# Professor Roger Crouch

## Contact

- Professor Roger Crouch
- +44 (0)20 7040 8891
- roger.crouch.1@city.ac.uk

## Postal Address

Northampton Square

London

EC1V 0HB

United Kingdom

## About

### Overview

Following the award of his PhD in Structural Engineering (Multiaxial Behaviour, Constitutive Modelling and Finite Element Analysis of Structural Concrete) from The University of Manchester (1990) and MSc in Engineering Rock Mechanics (Imperial College, London), Roger Crouch worked on bridge analysis and the design of the Channel Tunnel with UK engineering consultants Mott, Hay and Anderson. He joined the London office of US architectural practice Skidmore, Owings and Merrill to assist in the structural design of Morgan Stanley's banking headquarters (Canary Wharf) and the redevelopment of County Hall (Westminster). Roger then took a post-doctoral scientific position at école polytechnique fédérale de lausanne, working alongside Dr John Wolf, undertaking research into the nonlinear seismic behaviour of large embankment dams (1990-1994).

He was appointed to a lectureship in structural engineering at The University of Sheffield in 1994, where he established a computational mechanics group. In 1995 Roger began a programme of research into the behaviour of concrete at elevated temperatures, funded by British Energy, BNFL and Magnox UK. This work supported key safety case studies into the structural integrity of the UK's nuclear AGR pressure vessels. Roger and his co-workers designed and built (and performed many tests in) a unique high-temperature multiaxial compression apparatus. This was featured on BBC Radio 4's Material World (01.03.07). Roger and his research team also developed bespoke nonlinear finite element analysis codes running on distributed memory multi-processor computers. His experimental and computational mechanics research projects with British Energy (then EdF) and HSE NII continued for over 15 years. During this time he led and coordinated a European research project (M_CENAS FP5) advancing a NLFE thermal creep simulation capability for nuclear reactor and containment vessels.

Roger was appointed to the Chair of Civil Engineering at Durham University in 2005. In 2009, he was invited by the UK Nuclear Inspectorate to be the leading academic specialist for a safety-critical structural integrity study on the pre-stressed boiler closure units within UK AGR pressure vessels. Roger took over as Head of the School of Engineering and Computing Sciences at Durham in 2010 prior to taking up the Deanship (School of Engineering, Mathematics & Computer Science) at City University in 2013.

### Employment

- Dean, School of Mathematics, Computer Science & Engineering, City, University London, 2013 – 2019
- Head of School, Engineering & Computing Sciences, Durham University, 2010 – 2013
- Research Director, School of Engineering, Durham University, 2005 – 2009
- Senior Lecturer, University of Sheffield, 1998 – 2005
- Lecturer, University of Sheffield, 1994 – 1998
- Research Scientist, École Polytechnique Federal de Lausanne, 1990 – 1994
- Structural Engineer, Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, 1988 – 1990
- Structural Engineer, Mott, Hay and Anderson, 1986 – 1988
- Research Associate, University of Manchester, 1984 – 1986
- Structural Engineer, Vallentine, Laurie & Davies, 1982 – 1984
- Civil Engineer, George Wimpey International, 1976 – 1982

## Research

Roger has specialist skills in the development of parallel finite element-based analysis codes and computational plasticity models (in particular, accurate elasto-plastic stress integration algorithms and continuum-discontinuum material bifurcation investigations). He was the first to create an implicit nonlinear fluid-structure interaction code using the Scaled Boundary Finite Element method to capture the dynamic far-fi eld for large-scale 3D seismic analyses.

### Research Awards

2013 PI Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Rail Bearers III CEMEX

2012 PI Finite Element Analysis of Rail Sleepers II CEMEX

2012 PI Parenis Research Methodology EC TEMPUS

2012 PI Finite Element Analysis of Rail Bearers I CEMEX

2011 PI Computational Rock Mechanics: Wellbore Stability Ikon Science

2011 PI Deep Water O shore Foundations DONG Energy

2010 PI Thermo-Visco-Elasto-Plastic Model Development: II ABS Consultants

2009 CI Extreme Event Simulation Algorithm EPSRC

2009 PI BCU AGR Nuclear Pressure Vessel Analysis II HSE

2008 PI BCU AGR Nuclear Pressure Vessel Analysis I HSE

2007 CI Coupled Hygro-Thermo-Mechanics NLFEA (Thermal Creep) British Energy

2007 PI Thermo-Visco-Elasto-Plastic Model Development: I ABS Consultants

2007 CI Finite Deformation Modelling of Anisotropic Soils EPSRC

2006 PI Advances in Continuum Mechanics EPSRC

2006 CI Multiaxial Transient Thermal Creep of PCPV Materials V British Energy

2005 PI Cell-Based FE Media Simulation (coupled Lattice Boltzmann) EPSRC

2004 PI Multiaxial Transient Thermal Creep of PCPV Materials IV British Energy

2004 CI GPRG Platform Grant Extension EPSRC

2003 PI Multiaxial Transient Thermal Creep of PCPV Materials III HSE-BE-BNFL

2002 PI Parallel Computing Collaboration (Heidelberg University) British Council

2002 PI GPa Multiaxial Compression II Hilti International

2002 PI State-of-the-Art Report Hot Gas Penetration in Fractures British Energy

2002 PI Multiaxial Transient Thermal Creep of PCPV Materials II HSE-BE-BNFL

2001 PI Modelling Ageing in Nuclear Power Plant Structures FP5 EU Brussels

2001 CI GPRG Platform Grant Travel II EPSRC

2001 CI GPRG Platform Grant Travel I EPSRC

2001 PI GPa Multiaxial Compression I Hilti International

2000 PI Multiaxial Transient Thermal Creep of PCPV Materials I HSE-BE-BNFL

2000 PI Detection of Acoustic Tensor Evolution EPSRC

2000 PI State-of-the-Art Report NLFEA of Nuclear Structures HSE-OECD

2000 PI F95 Integration Algorithm for an Elasto-Plastic Model Hilti International

2000 CI GPRG Platform Grant: Modelling EPSRC

1999 PI Review of NLFEA Capabilities for Nuclear Power Plant HSE NII

1998 PI Elevated Temperature Multiaxial Apparatus & Gf Rig JREI HEFCE

1997 PI Multiaxial PCPV Behaviour under Elevated Temperature Nuclear Electric

1996 CI Probabilistic Design of Vertical Breakwaters (MAST) FP4 EU Brussels

1995 PI Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of a Bridge Pier ACER Consultants

1995 PI Repair of Nuclear Structures Compendium Magnox UK

1994 PI Development of Sti ness Damage Hardware-Software BRE

## Research Students

### Lisha He

**Thesis title: **Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics for highly porous cellular solids

### Salma Hashem

**Thesis title: **Dynamic pore pressure evolution in cyclically loaded subsea foundations

### Duncan Wilson

**Thesis title: **Multiscale optimization of agent-based systems

## Publications

### Book

- Crouch, R., Oumeraci, H., Kortenhaus, A., Allsop, W., de Groot, M., Vrijling, H. … Voortman, H. (2001).
*Probabilistic Design Tools for Vertical Breakwaters.*Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-90-5809-248-9.

### Chapters (3)

- Wilson, D.T., Hawe, G.I., Coates, G. and Crouch, R.S. (2014).
**Modeling uncertain and dynamic casualty health in optimization-based decision support for mass casualty incident response.***Healthcare Administration: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications*(pp. 411–423). ISBN 978-1-4666-6339-8. - Crouch, R. (2002).
**Finite Element Non-Linear Dynamic Soil-Fluid-Structure Interaction.**In Topping, B.H.V. and Bittnar, Z. (Eds.),*Engineering Computational Technology*(pp. 121–146). Saxe{Coburg Publications. ISBN 978-1-874672-17-3. - Crouch, R. and Bicanic, N. (1997).
**The Use of Non-Linear Finite Element Analysis in Service Life**In Byars, E.A. and McNulty, T. (Eds.),

Predictions for Concrete Structures.*Management of Concrete Structures for Long-Term Serviceability*(pp. 57–73). Thomas Telford Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7277-2654-4.

### Conference papers and proceedings (86)

- Wong, Y. and Crouch, R. (2018).
**A Compact Geometrically Nonlinear FE Shell Code for Cardiac Analysis: Shell Formulation.**11-15 June, Glasgow. - Crouch, R., Wilson, D.T., Hawe, G.I. and Coates, G. (2013).
**Scheduling response operations under transport network disruptions.***10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management*January, Baden-Baden. - Hawe, G.I., Wilson, D.T., Coates, G. and Crouch, R.S. (2012).
**Investigating the effect of overtriage on hospital arrival times of critically injured casualties during a major incident using agent-based simulation.** - Crouch, R., Wilson, D.T., Hawe, G.I. and Coates, G. (2012).
**A hyper-heuristic approach to optimizing emergency response.***4th Int Conf on Metaheuristics and Nature Inspired Computing*Sousse, Tunisia. - Crouch, R., Wilson, D.T., Hawe, G.I. and Coates, G. (2012).
**Estimating the value of casualty health information to optimization-based decision support in response to major incidents.***9th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management*Vancouver. - Crouch, R., Hawe, G.I., Wilson, D.T. and Coates, G. (2012).
**STORMI: An agent-based simulation environment for evaluating responses to major incidents in the UK.***9th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management*Vancouver. - Crouch, R., Hawe, G.I., Wilson, D.T. and Coates, G. (2012).
**Simulating the spatial organization of the UK ambulance service at major incident sites.***3rd IEEE International Conference on Emergency Management and Management Sciences*Beijing. - Crouch, R., Wilson, D.T., Hawe, G.I. and Coates, G. (2012).
**Stochastic task durations in the scheduling of emergency response operations.***30th Workshop of the UK Planning and Scheduling Special Interest Group (PlanSIG 2012)*Middlesbrough. - Crouch, R., Hawe, G.I., Wilson, D.T. and Coates, G. (2012).
**The STORMI Scenario Designer: A program to facilitate setting up agent-based simulations of major incident emergency response.***3rd IEEE Internation Conference on Emergency Management and Management Sciences,*Beijing. - Crouch, R., Coombs, W.M. and Heaney, C.E. (2012).
**Plane-strain Mohr-Coulomb inelasticity.***20th UK Conference for Computational Mechanics in Engineering*Manchester University.. - Hawe, G.I., Coates, G., Wilson, D.T. and Crouch, R.S. (2011).
**A high resolution distributed agent-based simulation environment for large-scale emergency response.** - Wilson, D.T., Hawe, G.I., Coates, G. and Crouch, R.S. (2011).
**A decision support framework for large scale emergency response.***2nd International Conference on Disaster Management*. - Crouch, R., Hawe, G.I., Coates, G. and Wilson, D.T. (2011).
**Design decisions in the development of an Agent-based simulation for large-scale emergency response.***8th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management*Lisbon. - Crouch, R., Coates, G., Hawe, G.I. and Wilson, D.T. (2011).
**Adaptive co-ordinated emergency response to rapidly evolving large-scale unprecedented events (REScUE).***8th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management*Lisbon. - Crouch, R. and Coombs, W.M. (2011).
**Elastoplastic tangent by Euclidean construction.***Computational Plasticity XI: Fundamentals and Applications, CIMNE*Barcelona. - Crouch, R., Ullah, Z., Augarde, C.E. and Coombs, W.M. (2011).
**FE-EFGM Coupling using Maximum Entropy Shape Functions and its Application to Small and Finite Deformation.***19th UK Conference for Computational Mechanics in Engineering*Heriot-Watt University. - Crouch, R., Coombs, W.M. and Augarde, C.E. (2011).
**Unique Critical State Hyperplasticity.***19th UK Conference for Computational Mechanics in Engineering*Heriot-Watt University.. - Coombs, W.M., Crouch, R.S. and Augarde, C.E. (2010).
**70-line 3D finite deformation elastoplastic finite-element code.** - Heaney, C.E., Augarde, C.E., Deeks, A.J., Coombs, W.M. and Crouch, R.S. (2010).
**Advances in meshless methods with application to geotechnics.** - Mickael, M.E., Heydari, A., Crouch, R. and Johnstone, S. (2010).
**Estimation of stress-strain relationships in vascular walls using multi-layer hyperelastic modelling approach.** - Crouch, R., Heaney, C. and Augarde, C.E. (2010).
**A Hybrid Meshless Method for Modelling Soils.***18th UK Conference for Computational Mechanics in Engineering*University of Southampton. - Crouch, R., Harper, C. and Coombs, W.M. (2010).
**Orientation Detection Algorithms for Weak Instabilities.***18th UK Conference for Computational Mechanics in Engineering*University of Southampton. - Crouch, R., Honnor, M. and Li, T. (2009).
**Parallel thermo-visco-elastoplastic fe code with instability detection algorithm.** - Crouch, R., Li, T., Foster, T. and Heaney, C. (2009).
**Spurious unloading when up-dating elastoplastic strains iteratively.** - Coombs, W.M., Crouch, R.S. and Augarde, C.E. (2009).
**Influence of lode angle dependency on the critical state for rotational plasticity.** - Zhuang, X.Y., Crouch, R.S. and Augarde, C.E. (2009).
**A novel least squares-based finite cover method for elastoplastic problems.** - Crouch, R., Coombs, W.M. and Augarde, C.E. (2009).
**On the Necessity for Rotational Yielding in Anisotropic Plasticity.***Association for Computational Mechanics in Engineering*University of Nottingham. - Crouch, R., Li, T. and Heaney, C. (2009).
**Observations on the Conditions for Spurious Unloading when Up-Dating Iterative Elasto-Plastic Strains.***Computational Plasticity X: Fundamentals and Applications*Barcelona. - Solowski, W.T., Crouch, R.S. and Gallipoli, D. (2008).
**A multi-cell extension to the Barcelona Basic Model.** - Augarde, C.E., Crouch, R.S., Li, T. and Ramage, A. (2008).
**The effects of geotechnical material properties on the convergence of iterative solvers.** - Crouch, R. and Li, T. (2008).
**Inelastic Tangents through Euclidean Geometry.***Association for Com- putational Mechanics in Engineering*University of Newcastle.. - Petkovski, M. and Crouch, R. (2007).
**Experimental detection of discontinuities in pressure sensitive materials under multiaxial compression.** - Crouch, R. and Li, T. (2007).
**Compact Plasticity Algorithm for Pressure-Sensitive Media.***Associ- ation for Computational Mechanics in Engineering*Glasgow University. - Crouch, R. and Haslam, I. (2007).
**Finite Elements and Lattice Boltzmann Models for Heat Transfer: Compared and Combined.***Association for Computational Mechanics in Engineering*Glasgow University. - Crouch, R. (2007).
**An Element{by{Element Krylov Solver for DSSI.***SIAM Conference on Computational Science and Engineering*Orange County, USA.. - Oswald, S.E., Watson, I.A., Crouch, R.S. and Banwart, S.A. (2006).
**Influence of modelling concepts and approaches on the results of field scale reactive transport modelling.** - Crouch, R. and Li, T. (2006).
**Auxiliary Surface Mapping for Elasto-Plastic Stress Returns.***7th World Congress on Computational Mechanics*Los Angeles, USA. - Crouch, R. (2006).
**Stability and Precision of Plasticity Corrector Algorithms for Quadric Surfaces.***12th International Plasticity Symposium*Halifax, NS. - Crouch, R. (2006).
**Yield Functions, Return Algorithms and The Famous Five.***Association for Computational Mechanics in Engineering*Queens University Belfast.. - Crouch, R. and Haslam, I. (2006).
**A Response to Trefethen's Call: LB CFD on a Page.***Association for Computational Mechanics in Engineering*Queens University Belfast. - Crouch, R., Margetts, L., Smith, I.M. and Leng, J. (2006).
**Parallel 3D Finite Element Analysis of Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessels.***Association for Computational Mechanics in Engineering*Queens University Belfast. - Crouch, R. and Li, T. (2006).
**Cris eld's Strategy A versus Strategy B: On Iterative versus Incremental Up-Dating.***Association for Computational Mechanics in Engineering*Queens University Belfast. - Crouch, R.S. and Askes, H. (2005).
**Efficient stress return algorithms using energy-mapped stress space.** - Oswald, S.E., Watson, I.A., Crouch, R.S. and Banwart, S.A. (2005).
**Applying a laboratory-scale biodegradation concept to model field-scale reactive transport with advanced numerical methods.** - Crouch, R., Petkovski, M. and Waldron, P. (2005).
**Multiaxial Creep and Damage under Elevated Temperature.***7th International Conference on Creep in Concrete*Nantes. - Crouch, R. (2005).
**An Alternative Stress Space for Computational Plasticity.***8th US National Conference on Computational Mechanics*Austin, Texas. - Crouch, R. (2005).
**Elasto-Plastic Instability via Spectral Analysis of the Acoustic Tensor.***International Symposium on Recent Advances in Nonlinear Mechanics*University of Aberdeen. - Crouch, R. and Li, T. (2005).
**konik: A Concrete Plasticity Model.***Association for Computational Mechanics in Engineering*University of She eld. - Crouch, R., Haslam, I. and Smith, C. (2005).
**Fluid Mixing and Reactions in Tortuous Flow Fields.***Association for Computational Mechanics in Engineering*University of She eld. - Crouch, R. and Petkovski, M. (2005).
**Safety Margin Changes due to Stress Redistribution in a Nuclear Reactor Vessel under Long{Term Operational Loading.***Association for Computational Mechanics in Engineering*University of She eld. - Crouch, R. and Nayagum, D. (2005).
**Reactive Transport of Phenolics in Sandstone: Analytical Predictions versus Numerical Simulation.***Association for Computational Mechanics in Engineering*University of She eld. - Crouch, R., Jason, L., Pijaudier-Cabot, G., Huerta, A. and Ghavamian, S. (2004).
**An Elastic-Plastic-Damage Formulation for the Behaviour of Concrete.***Proc 5th International Conference on Fracture Mechanics of Concrete Structures*Vail, USA.. - Crouch, R. (2004).
**On Three-Dimensional Groundwater Plume Biodegradation using Multispecies and Adaptive Re-Meshing within a Parallel Processing Environment.***Gordon Research Conference: Flow and Transport in Permeable Media*Queen's College, Oxford University.. - Crouch, R., Haslam, I. and Smith, C. (2004).
**Lattice Gas Simulations of Reactive Flow in Porous Media: Preliminary Findings.***Association of Computational Mechanics in Engineering*Cardiff University. - Crouch, R. and Petkovski, M. (2004).
**Some Properties of an Evolving D Matrix, their Influence on the Acoustic Tensor, and their Measurement.***Association of Computational Mechanics in Engineering*Cardiff University. - Crouch, R. and Nayagum, D. (2004).
**Development of a Numerical Framework for Multi-Phase Flow and Reactive Transport in Porous Media.***Association of Computational Mechanics in Engineering*Cardi University. - Crouch, R. and Li, T. (2004).
**Advantages of Working in a Transformed Stress Space in Computational Plasticity.***Association of Computational Mechanics in Engineering*Cardiff University. - Crouch, R., Watson, I.A., Oswald, S.E. and Banwart, S.A. (2004).
**Combining a Microcosm Biodegradation Concept with Reactive Transport Modelling of Phenol Attenuation for a Field Case.***Goldschmidt Geochemistry Conference*Copenhagen. - Crouch, R. (2003).
**NAF or What?: Observations on the Plasticity Modelling of Structural Concrete.***Computational Plasticity VII: Fundamentals and Applications*Barcelona. - Crouch, R., Petkovski, M. and Waldron, P. (2003).
**Multiaxial Stress{Induced Thermal Strains: Constitutive Modelling and Laboratory Findings.***EURO-C: Computational Modelling of Concrete Structures*St Johann im Pongau, Austria. - Crouch, R. (2003).
**M CENAS: Simulating Ageing in Nuclear Reactor and Containment Vessels.***FISA Conference*Luxembourg. - Crouch, R., Watson, I.A., Oswald, S.E. and Oswald, S. (2003).
**Multi-Component Simulation of Biodegradation applying Locally Adaptive Re-Meshing and Parallel Processing.***MODFLOW Conference*Golden, Colorado. - Crouch, R. and Shen, X. (2003).
**A Numerical Scheme Combining a Conventional FEM with Gradient-Dependent Inelastic Constitutive Models.***Association of Computational Mechanics in Engineering*Strathclyde University. - Crouch, R. and Tahar, B. (2001).
**Techniques to Ensure Convergence of the Closest Point Projection Method in Pressure-Sensitive Plasticity Models.***First MIT International Conference on Computational Mechanics of Solids and Fluids*Boston, Massachusetts. - Crouch, R. and Fernandez-Vega, J. (2001).
**Non-Linear Wave Propagation in Softening Media through the use of the Scaled Boundary Element Method.***First MIT International Conference on Computational Mechanics of Solids and Fluids*Boston, Massachusetts. - Oumeraci, H., Kortenhaus, A., Allsop, N.W.H., De Groot, M.B., Crouch, R.S. and Vrijling, J.K. (2000).
**Probabilistic design of caisson breakwaters and sea walls - Present status and perspectives.** - Crouch, R. and Bennett, T. (2000).
**Efficient EBE treatment of the Dynamic Far-Field in Non-Linear FE Soil-Structure Interaction Analyses.***European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering*Barcelona. - Crouch, R. (2000).
**Fracture Regularisation by Extension of the Explicit Microplane Model for Concrete to include Duvaut-Lions Visco-Plasticity.***European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering*Barcelona. - Crouch, R. and Tahar, B. (2000).
**Application of a Stress Return Algorithm for Elasto-Plastic Hardening-Softening models with High Yield Surface Curvature.***European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering*Barcelona. - Crouch, R. (2000).
**Constitutive Frameworks for Porous Materials with a Brittle-Ductile Transition.***International Conference on Advances in Engineering Materials*Prague, Czech Republic.. - Williams, C.B., Pavic, A., Crouch, R.S. and Woods, R.C. (1998).
**Feasibility study of vibration-electric generator for bridge vibration sensors.** - Crouch, R. and Petkovski, M. (1998).
**Observations on the Constitutive Modelling of Concrete under Multi-Axial States at Elevated Temperature.***OECD-NEA Workshop on FE Analysis of Degraded Concrete Structures*Brookhaven, NY. - Crouch, R. and Tahar, B. (1998).
**Stress Integration using the Closest{Point Projection Method for a C2 Plasticity Model.***International Conference on Advances in the Finite Element Method*Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh. - Crouch, R. and Qiu, Y. (1997).
**Optimisation and Sensitivity of the Material Constants in the Microplane Model.***Computational Plasticity V: Fundamentals and Applications*Barcelona. - Crouch, R. and Qiu, Y. (1997).
**Spurious Compaction in the Microplane Model and a New Adaptive Framework.***Computational Plasticity V: Fundamentals and Applications*Barcelona. - Crouch, R., Pavic, A. and Waldron, P. (1995).
**Experimental Validation of FE models for Modal Analysis of a Full-Scale Prestressed Concrete Floor Structure.***NAFEMS International Conference*Amsterdam. - Crouch, R. and Wolf, J.P. (1995).
**Dynamic Shear Modulus and Damping Ratio predicted by a Uni ed 3D Critical-State Bounding-Surface Plasticity Model: II.***European Conference Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering*Copenhagen. - Crouch, R. and Wolf, J.P. (1995).
**Dynamic Shear Modulus and Damping Ratio predicted by a Uni ed 3D Critical-State Bounding-Surface Plasticity Model: I.***3rd International Conference Recent Advances in Geotechnical and Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics*St Louis, USA.. - Crouch, R. and Wolf, J.P. (1994).
**Performance of the Constitutive Model for Soil: gUTS.***3rd European Conference Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Engineering*Manchester. - Crouch, R. and Wolf, J.P. (1993).
**A Uni ed Constitutive Model for Soil under Seismic Load.***International Committee on Large Dams: Workshop on Dam Safety*Grindelwald, Switzerland. - Crouch, R. and Wolf, J.P. (1992).
**A Uni ed 3D Anisotropic Modular Elliptic Bounding-Surface Model for Soil.***4th International Conference Numerical Methods in Geomechanics*Swansea. - Crouch, R. and Wolf, J.P. (1992).
**Modular Elliptic Bounding-Surface Model for Soil under Cyclic Paths.***3rd International Conference Computational Plasticity*Barcelona. - Crouch, R. (1989).
**Use of an AT-Based Transputer System in the Three Dimensional Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Concrete Structures.***International Conference on the Application of Transputers*Liverpool. - Crouch, R. and Chrisp, T.M. (1989).
**The Response of Reinforced Concrete Slabs to Non-Nuclear Blast Loading.***International Conference on Structures under Shock and Impact*MIT Boston. - Crouch, R., Chrisp, T.M. and Wood, J.G.M. (1989).
**The SDT: An Energy Approach to Assessing Deteriorating Concrete.***The Life of Structures, I Structural Engineering Seminar*Brighton. - Crouch, R. and Coombs, W.M.
**Reuleaux plasticity: improving on Mohr-Coulomb and Drucker-Prager.***21st European Young Geotechnical Engineers' Conference*.

### Journal articles (30)

- Tamanna, N., Crouch, R., Kabir, I.R. and Naher, S. (2018).
**An analytical model to predict and minimize the residual stress of laser cladding process.***Applied Physics A*,*124*(2). doi:10.1007/s00339-018-1585-6. - Tamanna, N., Crouch, R. and Naher, S. (2017).
**A one-dimensional analysis of the distribution of temperature, stress and strain in the co-axial laser cladding process.**. doi:10.1063/1.5008041. - Wilson, D.T., Hawe, G.I., Coates, G. and Crouch, R.S. (2016).
**Online optimization of casualty processing in major incident response: An experimental analysis.***European Journal of Operational Research*,*252*(1), pp. 334–348. doi:10.1016/j.ejor.2016.01.021. - Coombs, W.M. and Crouch, R.S. (2015).
**Fabric anisotropy & DEM informed two-surface hyperplasticity: Constitutive formulation, asymptotic states & experimental validation.***Geomechanics from Micro to Macro - Proceedings of the TC105 ISSMGE International Symposium on Geomechanics from Micro to Macro, IS-Cambridge 2014*,*2*, pp. 777–782. doi:10.1201/b17395-139. - Hawe, G.I., Coates, G., Wilson, D.T. and Crouch, R.S. (2015).
**Agent-based simulation of emergency response to plan the allocation of resources for a hypothetical two-site major incident.***Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence*. doi:10.1016/j.engappai.2015.06.023. - Hawe, G.I., Coates, G., Wilson, D.T. and Crouch, R.S. (2015).
**Agent-based simulation of emergency response to plan the allocation of resources for a hypothetical two-site major incident.***Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence*,*46*, pp. 336–345. doi:10.1016/j.engappai.2015.06.023. - Wilson, D.T., Hawe, G.I., Coates, G. and Crouch, R.S. (2014).
**Evaluation of centralised and autonomous routing strategies in major incident response.***Safety Science*,*70*, pp. 80–88. doi:10.1016/j.ssci.2014.05.001. - Wilson, D.T., Hawe, G.I., Coates, G. and Crouch, R.S. (2013).
**A multi-objective combinatorial model of casualty processing in major incident response.***European Journal of Operational Research*,*230*(3), pp. 643–655. - Coombs, W.M., Crouch, R.S. and Heaney, C.E. (2013).
**Observations on Mohr-Coulomb plasticity under plane strain.***Journal of Engineering Mechanics*,*139*(9), pp. 1218–1228. - Coombs, W.M., Crouch, R.S. and Augarde, C.E. (2013).
**A unique Critical State two-surface hyperplasticity model for fine-grained particulate media.***Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids*,*61*(1), pp. 175–189. - Crouch, R., Wilson, D.T., Hawe, G.I. and Coates, G. (2013).
**Modeling uncertain and dynamic casualty health in optimization-based decision support for mass casualty incident response.***International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management*,*5*(2). doi:10.4018/jiscrm.2013040103. - Wilson, D.T., Hawe, G.I., Coates, G. and Crouch, R.S. (2013).
**Effective allocation of casualties to hospitals in mass casualty incidents.***2013 IEEE Conference Anthology, ANTHOLOGY 2013*. doi:10.1109/ANTHOLOGY.2013.6785032. - Hawe, G.I., Coates, G., Wilson, D.T. and Crouch, R.S. (2012).
**Agent-based simulation for large-scale emergency response: A survey of usage and implementation.***ACM Computing Surveys*,*45*(1). - Coombs, W.M. and Crouch, R.S. (2011).
**Algorithmic issues for three-invariant hyperplastic Critical State models.***Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering*,*200*(25-28), pp. 2297–2318. - Coombs, W.M. and Crouch, R.S. (2011).
**Non-associated Reuleaux plasticity: Analytical stress integration and consistent tangent for finite deformation mechanics.***Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering*,*200*(9-12), pp. 1021–1037. - Li, T. and Crouch, R. (2010).
**A C2 plasticity model for structural concrete.***Computers and Structures*,*88*(23-24), pp. 1322–1332. - Coombs, W.M., Crouch, R.S. and Augarde, C.E. (2010).
**Reuleaux plasticity: Analytical backward Euler stress integration and consistent tangent.***Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering*,*199*(25-28), pp. 1733–1743. - Crouch, R.S., Askes, H. and Li, T. (2009).
**Analytical CPP in energy-mapped stress space: Application to a modified Drucker-Prager yield surface.***Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering*,*198*(5-8), pp. 853–859. - Haslam, I.W., Crouch, R.S. and Seaïd, M. (2008).
**Coupled finite element-lattice Boltzmann analysis.***Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering*,*197*(51-52), pp. 4505–4511. - Petkovski, M. and Crouch, R.S. (2008).
**Strains under transient hygro-thermal states in concrete loaded in multiaxial compression and heated to 250 °C.***Cement and Concrete Research*,*38*(4), pp. 586–596. - Petkovski, M., Crouch, R.S. and Waldron, P. (2006).
**Apparatus for testing concrete under multiaxial compression at elevated temperature (mac2T).***Experimental Mechanics*,*46*(3), pp. 387–398. - Watson, I.A., Oswald, S.E., Banwart, S.A., Crouch, R.S. and Thornton, S.F. (2005).
**Modeling the dynamics of fermentation and respiratory processes in a groundwater plume of phenolic contaminants interpreted from laboratory- to field-scale.***Environmental Science and Technology*,*39*(22), pp. 8829–8839. - Watson, I.A., Crouch, R.S., Bastian, P. and Oswald, S.E. (2005).
**Advantages of using adaptive remeshing and parallel processing for modelling biodegradation in groundwater.***Advances in Water Resources*,*28*(11), pp. 1143–1158. - Crouch, R.S. (2002).
**Finite Element Non-Linear Dynamic Soil-Fluid-Structure Interaction.***Engineering Computational Technology*pp. 121–146. - Crouch, R., Williams, C. and Pavic, A. (1996).
**The use of a Micro-Electrical Generator in the Dynamic Monitoring of Bridge Structures.***ASCE Journal of Computing in Engineering*pp. 22–33. - Crouch, R. (1996).
**CCC Research.***Structural Engineer*. - Crouch, R.S. and Wolf, J.P. (1995).
**On a three-dimensional anisotropic plasticity model for soil.***Geotechnique*,*45*(2), pp. 301–305. - Crouch, R.S., Wolf, J.P. and Dafalias, Y.F. (1994).
**Unified critical-state bounding-surface plasticity model for soil.***Journal of Engineering Mechanics - ASCE*,*120*(11), pp. 2251–2270. - Crouch, R.S. and Wolf, J.P. (1994).
**Unified 3D critical state bounding-surface plasticity model for soils incorporating continuous plastic loading under cyclic paths. Part I: constitutive relations.***International Journal for Numerical & Analytical Methods in Geomechanics*,*18*(11), pp. 735–758. - Crouch, R.S. and Wolf, J.P. (1994).
**Unified 3D critical state bounding-surface plasticity model for soils incorporating continuous plastic loading under cyclic paths. Part II: calibration and simulations.***International Journal for Numerical & Analytical Methods in Geomechanics*,*18*(11), pp. 759–784.