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portrait of Dr Steven Truxal

Dr Steven Truxal

Senior Lecturer, Programme Director, LLM International Business Law (distance learning)

The City Law School, Academic Programmes

Contact Information


Visit Steven Truxal

G310, Gloucester Building

Postal Address

City, University of London
Northampton Square
United Kingdom



Steven joined The City Law School in 2012 and teaches Commercial Law and Contract Law. He was previously Dean of Studies and Visiting Professor of English Law at the Centre for British Studies, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (Germany). He has also been invited to deliver lectures at other institutions abroad such as Universität Mannheim (Germany), La Universidad de Deusto, Bilbao (Spain) and De Hanzehogeschool Groningen (the Netherlands). Steven has lectured in England at Kingston University, University of Westminster and University of Surrey. In addition to being a Fellow of the Higher Education Authority, Steven serves as external examiner and has sat as subject expert on validation panels.

Before he came to read law in England, Steven studied for the B.A. at the Elliott School of International Affairs, The George Washington University in Washington, DC (USA) with International Law and Economics as concentrations. Steven completed an LL.M. in International Commercial Law and Ph.D. in Aviation Law at the University of Westminster.


Danish (can read, write, speak and understand spoken), French (can read, write, speak and understand spoken) and German (can read, write, speak, understand spoken and peer review).


Steven's principal areas of research are Commercial Law and Competition Law. His specialist research focuses on the issues surrounding competition and environmental regulation of air transport. Steven is particularly interested in how 'regulation' and multilevel decision-making impacts on and implicates airlines, air cargo carriers and firms in industries complementary to air transport.

PhD supervision

As a PhD supervisor, Steven welcomes approaches from prospective PhD students in areas related to aviation, transport law and international commercial law.

Research Students

Aniekan Akpan

Thesis title: Maritime Cabotage Law: Its Ramifications in World Trade and Services

Chiara Berneri

Thesis title: The Issue of Family Reunification between EU citizens and Third Country Nationals

Petya Ilieva

Thesis title: The Judicialization of International Commercial Arbitration Through the Lens of a Uniform Sales Law

Shahnaz Sulaiman

Thesis title: The Regulatory Structure of General Aviation


  1. Truxal, S. (2012). Competition and Regulation in the Airline Industry. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-67196-5.


  1. Truxal, S. (2016). Economic and environmental regulation of international aviation: From inter-national to global governance. ISBN 978-1-317-55068-6.

Chapters (2)

  1. Truxal, S. and Dunbar, R. (2012). Evaluating Three Levels of Environmental Taxation in Aviation: Global Limitation, EU Determination and UK Self-interest. Market instruments and sustainable economy (pp. 275–289). Madrid, Spain: Instituto de Estudios Fiscales (IEF). ISBN 978-84-8008-356-0.
  2. Truxal, S. Mergers, acquisitions and ‘fair’ competition in the airline industry. In Dynia, E. and Marcisz-Dynia, A. (Eds.), Prawne i techniczne aspekty wykorzystania przestrzeni powietrznej i kosmiczne (Legal and technical aspects of the use of air space and cosmic space) Rzeszow, Poland: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytet Rzeszowski. ISBN 978-83-7996-533-5.

Journal articles (9)

  1. Truxal, S. (2017). Air carrier liability and air passenger rights: a game of tug of war? Journal of International and Comparative Law, 4(1), pp. 103–122.
  2. Truxal, S. (2014). Consumer protections and limited liability: Global order for air transport? Journal of International and Comparative Law, 1(1), pp. 133–140.
  3. Truxal, S. (2014). Risk of abuse of dominance in airport slots for "better" European airports? ECLR: European Competition Law Review, 35(6), pp. 299–309.
  4. Truxal, S. (2014). Encouraging student participation with formative assessment and engagement
    in grading criteria: hybrid peer/self-assessment activity.
    Learning at City Journal, 4(2), pp. 18–24.
  5. Truxal, S. and Harris, S. (2013). Airfreight: regulatory environment encourages or imposes price co-ordination? Journal of Air Law & Commerce, 78(3), pp. 541–582.

    [publisher’s website]

  6. Truxal, S. (2011). The ICAO Assembly Resolutions on International Aviation and Climate Change: Historic agreement, breakthrough deal and the Cancun effect. Air & Space Law, 36(3), pp. 217–242.
  7. Truxal, S. (2010). At the sidelines of implementing the EU ETS: objections to ‘validity’. International Trade Law and Regulation, 16(4), pp. 28–36.
  8. Truxal, S. (2008). EU Transport Emissions Compliance Catch-up. International Trade Law and Regulation, 14(6), pp. 117–121.
  9. Truxal, S. (2008). Competitive Distortions, Carbon Emissions Efficiencies or the Green Ultimatum? International Trade Law and Regulation, 14(4), pp. 77–79.



- Commercial Law (LLB, GELLB)
- Contract Law (LLB, GELLB)