Foster, R.G. (2000). Pupillary light reflexes in mice (C3H rd/rd cl/+) bearing lesions of both rod and cone photoreceptors. INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE, 41(4), pp. S27–S27.
  34. Behrens, U.D., Douglas, R.H., Sugden, D., Davies, D.J. and Wagner, H.J. (2000). Effect of melatonin agonists and antagonists on horizontal cell spinule formation and dopamine release in a fish retina. CELL AND TISSUE RESEARCH, 299(3), pp. 299–306.
  35. Douglas, R.H., Mullineaux, C.W. and Partridge, J.C. (2000). Longwave sensitivity in deep-sea stomiid dragon fish with far red bioluminescence; evidence for a dietary origin of the chlorophyll-derived photosensitizer of malacosteus niger. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London: Biological Sciences, 355, pp. 1269–1272.
  36. Douglas, R.H., Partridge, J.C., Dulai, K.S., Hunt, D.M., Mullineaux, C.W. and Hynninen, P.H. (1999). Enhanced retinal longwave sensitivity using a chlorophyll-derived photosensitiser in Malacosteus niger, a deep-sea dragon fish with far red bioluminescence. VISION RESEARCH, 39(17), pp. 2817–2832. doi:10.1016/S0042-6989(98)00332-0.
  37. Douglas, R.H., Partridge, J.C. and Marshall, N.J. (1998). The eyes of deep-sea fish I: Lens pigmentation, tapeta and visual pigments. PROGRESS IN RETINAL AND EYE RESEARCH, 17(4), pp. 597–636. doi:10.1016/S1350-9462(98)00002-0.
  38. Douglas, R.H., Harper, R.D. and Case, J.F. (1998). The pupil response of a teleost fish, Porichthys notatus: description and comparison to other species. VISION RESEARCH, 38(18), pp. 2697–2710. doi:10.1016/S0042-6989(98)00021-2.
  39. Douglas, R.H., Partridge, J.C., Dulai, K., Hunt, D., Mullineaux, C.W., Tauber, A.Y. and Hynninen, P.H. (1998). Dragon fish see using chlorophyll. NATURE, 393(6684), pp. 423–424. doi:10.1038/30871.
  40. Behrens, U.D., Douglas, R.H. and Wagner, H.J. (1997). Immunohistochemical localisation of the dopamine transporter in fish, rat and marmoset retinae. INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE, 38(4), pp. 221–221.
  41. Douglas, R.H. and Partridge, J.C. (1997). On the visual pigments of deep-sea fish. JOURNAL OF FISH BIOLOGY, 50(1), pp. 68–85.
  42. Douglas, R.H. (1996). Goldfish use the visual angle of a familiar landmark to locate a food source. JOURNAL OF FISH BIOLOGY, 49(3), pp. 532–536.
  43. Douglas, R.H., Partridge, J.C. and Hope, A.J. (1995). Visual and lenticular pigments in the eyes of demersal deep-sea fishes. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 177(1), pp. 111–122. doi:10.1007/BF00243403.
  44. PARTRIDGE, J.C. and DOUGLAS, R.H. (1995). FAR-RED SENSITIVITY OF DRAGON FISH. NATURE, 375(6526), pp. 21–22. doi:10.1038/375021a0.
  45. DOUGLAS, R.H. and PARTRIDGE, J.C. (1995). THE VISUAL PIGMENTS OF DEEP-SEA STOMIATOID FISH WITH FAR-RED BIOLUMINESCENCE. INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE, 36(4), pp. S513–S513.
  46. DOUGLAS, R.H. and THORPE, A. (1994). ABSORBENCY VS TRANSMISSION SPECTRA - SPECIES AND AGE - A RESPONSE. VISION RESEARCH, 34(19), pp. 2503–2504. doi:10.1016/0042-6989(94)90236-4.
  47. DOUGLAS, R.H. and PARTRIDGE, J.C. (1994). THE VISUAL PIGMENTS OF DEMERSAL DEEP-SEA FISH. INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE, 35(4), pp. 1710–1710.
  48. BEHRENS, U.D., DOUGLAS, R.H. and WAGNER, H.J. (1993). GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING-HORMONE, A NEUROPEPTIDE OF EFFERENT PROJECTIONS TO THE TELEOST RETINA INDUCES LIGHT-ADAPTIVE SPINULE FORMATION ON HORIZONTAL CELL DENDRITES IN DARK-ADAPTED PREPARATIONS KEPT IN-VITRO. NEUROSCIENCE LETTERS, 164(1-2), pp. 59–62. doi:10.1016/0304-3940(93)90857-H.
  49. DOUGLAS, R.H. and THORPE, A. (1993). A COMMON FRAMEWORK FOR THE EFFECT OF AGE ON SHORT-WAVE ABSORBING COMPOUNDS IN THE OCULAR LENSES OF FISH. INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE, 34(4), pp. 1256–1256.
  50. BEHRENS, U.D., WAGNER, H.J. and DOUGLAS, R.H. (1993). GNRH INDUCES SPINULE FORMATION ON HORIZONTAL CELLS IN DARK ADAPTED TELEOST RETINA. INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE, 34(4), pp. 1333–1333.
  51. THORPE, A., DOUGLAS, R.H. and TRUSCOTT, R.J.W. (1993). SPECTRAL TRANSMISSION AND SHORT-WAVE ABSORBING PIGMENTS IN THE FISH LENS .1. PHYLOGENETIC DISTRIBUTION AND IDENTITY. VISION RESEARCH, 33(3), pp. 289–300. doi:10.1016/0042-6989(93)90085-B.
  52. THORPE, A. and DOUGLAS, R.H. (1993). SPECTRAL TRANSMISSION AND SHORT-WAVE ABSORBING PIGMENTS IN THE FISH LENS .2. EFFECTS OF AGE. VISION RESEARCH, 33(3), pp. 301–307. doi:10.1016/0042-6989(93)90086-C.
  53. WAGNER, H.J., KATH, D., DOUGLAS, R.H. and KIRSCH, M. (1993). DARK-ADAPTIVE CONE ELONGATION IN THE BLUE ACARA RETINA IS TRIGGERED BY GREEN-SENSITIVE CONES. VISUAL NEUROSCIENCE, 10(3), pp. 523–527.
  54. THORPE, A., TRUSCOTT, R.J.W. and DOUGLAS, R.H. (1992). KYNURENINE IDENTIFIED AS THE SHORT-WAVE ABSORBING LENS PIGMENT IN THE DEEP-SEA FISH STYLEPHORUS-CHORDATUS. EXPERIMENTAL EYE RESEARCH, 55(1), pp. 53–57. doi:10.1016/0014-4835(92)90091-6.
  55. TRUSCOTT, R.J.W., CARVER, J.A., THORPE, A. and DOUGLAS, R.H. (1992). IDENTIFICATION OF 3-HYDROXYKYNURENINE AS THE LENS PIGMENT IN THE GOURAMI TRICHOGASTER-TRICHOPTERUS. EXPERIMENTAL EYE RESEARCH, 54(6), pp. 1015–1017. doi:10.1016/0014-4835(92)90167-Q.
  56. WAGNER, H.J., KATH, D., KIRSCH, M. and DOUGLAS, R.H. (1992). ACTION SPECTRUM OF DARK ADAPTIVE RETINOMOTOR MOVEMENTS IN THE BLUE ACARA POINTS TO CONTROL BY GREEN-SENSITIVE CONES. INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE, 33(4), pp. 939–939.
  57. DOUGLAS, R.H., THORPE, A. and TRUSCOTT, R.J.W. (1992). SHORT-WAVE ABSORBING COMPOUNDS IN THE OCULAR LENSES OF FISH. INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE, 33(4), pp. 1168–1168.
  58. DOUGLAS, R.H. and THORPE, A. (1992). SHORT-WAVE ABSORBING PIGMENTS IN THE OCULAR LENSES OF DEEP-SEA TELEOSTS. JOURNAL OF THE MARINE BIOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION OF THE UNITED KINGDOM, 72(1), pp. 93–112.
  59. Douglas, R.H., Zaunreiter, M. and Behrens, U.D. (1992). The effect of dopamine depletion on light-evoked and circadian retinomotor movements in the teleost retina. Visual Neuroscience, 9(3-4), pp. 335–343. doi:10.1017/S0952523800010749.
  60. WAGNER, H.J., BEHRENS, U.D., ZAUNREITER, M. and DOUGLAS, R.H. (1992). THE CIRCADIAN COMPONENT OF SPINULE DYNAMICS IN TELEOST RETINAL HORIZONTAL CELLS IS DEPENDENT ON THE DOPAMINERGIC SYSTEM. VISUAL NEUROSCIENCE, 9(3-4), pp. 345–351.
  61. WAGNER, H.J., ZAUNREITER, M., BEHRENS, U.D. and DOUGLAS, R.H. (1991). CONTROL OF SPINULE FORMATION IN TELEOST HORIZONTAL CELLS - ENDOGENOUS CIRCADIAN FACTORS AND DOPAMINE EFFECTS. INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE, 32(4), pp. 1131–1131.
  62. DOUGLAS, R., WAGNER, J. and ZAUNREITER, M. (1991). DOPAMINE IS NOT REQUIRED FOR LIGHT-INDUCED OR ENDOGENOUS PHOTOMECHANICAL MOVEMENTS IN TELEOST FISH. INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE, 32(4), pp. 1261–1261.
  63. Bowmaker, J.K., Thorpe, A. and Douglas, R.H. (1991). Ultraviolet-sensitive cnes in the goldfish. Vision Research, 31(3), pp. 349–352.
  64. DOUGLAS, R.H. and DJAMGOZ, M.B.A. (1990). RETINAL DOPAMINE. JOURNAL OF PHOTOCHEMISTRY AND PHOTOBIOLOGY B-BIOLOGY, 4(4), pp. 425–429. doi:10.1016/1011-1344(90)85021-N.
  65. Douglas, R.H. (1989). The spectral transmission of the lens and cornea of the brown trout (Salmo trutta) and goldfish (Carassius auratus)-Effect of age and implications for ultraviolet vision. Vision Research, 29(7), pp. 861–869. doi:10.1016/0042-6989(89)90097-7.
  66. Douglas, R.H. and McGuigan, C.M. (1989). The spectral transmission of freshwater teleost ocular media-An interspecific comparison and a guide to potential ultraviolet sensitivity. Vision Research, 29(7), pp. 871–879. doi:10.1016/0042-6989(89)90098-9.
  67. KIRSCH, M., WAGNER, H.J. and DOUGLAS, R.H. (1989). RODS TRIGGER LIGHT ADAPTIVE RETINOMOTOR MOVEMENTS IN ALL SPECTRAL CONE TYPES OF A TELEOST FISH. VISION RESEARCH, 29(4), pp. 389–&. doi:10.1016/0042-6989(89)90003-5.
  68. Douglas, R.H., Eva, J. and Guttridge, N. (1988). Size constancy in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Behavioural Brain Research, 30(1), pp. 37–42. doi:10.1016/0166-4328(88)90006-X.
  69. DOUGLAS, R.H. (1987). OCULAR LENS DIAMETER AS AN INDICATOR OF AGE IN BROWN TROUT, SALMO-TRUTTA. JOURNAL OF FISH BIOLOGY, 31(6), pp. 835–836. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1987.tb05282.x.
  70. DOUGLAS, R.H. (1986). PHOTOPIC SPECTRAL SENSITIVITY OF A TELEOST FISH, THE ROACH (RUTILUS-RUTILUS), WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS ULTRAVIOLET SENSITIVITY. JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY A-SENSORY NEURAL AND BEHAVIORAL PHYSIOLOGY, 159(3), pp. 415–421. doi:10.1007/BF00603986.
  71. Douglas, R.H., Collett, T.S. and Wagner, H.J. (1986). Accommodation in anuran amphibia and its role in depth perception. Journal of Comparative Physiology A: sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology, 158, pp. 133–143.
  72. Douglas, R. and Wagner, H.J. (1984). Action spectrum of photomechanical cone contraction in the catfish retina. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 25(5), pp. 534–538.
  73. Douglas, R.H. (1983). Spectral sensitivity of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Revue Canadienne Biologie, 42(2), pp. 117–122.
  74. Wagner, H.-.J. and Douglas, R.H. (1983). Morphological light adaptation following brief light exposure. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 24(1), pp. 24–29.
  75. Douglas, R.H. and Wagner, H.J. (1983). Endogenous control of spinule formation in horizontal cells of the teleost retina. Cell and Tissue Research, 229, pp. 443–449.
  76. Douglas, R.H. (1982). An endogenous crepuscular rhythm of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) photomechanical movements. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 96, pp. 377–388.
  77. Douglas, R.H. (1982). The function of photomechanical movements in the retina of the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). The Journal of Experimental Biology, 96, pp. 389–403.
  78. Douglas, R.H. and Wagner, H.J. (1982). Endogenmous patterns of photomechanical movements in teleosts and their relation to activity rhythms. Cell and Tissue Research, 226, pp. 133–144.

Practitioners (7)

  1. (2015). The eye: organ of space and time. Optician, pp. 24–30
  2. (2009). Systematic diseases of old age. Optometry Today, pp. 28–36
  3. (2002). Acoustic neuroma and its ocular implications. Optmetry Today, pp. 29–33
  4. (1999). The ocular effects of drugs for parkinsonism. Optician, pp. 22–25
  5. (1995). The retina; part 1. Optician, pp. 20–25
  6. (1995). The retina; part 2. Optician, pp. 22–27
  7. (1994). Melanin lenses. Optician, pp. 12–13

Scholarly Editions (2)

  1. Douglas, R.H. and Cronin, T.W. (2014). Seeing and doing: how vision shapes animal behaviour.
  2. Douglas, R.H. (2007). Vision in fish.

Other

  1. Douglas, R. (2010). Off-centre.

Education

Undergradate Modules:

- OV1011/OV1109/OV2208 Biological Sciences (module leader)
- OV2017 General pathology & eye disease
- OV2020 Visual Science
- SL1002 Biomedical Sciences

Postraduate Modules:

- OVM012 Vision in the Aged (module leader)
- SLM002 Biomedical Sciences

Other Activities

Editorial Activities (4)

  1. Editorial Board of Visual Neuroscience (2003-2015).
  2. Guest editor of special issue of Visual Neuroscience on the Fish Visual System in 2006.
  3. Guest editor (with TW Cronin) for Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B for a volume entitled 'Seeing and doing; how vision shapes animal behaviour' in 2013.
  4. Editorial board of Scientific Reports since 2014.

Events/Conferences (21)

  1. Ashcroft school, Luton. (2015).
  2. Roundwood Park school, Harpenden. (2015).
  3. University of Bristol. Bristol (2014).
  4. University of Salford. Salford (2014).
  5. The Sussex Eye Hospital. Brighton (2014).
  6. Barclay School. Stevenage (2014).
  7. Da Vinci School. Stevenage (2014).
  8. 12th International AIC congress. Gateshead (2013).
  9. Royal Veterinary College. Potters Bar (2013).
  10. Saffron Walden County High School. Saffron Walden (2013).
  11. Roundwood Pasrk School. Harpenden (2013).
  12. Southern Ophthalmological Society. London (2013).
  13. Haberdasher's Aske's School for Boys. Elstree (2013).
  14. Herts & Essex School for Girl. Bishop's Stortford (2013).
  15. Bushey Mead's School. Bushey (2013).
  16. Leventhorpe School. Sawbridgeworth (2013).
  17. Barnwell School. Stevenage (2013).
  18. Bristol Zoo Gardens. (2012).
  19. UCL Bowmaker meeting. (2011).
  20. Rank Prize Fund meeting. Grassmere (2011).
  21. University of Lund. (2010).

Radio Programmes (21)

  1. . ORF (Austrian Radio)
  2. . BBC WM (Birmingham)
  3. Quirks & Quarks. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
  4. The Material World. BBC Radio 4
  5. The Naked Scientist. BBC Radio Cambridgeshire
  6. Science in Action. BBC World Service
  7. Science in Action. BBC World Service
  8. . BBC Radio Pembrokeshire
  9. . BBC Radio Shropshire
  10. The Naked Scientist. BBC Radio Cambridgeshire
  11. Life in the Trenches. BBC Radio 4
  12. The Naked Scientist. BBC Radio Cambridgeshire
  13. The Naked Scientist. BBC Radio Cambridgeshire
  14. Questions, Questions. BBC Radio 4
  15. Questions, Questions. BBC Radio 4
  16. Nature.
  17. Eye of nature, 3 programmes. BBC Radio 4
  18. . BBC World Service
  19. Natural History Programme. BBC radio 4
  20. SO4. BBC Radio 4
  21. . BBC World Service

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City, University of London is an independent member institution of the University of London. Established by Royal Charter in 1836, the University of London consists of 18 independent member institutions with outstanding global reputations and several prestigious central academic bodies and activities.