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Contact Information


Postal Address

City, University of London
Northampton Square
United Kingdom



Raheelah leads the Health Management and Leadership and the Innovation and Change teaching on the Health Management MSc programme at City. She also contributes to the Master of Public Health Programme.
Raheelah is the Health Management Programme Lead within the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Protection Research Unit (HPRU) for Healthcare Associated infections and Antimicrobial Resistance (HCAI & AMR) at Imperial College London. Preceded by a decade of management experience in the English National Health Service, she is a recipient of the prestigious NIHR Fellowship in Knowledge Mobilisation and co-investigator on the ESRC/UKRI project to address AMR in low resource settings (ASPIRES), leading work to evaluate sustained impact of interventions across the healthcare economy. She co-leads the Implementation Course in Infection Control (EUCIC), in collaboration with the University of Geneva Hospitals, in its 6th year of running.


Conference paper/proceedings

  1. Kyratsis, Y., Ahmad, R., Iwami, M., Sanchez, E.C., Atun, R. and Holmes, A. (2018). A multi-level analysis of infection control in English hospitals: coerced safety culture change.

Journal articles (43)

  1. Zhu, N.J., McLeod, M., McNulty, C.A.M., Lecky, D.M., Holmes, A.H. and Ahmad, R. (2021). Trends in Antibiotic Prescribing in Out-of-Hours Primary Care in England from January 2016 to June 2020 to Understand Behaviours during the First Wave of COVID-19. Antibiotics, 10(1), pp. 32–32. doi:10.3390/antibiotics10010032.
  2. Birgand, G., Mutters, N.T., Ahmad, R., Tacconelli, E., Lucet, J.-.C. and Holmes, A. (2020). Risk perception of antimicrobial resistance by infection control specialists in Europe: a case-vignette study. Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control, 9(1). doi:10.1186/s13756-020-0695-z.
  3. Rawson, T.M., Ming, D., Ahmad, R., Moore, L.S.P. and Holmes, A.H. (2020). Antimicrobial use, drug-resistant infections and COVID-19. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 18(8), pp. 409–410. doi:10.1038/s41579-020-0395-y.
  4. Peiffer-Smadja, N., Poda, A., Ouedraogo, A.S., Guiard-Schmid, J.B., Delory, T., Le Bel, J. … Lescure, F.X. (2020). Paving the way for the implementation of a decision support system for antibiotic prescribing in primary care in west Africa: Preimplementation and co-design workshop with physicians. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 22(7). doi:10.2196/17940.
  5. Peiffer-Smadja, N., Rawson, T.M., Ahmad, R., Buchard, A., Georgiou, P., Lescure, F.-.X. … Holmes, A.H. (2020). Machine learning for clinical decision support in infectious diseases: a narrative review of current applications. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 26(5), pp. 584–595. doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2019.09.009.
  6. Castro-Sánchez, E., Gilchrist, M., Ahmad, R., Courtenay, M., Bosanquet, J. and Holmes, A.H. (2019). Nurse roles in antimicrobial stewardship: Lessons from public sectors models of acute care service delivery in the United Kingdom. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 8(1). doi:10.1186/s13756-019-0621-4.
  7. Ahmad, R., Zhu, N.J., Leather, A.J.M., Holmes, A. and Ferlie, E. (2019). Strengthening strategic management approaches to address antimicrobial resistance in global human health: a scoping review. BMJ Global Health, 4(5). doi:10.1136/bmjgh-2019-001730.
  8. Ahmad, R., Sim, F. and Mackie, P. (2019). Navigating complexity: harnessing appropriate methodologies. Public Health, 174. doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2019.08.001.
  9. Kyratsis, Y., Ahmad, R., Iwami, M., Castro-Sánchez, E., Atun, R. and Holmes, A.H. (2019). A multilevel neo-institutional analysis of infection prevention and control in English hospitals: coerced safety culture change? Sociology of Health and Illness, 41(6), pp. 1138–1158. doi:10.1111/1467-9566.12897.
  10. Charani, E., Ahmad, R., Rawson, T.M., Castro-Sanchèz, E., Tarrant, C. and Holmes, A.H. (2019). The Differences in Antibiotic Decision-making Between Acute Surgical and Acute Medical Teams: An Ethnographic Study of Culture and Team Dynamics. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 69(1), pp. 12–20. doi:10.1093/cid/ciy844.
  11. Rawson, T.M., Ahmad, R., Toumazou, C., Georgiou, P. and Holmes, A.H. (2019). Artificial intelligence can improve decision-making in infection management. Nature Human Behaviour, 3(6), pp. 543–545. doi:10.1038/s41562-019-0583-9.
  12. Zingg, W., Storr, J., Park, B.J., Ahmad, R., Tarrant, C., Castro-Sanchez, E. … Pittet, D. (2019). Implementation research for the prevention of antimicrobial resistance and healthcare-associated infections; 2017 Geneva infection prevention and control (IPC)-think tank (part 1). Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 8(1). doi:10.1186/s13756-019-0527-1.
  13. Zingg, W., Park, B.J., Storr, J., Ahmad, R., Tarrant, C., Castro-Sanchez, E. … Walsh, T. (2019). Technology for the prevention of antimicrobial resistance and healthcare-associated infections; 2017 Geneva IPC-Think Tank (Part 2). Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 8(1). doi:10.1186/s13756-019-0538-y.
  14. Zingg, W., Storr, J., Park, B.J., Jernigan, J.A., Harbarth, S., Grayson, M.L. … Widmer, A. (2019). Broadening the infection prevention and control network globally; 2017 Geneva IPC-think tank (part 3). Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 8(1). doi:10.1186/s13756-019-0528-0.
  15. Ahmad, R., Zhu, N.J., Lebcir, R.M. and Atun, R. (2019). How the health-seeking behaviour of pregnant women affects neonatal outcomes: findings of system dynamics modelling in Pakistan. BMJ Global Health, 4(2). doi:10.1136/bmjgh-2018-001242.
  16. McLeod, M., Ahmad, R., Shebl, N.A., Micallef, C., Sim, F. and Holmes, A. (2019). A whole-health–economy approach toantimicrobial stewardship: Analysis of currentmodels and future direction. PLoS Medicine, 16(3). doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1002774.
  17. Charani, E., Smith, I., Skodvin, B., Perozziello, A., Lucet, J.-.C., Lescure, F.-.X. … Holmes, A.H. (2019). Investigating the cultural and contextual determinants of antimicrobial stewardship programmes across low-, middle- and high-income countries—A qualitative study. PLOS ONE, 14(1). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0209847.
  18. Ashiru-Oredope, D., Doble, A., Akpan, M., Hansraj, S., Shebl, N., Ahmad, R. … Hopkins, S. (2018). Antimicrobial Stewardship Programmes in Community Healthcare Organisations in England: A Cross-Sectional Survey to Assess Implementation of Programmes and National Toolkits. Antibiotics, 7(4), pp. 97–97. doi:10.3390/antibiotics7040097.
  19. Mizuno, S., Iwami, M., Kunisawa, S., Naylor, N., Yamashita, K., Kyratsis, Y. … Ahmad, R. (2018). Comparison of national strategies to reduce meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in Japan and England. Journal of Hospital Infection, 100(3), pp. 280–298. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2018.06.026.
  20. Alividza, V., Mariano, V., Ahmad, R., Charani, E., Rawson, T.M., Holmes, A.H. … Castro-Sánchez, E. (2018). Investigating the impact of poverty on colonization and infection with drug-resistant organisms in humans: A systematic review. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 7(1). doi:10.1186/s40249-018-0459-7.
  21. Hansen, S., Schwab, F., Gastmeier, P., Zingg, W., Pittet, D., Zingg, W. … Wu, A.W. (2018). Association of national and hospital factors to hospitals' alcohol-based handrub consumption in Europe: results of the European PROHIBIT study. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 24(7), pp. 778–778. doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2017.10.015.
  22. Rawson, T.M., Moore, L.S.P., Castro-Sanchez, E., Charani, E., Hernandez, B., Alividza, V. … Holmes, A.H. (2018). Development of a patient-centred intervention to improve knowledge and understanding of antibiotic therapy in secondary care. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 7(1). doi:10.1186/s13756-018-0333-1.
  23. Birgand, G., Castro-Sánchez, E., Hansen, S., Gastmeier, P., Lucet, J.C., Ferlie, E. … Ahmad, R. (2018). Comparison of governance approaches for the control of antimicrobial resistance: Analysis of three European countries. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 7(1). doi:10.1186/s13756-018-0321-5.
  24. Rawson, T.M., Castro-Sánchez, E., Charani, E., Husson, F., Moore, L.S.P., Holmes, A.H. … Ahmad, R. (2018). Involving citizens in priority setting for public health research: Implementation in infection research. Health Expectations, 21(1), pp. 222–229. doi:10.1111/hex.12604.
  25. Castro-Sánchez, E., Iwami, M., Ahmad, R., Atun, R. and Holmes, A.H. (2018). Articulating citizen participation in national anti-microbial resistance plans: A comparison of European countries. European Journal of Public Health, 28(5), pp. 928–934. doi:10.1093/eurpub/cky128.
  26. Naylor, N.R., Zhu, N., Hulscher, M., Holmes, A., Ahmad, R. and Robotham, J.V. (2017). Is antimicrobial stewardship cost-effective? A narrative review of the evidence. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 23(11), pp. 806–811. doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2017.06.011.
  27. Charani, E., Ahmad, R., Tarrant, C., Birgand, G., Leather, A., Mendelson, M. … Holmes, A. (2017). Opportunities for system level improvement in antibiotic use across the surgical pathway. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 60, pp. 29–34. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2017.04.020.
  28. Lebcir, R., Demir, E., Ahmad, R., Vasilakis, C. and Southern, D. (2017). A discrete event simulation model to evaluate the use of community services in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease in the United Kingdom. BMC Health Services Research, 17(1), pp. 1–14. doi:10.1186/s12913-017-1994-9.
  29. Iwami, M., Ahmad, R., Castro-Sánchez, E., Birgand, G., Johnson, A.P. and Holmes, A. (2017). Capacity of English NHS hospitals to monitor quality in infection prevention and control using a new European framework: A multilevel qualitative analysis. BMJ Open, 7(1). doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-012520.
  30. Rawson, T.M., Moore, L.S.P., Hernandez, B., Castro-Sanchez, E., Charani, E., Georgiou, P. … Holmes, A.H. (2016). Patient engagement with infection management in secondary care: A qualitative investigation of current experiences. BMJ Open, 6(10). doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011040.
  31. Ahmad, R., Iwami, M., Castro-Sánchez, E., Husson, F., Taiyari, K., Zingg, W. … Holmes, A. (2016). Defining the user role in infection control. Journal of Hospital Infection, 92(4), pp. 321–327. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2015.09.018.
  32. Ahmad, R., Sim, F. and Mackie, P. (2016). Staying connected or networked to death? Public Health, 131, pp. 1–2. doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2016.01.008.
  33. Holmes, A., Castro-Sánchez, E. and Ahmad, R. (2016). Guidelines in infection prevention: Current challenges and limitations. British Journal of Health Care Management, 22(9), pp. 440–443. doi:10.12968/bjhc.2016.22.9.440.
  34. Hansen, S., Schwab, F., Gastmeier, P., Pittet, D., Zingg, W., Sax, H. … Wu, A.W. (2015). Provision and consumption of alcohol-based hand rubs in European hospitals. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 21(12), pp. 1047–1051. doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2015.09.019.
  35. Hansen, S., Zingg, W., Ahmad, R., Kyratsis, Y., Behnke, M., Schwab, F. … Wu, A.W. (2015). Organization of infection control in European hospitals. Journal of Hospital Infection, 91(4), pp. 338–345. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2015.07.011.
  36. Holmes, A., Castro-Sánchez, E. and Ahmad, R. (2015). Guidelines in infection prevention: Current challenges and limitations. British Journal of Health Care Management, 21(6), pp. 275–277. doi:10.12968/bjhc.2015.21.6.275.
  37. Martin, M., Zingg, W., Knoll, E., Wilson, C., Dettenkofer, M., Pittet, D. … Wu, A.W. (2014). National European guidelines for the prevention of Clostridium difficile infection: A systematic qualitative review. Journal of Hospital Infection, 87(4), pp. 212–219. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2014.05.002.
  38. Ahmad, R., Sim, F. and Mackie, P. (2013). Keeping the data flowing. Public Health, 127(9), pp. 795–796. doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2013.08.009.
  39. Ahmad, R., Ferlie, E. and Atun, R. (2013). How Trustworthiness is Assessed in Health Care: A Sensemaking Perspective. Journal of Change Management, 13(2), pp. 159–178. doi:10.1080/14697017.2012.700525.
  40. Kyratsis, Y. and Ahmad, R. (2013). Mapping the terrain of investment in global infectious diseases. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 13(1), pp. 6–7. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(12)70289-X.
  41. Ahmad, R., Kyratsis, Y. and Holmes, A. (2012). When the user is not the chooser: Learning from stakeholder involvement in technology adoption decisions in infection control. Journal of Hospital Infection, 81(3), pp. 163–168. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2012.04.014.
  42. Kyratsis, Y., Ahmad, R. and Holmes, A. (2012). Technology adoption and implementation in organisations: Comparative case studies of 12 English NHS Trusts. BMJ Open, 2(2). doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-000872.
  43. Kyratsis, Y., Ahmad, R. and Holmes, A. (2012). Making sense of evidence in management decisions: The role of research-based knowledge on innovation adoption and implementation in healthcare. study protocol. Implementation Science, 7(1). doi:10.1186/1748-5908-7-22.