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Portrait of Carolina Are

Postal address

City, University of London
Northampton Square
United Kingdom



I'm a PhD student focusing on online abuse, conspiracy theories, disinformation, algorithm bias and online subcultures. I have a six-year experience in PR and social media management and teach in the criminology and journalism fields.


  1. Introductory Certificate In Teaching In Higher Education, City, University of London, UK, Jun 2018
  2. MA Criminology, University of Sydney, Australia, Jul 2016 – Jun 2017
  3. BA Journalism, City, University of London, UK, Sep 2011 – Jul 2014


  1. Visiting Lecturer, London College of Communications, Mar 2019 – present
  2. Visiting Lecturer, City, University of London, Sep 2018 – present
  3. Visiting Lecturer, City, University of London, Jan 2018 – present
  4. Account Director, The Atticism PR, Oct 2016 – Jun 2017
  5. Social Media Strategist, The Defectors, Jun – Oct 2016
  6. Account Executive, Manifest London, Jan 2015 – Apr 2016
  7. Social Media Assistant, Futureboard Consulting, Nov 2013 – Jun 2014


  1. Undergraduate Awards (2015) Undergraduate Award for Media and Journalism


English (can read, write, speak, understand spoken and peer review) and Italian (can read, write, speak, understand spoken and peer review).


Geographic Areas

  • Europe


  1. Are, C. (2019). Fire WERK With Me. In Volpert, M. and Kempt, H. (Eds.), Rupaul's Drag Race and Philosophy Sissy That Thought Popular Culture and Philosophy. ISBN 978-0-8126-9478-9.
  2. Are, C. (2020). How Instagram’s algorithm is censoring women and vulnerable users but helping online abusers. Feminist Media Studies, 20(5), pp. 741–744. doi:10.1080/14680777.2020.1783805.
  3. Are, C. (2020). A corpo-civic space: A notion To address social media’s corporate/civic hybridity. First Monday. doi:10.5210/fm.v25i6.10603.
  4. Are, C. (2019). Patterns of media coverage repeated in online abuse on high-profile criminal cases. Journalism pp. 146488491988127–146488491988127. doi:10.1177/1464884919881274.


  1. Are, and Are, C. (2019). How do social media facilitate the spreading of conspiracy theories and fake news? A case study of flaming and #McCann. In Leprêtre, L. and Durin, E. (Eds.), Innovative educational and media practices for an inclusive and participatory Europe (pp. 12–24). Brussels: Les Editions De L'IHECS.

Internet publication

  1. Are, C. (2019). Indicators of Online Hate Speech and Why it Should be Regulated.

Journal articles (2)

  1. Are, C. (2020). A “Chosen” Hope with a “Gingerbread” Outcome: Democratization of (Media) Power in Buffy The Vampire Slayer as a Metaphor of Online Abuse on High-Profile Criminal Cases. Slayage, 18.2(Summer/Fall), pp. 1–33.
  2. Are, C. (2019). Book review: John Mair, Tor Clark, Neil Fowler, Raymond Snoddy and Richard Tait (eds) Anti-social media? The impact on journalism and society. Journalism, 20(4), pp. 633–634. doi:10.1177/1464884919828859.

Professional activities

Events/conferences (10)

  1. Algorithms For Her. (Conference) King's College London (2020). Panel Member. Invited speaker.
    Paper: Alg-whore-ithms: How Instagram's algorithm is censoring women and vulnerable users but helping the alt-right after anti-sex trafficking US laws
    Author: Carolina Are
    Description: Half an academic's recommendations to prevent algorithm bias, half a campaigner's experience with censorship, Alg-whore-ithms is about Instagram's fear of sex after FOSTA/SESTA.
  2. International Criminology Conference 2018. Washington DC (2019). Invited speaker.
    Paper: The Politics and Ethics of Social Media Trolling Research: Challenges and New Frameworks
    Author: Carolina Are
  3. Eurocrim 2019. (Conference) (2019). Invited speaker.
    Paper: When Online Abuse and Conspiracy Theories Collide
    Author: Carolina Are
  4. Gikii 2019. (Conference) Queen Mary University, London (2019). Invited speaker.
    Paper: The Law of Meta-Shade in Crossover Facebook Group Fire WERK With Me
    Author: Carolina Are
  5. Digital Innovation and Mental Health. (Conference) London (2019). Panel Member. Invited speaker.
    Paper: Indicators of Online Abuse on High Profile Criminal Cases
    Author: Carolina Are
  6. RIPE 78. Reykjavik (2019). Invited speaker.
    Paper: Indicators of Online Hate Speech and Why It Should Be Regulated
    Author: Carolina Are
  7. Engage Europe's INsPIrE Academic Conference. (Conference) Brussels (2018). Invited speaker.
    Paper: How do social media facilitate the spreading of conspiracy theories and fake news? A case study of flaming and #McCann
    Author: Carolina Are
  8. Data Natives 2018. City, University of London (2018). Invited speaker.
    Paper: Online Abuse
    Author: Carolina Are
  9. International Journalism Festival. (Conference) Perugia (2015). Panel Member. Invited speaker.
    Paper: #WeRunThis: Millennial Media
    Author: Carolina Are
    Co-authors: Costanza Maio; Chiara Peccini; Giorgia Poperhem; Francesca Prandelli
  10. ECREA. (Conference) Lisbon (2014). Invited speaker.
    Paper: How did the UK's most followed journalists use Twitter to comment on Margaret Thatcher's death?
    Author: Carolina Are

Keynote lecture/speech

  1. Designing Feminist Chatbots to Tackle Online Abuse. University of the Arts London's Creative Computing Institute (2020). Joined Feminist Internet and UAL's CCI to present my research in order to help the students in the intensive create feminist chatbots to tackle online abuse.

Online articles (6)

  1. RuPaul’s Drag Race is inventing a whole new internet subculture and language. (2019). The Conversation
  2. How “RuPaul’s Drag Race” changed the way we speak. (2019). Quartz
  3. Has RuPaul’s Drag Race’s toxic fandom gone too far? (2019). SLEEK Magazine
  4. Research intelligence: how to promote your work online. (2019). Times Higher Education
  5. How no-show students could be killing the university lecture. (2019). The i Paper
  6. The Rise Of NoFap: Why Young Men Are Quitting Masturbation. (2019). The Huffington Post UK