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  1. Research ethics
  2. Help and guidance
    1. Security Sensitive Research
    2. Online surveys
    3. Research conducted outside of the UK
    4. Research records

Help and guidance

Essential resources for researchers preparing a research ethics application can be found below.

Application Guidance

Payment to research participants

If people taking part in your research are to be offered any payment or incentive to do so over and above appropriate expenses, you must explain this in your application. Any form of payment or incentive to take part will need to be clearly explained in the participant information sheet.

Note that payments to participant should be prorated and not be contingent upon completion of the study by the participants. Any payment or incentive should not be linked to the risk involved in the research; however, it could be linked to the discomfort or burden of participating.

Research involving viewing obscene materials via the internet

City has a series of conditions and policies on the usage of all computers and networks including office based and stand-alone systems.

It should be noted that these conditions form part of City’s conditions of employment and student regulations; breach of these regulations, particularly in relation to Data Protection and obscenity, may lead to disciplinary action. The more serious breaches may be considered under gross misconduct. All users should be aware that by registering with IT Services you have agreed to abide by IT Services’ "conditions of use" and the JANET "acceptable use policy". These conditions should be reviewed by users from time to time.

City recognises that staff and students may conduct research which involves the use of websites containing obscene materials. If you are intending to undertake such a project, you will need to submit an registration form on Research Ethics Online by selecting 'Start a new research ethics application or register a project'.

If your research involves recruiting participants online, engaging in conversations in online chatrooms or using other methods of online communication, or content analysis, for instance using posts from forums or other types of social media, approval must be sought through and you must answer 'Yes' to the question 'Does the project involve human participnats' on Research Ethics Online.

Using transcription services

If you are planning to use a transcription service to transcribe your data, , you should include information about the intention to use a transcription service in your application and details about data protection clauses in the contract City has with them.

These must describe the measures the service has in place to protect the confidentiality and security of the research data both in transit and whilst held by them, providing clear instructions about the return and/or destruction of the research data once it has been transcribed and declaration from the transcribing service that the research data will not be used for any other purpose, and, that they will comply with General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)/data protection legislation; please include copies of the contract with your application.

If you have any GDPR/data protection queries, please contact the Information Compliance Team at or ring 0207 040 4000.

In the participant information sheet you need to include information about the use of a transcription service and that a contract is in place which includes data protection clauses.

For further information about transcription services, please contact your local research ethics committee.

Verbal consent

Research where consent is not possible

City requires that written or verbally-recorded (oral) consent should be obtained wherever possible. However, it is recognised that there are some rare instances when it will not be possible or appropriate to ask for consent.

This may include, for instance, research into illegal/criminal activities, corruption, conflict research, victims groups, or research taking place in non-western jurisdictions where insisting on written consent would adversely affect the relationship with the potential participant and even prevent them from participating in the research.

In such instances the applicant should clearly justify and address this in the application to the  senate research ethics committee. A decision can then be made as to whether it is appropriate, in the context of the research and the population, not to ask for written or to verbally-record consent and for the Information Compliance Team to conduct a privacy impact assessment (PIA) and report back to the Senate Research Ethics Committee on compliance with GDPR.

Note that if ethical approval for unconsented research has not been given by a Research Ethical Committee, for instance because the population being recruited was not thought to be averse to signing a consent form, the potential participant should not be included in the study.

What is verbal (oral) consent?

An oral consent process is where researcher and participant have a conversation to give information and obtain consent.  There is no paper form to sign, but a record of verabal consent should be kept by the researcher. (See also section above Research where consent is not possible)

  • Where literacy is a problem;
  • Where there are cultural or political concerns with signing contract-like documents;
  • Where either the researcher and/or the participant could be put at risk by existence of a paper record;
  • With elite participants such as prominent public figures;
  • Where time for consent is limited.

Verbal (oral) scripts and record of verbal (oral) consent

The Information Commissioner’s Office’s (ICO) guidance on consent confirms that answering yes to a clear oral consent request is an unambiguous indication of consent by affirmative action.

However, there is also a requirement that organisations must be able to demonstrate that an individual has consented to the processing of their personal data.

Risk and Insurance

Risk assessments

It is a requirement that at least an initial assessment of risk be undertaken for all research and if necessary a more detailed risk assessment be carried out. Please contact the Health & Safety Office ( for advice on risk assessments and/or how to complete it.


Ethical approval MUST be obtained before any research involving human participants is undertaken. Failure to do so may result in disciplinary procedures being instigated, and you will not be covered by City’s indemnity if you do not have approval in place. It may also result in the degree not being awarded or the data not being published in a peer review journal.

If your research involves any of the following:

  • Children under the age of 5 years;
  • Clinical trials / intervention testing;
  • Over 500 participants (including online surveys);
  • Specifically recruiting pregnant women or women in labour; and/or
  • Excluding information collected via questionnaires (either paper based or online), any part of the research is taking place outside the UK

your application will automatically be directed to the Insurance Team when you submit it on Research Ethics Online.

General Guidance

International compilation of human research standards

The Office for Human Research Protections collates a list annually with listing of over 1,000 laws, regulations, and guidelines on human subjects protections in over 100 countries and from several international organisations; a list is available here.

Lone working procedure

When organising meetings and interviews both on and off site, think about your personal safety. Try to conduct these in public places and within office hours as much as possible. If interviewing offsite, go to interviews in pairs, if possible. If not then it becomes essential that you consider personal safety.

If your research will take place at a time or in a place that could potentially put you at risk (e.g. research taking place in a participant's home) you will need to provide information to the research ethics committee reviewing your study about what steps you are taking to ensure your personal safety. It is recommended that you review the institutional lone working procedure and follow the outlined procedure.

Opt out / opt in consent

Opt-in consent is City’s preferred approach. Opt-out is problematic where no response is assumed as opt-out as this approach does not reflect a conscious decision by those invited to accept or decline an invitation to participate in research. Requests for opt-out consent will only be considered in exceptional cases and a full explanation should be provided.

Opt-out consent will not be approved if consent is the lawful basis for processing personal data/special category data under GDPR.  

Please contact the Information Compliance Team at before you submit your research ethics application if you propose to use opt out consent, so they can work with you to consider the lawful basis for processing that is appropriate for your research and advise on additional safeguards that protects the rights of the research participants. This is particularly important for any research with children including research conducted in schools and vulnerable adults.

Safeguarding and Disclosure and Barring checks

Staff and students undertaking research that involves children or vulnerable adults need to ensure they comply with City’s Safeguarding policy as well as the relevant legislation. They are also required to obtain a Disclosure and Barring (DBS) enhanced disclosure check. Further guidance on DBS checks is available from Human Resources who will undertake checks for staff.

Further Guidance on research involving vulnerable groups: