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Professor Mark Howe

Professor of Psychology

School of Arts and Social Sciences, Department of Psychology

Contact Information

Contact

Visit Mark Howe

D432, Rhind Building

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Postal Address

City, University of London
Northampton Square
London
EC1V 0HB
United Kingdom

About

Overview

Prior to joining the Department of Psychology at City University London in 2013, Professor Howe was University Chair in Developmental Psychology and Co-director of the Centre for Research in Human Development at Lancaster University (2005-2012); Professor of Psychology, Dean of Research, Dean of Graduate Studies, and National Director of the Centre of Excellence for Children and Adolescents with Special Needs, at Lakehead University, Canada (1999-2005); and Professor of Psychology at both Memorial University (1985-1999) and the University of Victoria (1982-1985), Canada.

He has conducted research on memory and cognitive development for over 30 years and has published numerous peer-reviewed articles, chapters, and books. In addition, Professor Howe makes regular media contributions to television, radio and newspapers, and continues to give public lectures on memory and trauma, early memory development, and memory and the law. For over 20 years, he has served as a consultant on memory in the courtroom in Canada, the USA, and the UK, and regularly testifies about matters concerning adult recollections of early childhood experiences.

Professor Howe is currently the Editor of Memory and the Associate Editor of Developmental Review. He is a Fellow of the British Psychological Society, American Psychological Association and Association for Psychological Science.

Research

Research interests

- Adaptive memory and its development
- Autobiographical memory
- False memory
- False memory priming of problem solving
- Mathematical and computational models of memory, reasoning, and their development
- Memory development in children and adults
- Memory and emotion
- Memory and the law
- Memory in traumatised and maltreated children

Recent research grants

- Economic and Social Research Council UK: "The development of priming analogical reasoning using true and false memories." Grant awarded to cover 2012-2015 (£480,000 for 3 years RES-062-23-3327; Mark L. Howe, Principal Investigator; L. J. Ball, Co-investigator).
- Economic and Social Research Council UK: "The role of retrieval processes in false recognition." Grant awarded to cover 2010-2011 (£96,000 for 14 months; RES-000-22-3561, with L. Knott and S. Dewhurst).
- Economic and Social Research Council UK: "The development of children's false memories." Grant awarded to cover 2007-2010 (£375,000 for 3 years; RES-062-23-0452).
- National Institute of Mental Health, USA: "Memory processes in abused and neglected children." (With Dante Cicchetti and Sheree Toth). Grant awarded to cover 2004-2009 ($1.54 million US/for 5 years; RO1-MH068413-01A1).

Publications

Books (10)

  1. Schwartz, B.L., Howe, M.L., Toglia, M.P. and Otgaar, H. (Eds.), (2014). What is Adaptive about Adaptive Memory? New York, US: Oxford University Press.
  2. Howe, M., Brainerd, C.J. and Reyna, V.F. (Eds.), (2012). Development of Long-Term Retention. Springer Verlag. ISBN 978-1-4612-7702-6.
  3. Howe, M.L. (2011). The Nature of Early Memory. OUP USA. ISBN 978-0-19-538141-2.
  4. Howe, M.L. (2011). The Nature of Early Memory: An Adaptive Theory of the Genesis and Development of Memory. ISBN 978-0-19-989386-7.
  5. Howe, M.L., Goodman, G.S. and Cicchetti, D. (2008). Stress, Trauma, and Children's Memory Development:Neurobiological, Cognitive, Clinical, and Legal Perspectives. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-530845-7.
  6. Howe, M.L. (2000). The Fate of Early Memories. APA Books. ISBN 978-1-55798-628-3.
  7. Howe, M. and Pasnak, R. (Eds.), (1993). Emerging Themes in Cognitive Development: Foundations. Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-97816-1.
  8. Pasnak, L. and Howe, M. (Eds.), (1993). Emerging Themes in Cognitive Development: Competencies. Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-97817-8.
  9. Howe, M., Stones, M.J. and Brainerd, C.J. (Eds.), (1990). Cognitive and Behavioral Performance Factors in Atypical Aging. Springer. ISBN 978-1-4613-8949-1.
  10. Howe, M. and Brainerd, C.J. (Eds.), (1988). Cognitive Development in Adulthood. Springer. ISBN 978-1-4612-8377-5.

Chapters (26)

  1. Howe, M.L., Threadgold, E., Wilkinson, S., Garner, S.R. and Ball, L.J. (2016). The positive side of memory illusions. False and Distorted Memories (pp. 130–142). ISBN 978-1-315-73624-2.
  2. Howe, M. (2015). Memory development. In Lerner, R.M., Liben, L. and Mueller, U. (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science (pp. 203–249). New York, US: Wiley.
  3. Otgaar, H., Howe, M., Schwartz, B.L. and Toglia, M.P. (2013). What is adaptive memory? In Schwartz, B.L., Howe, M.L., Toglia, M.P. and Otgaar, H. (Eds.), What is Adaptive about Adaptive Memory? New York, US: Oxford University Press.
  4. Howe, M. and Derbish, M.H. (2013). Adaptive memory: Survival processing, ancestral relevance, and the role of elaboration. In Schwartz, B.L., Howe, M., Toglia, M.P. and Otgaar, H. (Eds.), What is Adaptive about Adaptive Memory? New York, US: Oxford University Press.
  5. Otgaar, H., Howe, M., Smeets, T., Raymaekers, L. and van Beers, J. (2013). Memory errors in adaptive memory. In Schwartz, B.L., Howe, M., Toglia, M.P. and Otgaar, H. (Eds.), What is Adaptive about Adaptive Memory? New York, US: Oxford University Press.
  6. Howe, M. (2013). The co-emergence of the self and autobiographical memory: An adaptive view of early memory. In Bauer, P.J. and Fivush, R. (Eds.), Wiley-Blackwell Handbook on the Development of Children’s Memory New York, US: Wiley-Blackwell.
  7. Howe, M. (2013). Feats of early memory: Courtroom tales of what adults claim to remember about early childhood events. In Holliday, R. and Marche, T. (Eds.), Child Forensic Psychology Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-57708-4.
  8. Howe, M.L. (2012). Distinctiveness Effects in Children's Memory. Distinctiveness and Memory ISBN 978-0-19-984756-3.
  9. Howe, M. and Courage, M.L. (2009). Autobiographical memory: Individual differences and developmental course. In Gruszka, A., Matthews, G. and Szymura, B. (Eds.), Handbook of Individual Differences in Cognition Springer. ISBN 978-1-4419-1210-7.
  10. Courage, M.L., Howe, M., Ilkowska, M., Engle, R.W., Kossowska, M., Orehek, E., Kruglanski, A.W., McVay, J.C., Kane, M.J., Marszal-Wisniewska, M., Zajusz, D., Orzechowski, J., Sedek, G. and Brzezicka, A. (2009). Individual differences in working memory and higher-order processing – The commentaries. In Gruszka, A., Matthews, G. and Szymura, B. (Eds.), Handbook of Individual Differences in Cognition (pp. 419–439). Springer. ISBN 978-1-4419-1210-7.
  11. Howe, M., Courage, M.L. and Rooksby, M. (2009). The genesis and development of autobiographical
    memory.
    In Courage, M. and Cowan, N. (Eds.), The Development of Memory in Infancy and Childhood (pp. 177–196). Taylor & Francis US. ISBN 978-1-84169-642-3.
  12. Howe, M., Goodman, G.S. and Cicchetti, D. (2008). Prologue: Turning science into practice. In Howe, M.L., Goodman, G.S. and Cicchetti, D. (Eds.), Stress, Trauma, and Children's Memory Development:Neurobiological, Cognitive, Clinical, and Legal Perspectives (pp. 1–8). Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-530845-7.
  13. Howe, M. (2008). The nature of infantile amnesia. In Byrne, J. (Ed.), Learning and Memory: A Comprehensive Reference, Four-Volume Set (pp. 287–297). Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-370504-4.
  14. Howe, M., Toth, S. and Cicchetti, D. (2006). Memory and developmental psychopathology. In Cohen, D.J. (Ed.), Developmental Psychopathology, Developmental Neuroscience (pp. 629–655). Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-04819-1.
  15. Howe, M. (2006). Distinctiveness effects in children’s memory. In Hunt, R.R. and Worthen, J.B. (Eds.), Distinctiveness and Memory (pp. 237–257). Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-516966-9.
  16. Howe, M. (2004). Early memory, early self, and the emergence of autobiographical memory. In Beike, D.R., Lampinen, J.M. and Behrend, D.A. (Eds.), The Self And Memory (pp. 45–72). ISBN 978-1-84169-078-0.
  17. Howe, M. (1998). Opinion (on infantile amnesia). In Williams, W.M. and Stephen J Ceci, P. (Eds.), Escaping the Advice Trap Andrews McMeel Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8362-5215-6.
  18. Howe, M., Courage, M.L. and Peterson, C. (1996). How can I remember when "I" wasn't there: Long-term retention of traumatic experiences and emergence of the cognitive self. In Pezdek, K. and Banks, W.P. (Eds.), The recovered memory/false memory debate (pp. 121–149). Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-552975-4.
  19. Howe, M. and Pasnak, R. (1993). Shifting conceptions of cognitive development. In Howe, M.L. and Pasnak, R. (Eds.), Emerging Themes in Cognitive Development: Foundations (pp. 267–276). Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-97816-1.
  20. Pasnak, R. and Howe, M. (1993). New approaches to the development of cognitive competence. In Howe, M.L. and Pasnak, R. (Eds.), Emerging Themes in Cognitive Development: Competencies (pp. 219–240). Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-97817-8.
  21. Howe, M., O'Sullivan, J.T. and Marche, T. (1992). Toward a theory of the development of long-term retention. In Howe, M.L., Brainerd, C.J. and Reyna, V.F. (Eds.), Development of Long-Term Retention (pp. 245–255). Springer Verlag. ISBN 978-1-4612-7702-6.
  22. Howe, M., Kelland, A., Bryant-Brown, L. and Clark, S.L. (1992). Measuring the development of children's amnesia and hypermnesia. In Howe, M.L., Brainerd, C.J. and Reyna, V.F. (Eds.), Development of Long-Term Retention (pp. 56–102). Springer Verlag. ISBN 978-1-4612-7702-6.
  23. Howe, M. (1990). Development of a mathematical model of memory for clinical research applications in aging. In Howe, M.L., Stones, M.J. and Brainerd, C.J. (Eds.), Cognitive and Behavioral Performance Factors in Atypical Aging (pp. 3–36). Springer. ISBN 978-1-4613-8949-1.
  24. Howe, M. and O'Sullivan, J.T. (1990). The development of strategic memory: Coordinating knowledge, metamemory, and resources. In Bjorklund, D.F. (Ed.), Children's Strategies (pp. 129–155). Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-8058-0315-0.
  25. Howe, M. (1988). Measuring memory development in adulthood: A model-based approach to disentangling storage-retrieval contributions. In Howe, M.L. and Brainerd, C.J. (Eds.), Cognitive Development in Adulthood (pp. 39–64). Springer. ISBN 978-1-4612-8377-5.
  26. Brainerd, C.J., Kingma, J. and Howe, M. (1986). Long term memory development and learning disability: Storage and retrieval loci of disabled/nondisabled differences. In Ceci, S.J. (Ed.), Handbook of Cognitive, Social, and Neuropsychological Aspects of Learning Disabilities (pp. 161–184). Routledge. ISBN 978-0-89859-797-4.

Journal Articles (147)

  1. Otgaar, H., Howe, M.L. and Muris, P. (2017). Maltreatment increases spontaneous false memories but decreases suggestion-induced false memories in children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 35(3), pp. 376–391. doi:10.1111/bjdp.12177.
  2. Wang, J., Otgaar, H., Howe, M.L., Smeets, T., Merckelbach, H. and Nahouli, Z. (2017). Undermining belief in false memories leads to less efficient problem-solving behaviour. Memory, 25(7), pp. 910–921. doi:10.1080/09658211.2016.1249888.
  3. Howe, M.L. and Garner, S.R. (2017). Can false memories prime alternative solutions to ambiguous problems? Memory pp. 1–10. doi:10.1080/09658211.2017.1332226.
  4. Otgaar, H., Howe, M.L., Brackmann, N. and van Helvoort, D.H.J. (2017). Eliminating age differences in children's and adults' suggestibility and memory conformity effects. Developmental Psychology, 53(5), pp. 962–970. doi:10.1037/dev0000298.
  5. Lew, A.R. and Howe, M.L. (2017). Out of place, out of mind: Schema-driven false memory effects for object-location bindings. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition, 43(3), pp. 404–421. doi:10.1037/xlm0000317.
  6. Otgaar, H., de Ruiter, C., Howe, M.L., Hoetmer, L. and van Reekum, P. (2017). A Case Concerning Children's False Memories of Abuse: Recommendations Regarding Expert Witness Work. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 24(3), pp. 365–378. doi:10.1080/13218719.2016.1230924.
  7. Otgaar, H., Moldoveanu, G., Wang, J. and Howe, M.L. (2017). Exploring the consequences of nonbelieved memories in the DRM paradigm. MEMORY, 25(7), pp. 922–933. doi:10.1080/09658211.2016.1272701.
  8. Hellenthal, M.V., Howe, M.L. and Knott, L.M. (2016). It Must Be My Favourite Brand: Using Retroactive Brand Replacements in Doctored Photographs to Influence Brand Preferences. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 30(6), pp. 863–870. doi:10.1002/acp.3271.
  9. Howe, M.L., Wilkinson, S., Garner, S.R. and Ball, L.J. (2016). On the adaptive function of children’s and adults’ false memories. Memory, 24(8), pp. 1062–1077. doi:10.1080/09658211.2015.1068335.
  10. Brackmann, N., Otgaar, H., Sauerland, M. and Howe, M.L. (2016). The Impact of Testing on the Formation of Children's and Adults' False Memories. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 30(5), pp. 785–794. doi:10.1002/acp.3254.
  11. Bland, C.E., Howe, M.L. and Knott, L. (2016). Discrete emotion-congruent false memories in the DRM paradigm. Emotion, 16(5), pp. 611–619. doi:10.1037/emo0000153.
  12. Otgaar, H., Howe, M.L., Smeets, T. and Wang, J. (2016). Denial-Induced Forgetting: False Denials Undermine Memory, But External Denials Undermine Belief. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 5(2), pp. 168–175. doi:10.1016/j.jarmac.2016.04.002.
  13. Baugerud, G.A., Howe, M.L., Magnussen, S. and Melinder, A. (2016). Maltreated and non-maltreated children's true and false memories of neutral and emotional word lists in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott task. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 143, pp. 102–110. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2015.10.007.
  14. Otgaar, H., Howe, M.L., Brackmann, N. and Smeets, T. (2016). The malleability of developmental trends in neutral and negative memory illusions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145(1), pp. 31–55. doi:10.1037/xge0000127.
  15. Howe, M.L. and Conway, M.A. (2016). Expansion at Memory. Memory, 24(1), p. 1. doi:10.1080/09658211.2016.1104800.
  16. Howe, M.L., Garner, S.R., Threadgold, E. and Ball, L.J. (2015). Priming analogical reasoning with false memories. Memory and Cognition, 43(6), pp. 879–895. doi:10.3758/s13421-015-0513-7.
  17. Otgaar, H., Howe, M.L., Clark, A., Wang, J. and Merckelbach, H. (2015). What if you went to the police and accused your uncle of abuse? Misunderstandings concerning the benefits of memory distortion: A commentary on Fernández (2015). Consciousness and Cognition, 33, pp. 286–290. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2015.01.015.
  18. Howe, M. and Knott, L.M. (2015). The fallibility of memory in judicial processes: Lessons from the past and their modern consequences. Memory, 23(5), pp. 633–656. doi:10.1080/09658211.2015.1010709.
  19. Howe, M.L. and Conway, M.A. (2015). Growth and change at Memory. Memory, 23(3), p. 317. doi:10.1080/09658211.2015.1009719.
  20. Knott, L.M., Threadgold, E. and Howe, M.L. (2014). Negative mood state impairs false memory priming when problem-solving. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 26(5), pp. 580–587. doi:10.1080/20445911.2014.922091.
  21. Otgaar, H., Howe, M.L., Peters, M., Smeets, T. and Moritz, S. (2014). The production of spontaneous false memories across childhood. J Exp Child Psychol, 121, pp. 28–41. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2013.11.019.
  22. Otgaar, H. and Howe, M.L. (2014). What kind of memory has evolution wrought?: Introductory Article for the Special Issue of Memory: Adaptive memory: The emergence and nature of proximate mechanisms. Memory, 22(1), pp. 1–8. doi:10.1080/09658211.2013.800355.
  23. Otgaar, H., Howe, M.L., Smeets, T. and Garner, S.R. (2014). Developmental trends in adaptive memory. Memory, 22(1), pp. 103–117. doi:10.1080/09658211.2013.781653.
  24. Otgaar, H., Howe, M.L., Memon, A. and Wang, J. (2014). The development of differential mnemonic effects of false denials and forced confabulations. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 32(6), pp. 718–731. doi:10.1002/bsl.2148.
  25. Otgaar, H., Howe, M.L., van Beers, J., van Hoof, R., Bronzwaer, N. and Smeets, T. (2014). The positive ramifications of false memories using a perceptual closure task. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 4(1), pp. 43–50. doi:10.1016/j.jarmac.2014.12.001.
  26. Howe, M.L. (2013). Memory development: implications for adults recalling childhood experiences in the courtroom. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 14(12), pp. 869–876. doi:10.1038/nrn3627.
  27. Howe, M.L., Threadgold, E., Norbury, J., Garner, S. and Ball, L.J. (2013). Priming children's and adults' analogical problem solutions with true and false memories. J Exp Child Psychol, 116(1), pp. 96–103. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2013.03.006.
  28. Howe, M.L., Threadgold, E., Norbury, J., Garner, S. and Ball, L.J. (2013). Priming children's and adults' analogical problem solutions with true and false memories. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 116(1), pp. 96–103. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2013.03.006.
  29. Thijssen, J., Otgaar, H., Howe, M.L. and de Ruiter, C. (2013). Emotional true and false memories in children with callous-unemotional traits. Cognition and Emotion, 27(4), pp. 761–768. doi:10.1080/02699931.2012.744300.
  30. Howe, M., Garner, S.R. and Patel, M. (2013). The positive consequences of false memories. Behavioral Sciences and the Law .
  31. Otgaar, H., Howe, M., Peters, M., Sauerland, M. and Raymaekers, L. (2013). Developmental trends in different types of spontaneous false memories: Implications for the legal field. Behavioral Sciences and the Law .
  32. Howe, M. (2013). Memory lessons from the courtroom: Reflections on being a memory expert on the witness stand. Memory .
  33. Howe, M. and Otgaar, H. (2013). Proximate mechanisms and the development of adaptive memory. Current Directions in Psychological Science .
  34. Howe, M.L. (2013). Securing the future by remembering the past: But just when does this past and future begin to develop? Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 2(4), pp. 237–239. doi:10.1016/j.jarmac.2013.09.002.
  35. Howe, M. and Garner, S.R. (2013). False memories from survival processing make better primes for problem solving. Memory, 22(1), pp. 9–18. doi:10.1080/09658211.2012.759975.
  36. Dewhurst, S.A., Howe, M.L., Berry, D.M. and Knott, L.M. (2012). Test-induced priming increases false recognition in older but not younger children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 111(1), pp. 101–107.
  37. Knott, L.M., Dewhurst, S.A. and Howe, M.L. (2012). What factors underlie associative and categorical memory illusions? the roles of backward associative strength and interitem connectivity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition, 38(1), pp. 229–239.
  38. Otgaar, H., Peters, M. and Howe, M.L. (2012). Dividing attention lowers children's but increases adults' false memories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition, 38(1), pp. 204–210. doi:10.1037/a0025160.
  39. Howe, M.L. (2011). The adaptive nature of memory and its illusions. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20(5), pp. 312–315. doi:10.1177/0963721411416571.
  40. Dewhurst, S.A., Knott, L.M. and Howe, M.L. (2011). Test-Induced Priming Impairs Source Monitoring Accuracy in the DRM Procedure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition, 37(4), pp. 1001–1007. doi:10.1037/a0022961.
  41. Knott, L.M., Howe, M.L., Wimmer, M.C. and Dewhurst, S.A. (2011). The development of automatic and controlled inhibitory retrieval processes in true and false recall. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 109(1), pp. 91–108. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2011.01.001.
  42. Howe, M.L., Toth, S.L. and Cicchetti, D. (2011). Can Maltreated Children Inhibit True and False Memories for Emotional Information? Child Development, 82(3), pp. 967–981. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01585.x.
  43. Howe, M.L. and Malone, C. (2011). Mood-congruent true and false memory: Effects of depression. Memory, 19(2), pp. 192–201. doi:10.1080/09658211.2010.544073.
  44. Howe, M.L., Garner, S.R., Charlesworth, M. and Knott, L. (2011). A brighter side to memory illusions: False memories prime children's and adults' insight-based problem solving. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 108(2), pp. 383–393. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2010.08.012.
  45. Howe, M.L. and Wilkinson, S. (2011). Using story contexts to bias children's true and false memories. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 108(1), pp. 77–95. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2010.06.009.
  46. Howe, M.L., Garner, S.R., Dewhurst, S.A. and Ball, L.J. (2010). Can false memories prime problem solutions? Cognition, 117(2), pp. 176–181. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2010.08.009.
  47. Cicchetti, D., Rogosch, F.A., Howe, M.L. and Toth, S.L. (2010). The effects of maltreatment and neuroendocrine regulation on memory performance. Child Development, 81(5), pp. 1504–1519. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01488.x.
  48. Wimmer, M.C. and Howe, M.L. (2010). Are children's memory illusions created differently from those of adults? Evidence from levels-of-processing and divided attention paradigms. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 107(1), pp. 31–49. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2010.03.003.
  49. Howe, M.L. and Derbish, M.H. (2010). On the susceptibility of adaptive memory to false memory illusions. Cognition, 115(2), pp. 252–267. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2009.12.016.
  50. Howe, M.L., Candel, I., Otgaar, H., Malone, C. and Wimmer, M.C. (2010). Valence and the development of immediate and long-term false memory illusions. Memory, 18(1), pp. 58–75. doi:10.1080/09658210903476514.
  51. Wimmer, M.C. and Howe, M.L. (2009). The development of automatic associative processes and children's false memories. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 104(4), pp. 447–465. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2009.07.006.
  52. Brainerd, C.J., Reyna, V.F. and Howe, M.L. (2009). Trichotomous Processes in Early Memory Development, Aging, and Neurocognitive Impairment: A Unified Theory. Psychological Review, 116(4), pp. 783–832. doi:10.1037/a0016963.
  53. Marche, T.A., Howe, M.L., Lane, D.G., Owre, K.P. and Briere, J.L. (2009). Invariance of cognitive triage in the development of recall in adulthood. Memory, 17(5), pp. 518–527. doi:10.1080/09658210902939355.
  54. Howe, M.L., Wimmer, M.C., Gagnon, N. and Plumpton, S. (2009). An associative-activation theory of children's and adults' memory illusions. Journal of Memory and Language, 60(2), pp. 229–251. doi:10.1016/j.jml.2008.10.002.
  55. Howe, M.L., Wimmer, M.C. and Blease, K. (2009). The role of associative strength in children's false memory illusions. Memory, 17(1), pp. 8–16. doi:10.1080/09658210802438474.
  56. Brainerd, C.J., Yang, Y., Reyna, V.F., Howe, M.L. and Mills, B.A. (2008). Semantic processing in "associative" false memory. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 15(6), pp. 1035–1053. doi:10.3758/PBR.15.6.1035.
  57. Howe, M.L. (2008). What Is False Memory Development the Development of? Comment on Brainerd, Reyna, and Ceci (2008). Psychological Bulletin, 134(5), pp. 768–772. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.134.5.768.
  58. Howe, M.L., Gagnon, N. and Thouas, L. (2008). Development of false memories in bilingual children and adults. Journal of Memory and Language, 58(3), pp. 669–681. doi:10.1016/j.jml.2007.09.001.
  59. Howe, M.L. (2008). Visual distinctiveness and the development of children's false memories. Child Development, 79(1), pp. 65–79. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01111.x.
  60. Howe, M.L. (2007). Children's emotional false memories. Psychological Science, 18(10), pp. 856–860. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01991.x.
  61. Howe, M.L. (2006). Developmental invariance in distinctiveness effects in memory. Developmental Psychology, 42(6), pp. 1193–1205. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.42.6.1193.
  62. Howe, M.L., Cicchetti, D. and Toth, S.L. (2006). Children's basic memory processes, stress, and maltreatment. Development and Psychopathology, 18(3), pp. 759–769. doi:10.1017/S0954579406060378.
  63. Howe, M.L. (2006). Developmentally invariant dissociations in children's true and false memories: Not all relatedness is created equal. Child Development, 77(4), pp. 1112–1123. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00922.x.
  64. Howe, M.L. (2005). Children (but not adults) can inhibit false memories. Psychological Science, 16(12), pp. 927–931. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2005.01638.x.
  65. Howe, M.L. and Lewis, M.D. (2005). The importance of dynamic systems approaches for understanding development. Developmental Review, 25(3-4), pp. 247–251. doi:10.1016/j.dr.2005.09.002.
  66. Courage, M.L., Edison, S.C. and Howe, M.L. (2004). Variability in the early development of visual self-recognition. Infant Behavior and Development, 27(4), pp. 509–532. doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2004.06.001.
  67. Howe, M.L., Cicchetti, D., Toth, S.L. and Cerrito, B.M. (2004). True and false memories in maltreated children. Child Development, 75(5), pp. 1402–1417. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00748.x.
  68. Howe, M.L. (2004). The Role of Conceptual Recoding in Reducing Children's Retroactive Interference. Developmental Psychology, 40(2), pp. 131–139. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.40.2.131.
  69. Courage, M.L. and Howe, M.L. (2004). Advances in early memory development research: Insights about the dark side of the moon. Developmental Review, 24(1), pp. 6–32. doi:10.1016/j.dr.2003.09.005.
  70. Howe, M.L. and Courage, M.L. (2004). Demystifying the beginnings of memory. Developmental Review, 24(1), pp. 1–5. doi:10.1016/j.dr.2003.09.006.
  71. Courage, M.L., Howe, M.L. and Squires, S.E. (2004). Individual differences in 3.5-month-olds' visual attention: What do they predict at 1 year? Infant Behavior and Development, 27(1), pp. 19–30. doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2003.05.004.
  72. Howe, M.L., Courage, M.L. and Edison, S.C. (2003). When autobiographical memory begins. Developmental Review, 23(4), pp. 471–494. doi:10.1016/j.dr.2003.09.001.
  73. Howe, M.L. (2003). Memories from the cradle. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12(2), pp. 62–65. doi:10.1111/1467-8721.01227.
  74. Courage, M.L. and Howe, M.L. (2002). From infant to child: The dynamics of cognitive change in the second year of life. Psychological Bulletin, 128(2), pp. 250–277. doi:10.1037//0033-2909.128.2.250.
  75. Brainerd, C. and Howe, M.L. (2002). Developmental Review in the new millennium. Developmental Review, 22(1), pp. 1–4. doi:10.1006/drev.2002.0540.
  76. Rabinowitz, F.M., Howe, M.L. and Saunders, K. (2002). Age, memory load, and individual differences in working memory as determinants of class-inclusion reasoning. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 81(2), pp. 157–193. doi:10.1006/jecp.2001.2647.
  77. Howe, M.L. (2002). The role of intentional forgetting in reducing children's retroactive interference. Developmental psychology, 38(1), pp. 3–14.
  78. Howe, M. (2002). The truth about false memories. American Journal of Psychology, 115, pp. 308–314.
  79. Howe, M.L. (2002). False memory creation in children and adults. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, 115(2), pp. 308–314. doi:10.2307/1423442.
  80. Courage, M.L. and Howe, M.L. (2001). Long-term retention in 3.5-month-olds: Familiarization time and individual differences in attentional style. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 79(3), pp. 271–293. doi:10.1006/jecp.2000.2606.
  81. Howe, M.L., Courage, M.L., Vernescu, R. and Hunt, M. (2000). Distinctiveness effects in children's long-term retention. Developmental psychology, 36(6), pp. 778–792.
  82. Howe, M. (2000). Historical and future trends in studying the development of long-term retention. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 65(4), pp. 205–213.
  83. Howe, M.L. (1998). Language is Never Enough: Memories are More than Words Reveal. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 12(5), pp. 475–481.
  84. Howe, M.L. (1998). Individual differences in factors that modulate storage and retrieval of traumatic memories. Development and Psychopathology, 10(4), pp. 681–698.
  85. Howe, M.L., Rabinowitz, F.M. and Powell, T.L. (1998). Individual differences in working memory and reasoning-remembering relationships in solving class-inclusion problems. Memory and Cognition, 26(5), pp. 1089–1101.
  86. O'Sullivan, J.T. and Howe, M.L. (1998). A different view of metamemory with illustrations from children's beliefs about long-term retention. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY OF EDUCATION, 13(1), pp. 9–28.
  87. Howe, M.L. (1998). When Distinctiveness Fails, False Memories Prevail. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 71(2), pp. 170–177. doi:10.1006/jecp.1998.2469.
  88. Courage, M.L. and Howe, M.L. (1998). The Ebb and Flow of Infant Attentional Preferences: Evidence for Long-term Recognition Memory in 3-Month-Olds. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 70(1), pp. 26–53. doi:10.1006/jecp.1998.2444.
  89. Howe, M.L. (1997). Children's memory for traumatic experiences. Learning and Individual Differences, 9(2), pp. 153–174.
  90. Howe, M.L. and Rabinowitz, F.M. (1997). Categorical variables in developmental research: Methods of analysis. JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL PSYCHOLOGY, 41(4), pp. 440–443. doi:10.1006/jmps.1997.1180.
  91. Howe, M.L. and Courage, M.L. (1997). The Emergence and Early Development of Autobiographical Memory. Psychological Review, 104(3), pp. 499–523.
  92. Howe, M.L. (1997). Memory performance and competencies: Issues in growth and development - Weinert,FE, Schneider,W. APPLIED COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY, 11(3), pp. 271–273.
  93. Howe, M.L. and Courage, M.L. (1997). Independent Paths in the Development of Infant Learning and Forgetting. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 67(2), pp. 131–163. doi:10.1006/jecp.1997.2395.
  94. Howe, M.L. and O'Sullivan, J.T. (1997). What Children's Memories Tell Us about Recalling Our Childhoods: A Review of Storage and Retrieval Processes in the Development of Long-Term Retention. Developmental Review, 17(2), pp. 148–204.
  95. Howe, M. and Rabinowitz, F.M. (1997). Analyzing development, categorically. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 41, pp. 440–443.
  96. Howe, M. (1997). Memory is as memory develops: The view today, but where tomorrow? Applied Cognitive Psychology, 11, pp. 271–273.
  97. O'Sullivan, J.T., Howe, M.L. and Marche, T.A. (1996). Children's Beliefs about Long-Term Retention. Child Development, 67(6), pp. 2989–3009.
  98. O'Sullivan, J.T. and Howe, M.L. (1996). Causal attributions and reading achievement: Individual differences in low-income families. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 21(4), pp. 363–387. doi:10.1006/ceps.1996.0027.
  99. Howe, M.L. and Rabinowitz, F.M. (1996). Reasoning from memory: A lifespan inquiry into the necessity of remembering when reasoning about class inclusion. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 61(1), pp. 1–42. doi:10.1006/jecp.1996.0001.
  100. Marche, T.A. and Howe, M.L. (1995). Preschoolers Report Misinformation Despite Accurate Memory. Developmental Psychology, 31(4), pp. 554–567.
  101. Howe, M.L. (1995). Interference Effects in Young Children's Long-Term Retention. Developmental Psychology, 31(4), pp. 579–596.
  102. Howe, M.L., Courage, M.L. and Peterson, C. (1995). Intrusions in preschoolers' recall of traumatic childhood events. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 2(1), pp. 130–134. doi:10.3758/BF03214419.
  103. O Sullivan, J.T. and Howe, M.L. (1995). Metamemory and memory construction. Consciousness and Cognition, 4(1), pp. 104–110. doi:10.1006/ccog.1995.1011.
  104. Howe, M.L. (1994). Dynamic Modeling of Cognitive Development. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 58(2), pp. 181–183. doi:10.1006/jecp.1994.1031.
  105. Howe, M.L. (1994). Dynamics of cognitive development: A unifying approach to universal trends and individual differences. Learning and Individual Differences, 6(3), pp. 365–377. doi:10.1016/1041-6080(94)90023-X.
  106. Howe, M.L. and Rabinowitz, F.M. (1994). Dynamic modeling, chaos, and cognitive development. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 58(2), pp. 184–199. doi:10.1006/jecp.1994.1032.
  107. Rabinowitz, F.M., Grant, M.J., Howe, M.L. and Walsh, C. (1994). Reasoning in middle childhood: A dynamic model of performance on transitivity tasks. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 58(2), pp. 252–288. doi:10.1006/jecp.1994.1035.
  108. Howe, M.L., Courage, M.L. and Peterson, C. (1994). How can i remember when“i” wasn′t there: Long-term retention of traumatic experiences and emergence of the cognitive self. Consciousness and Cognition, 3(3-4), pp. 327–355. doi:10.1006/ccog.1994.1019.
  109. Rabinowitz, F.M. and Howe, M.L. (1994). Development of the middle concept. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 57(3), pp. 418–448. doi:10.1006/jecp.1994.1020.
  110. Howe, M. and Rabinowitz, F.M. (1994). Development, learning, and consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 17, pp. 407–407.
  111. Howe, M.L., Michael Rabinowitz, F. and Grant, M.J. (1993). On measuring (in)dependence of cognitive processes. Psychological Review, 100(4), pp. 737–747.
  112. Howe, M.L. and Courage, M.L. (1993). On resolving the enigma of infantile amnesia. Psychological Bulletin, 113(2), pp. 305–326.
  113. Howe, M.L., Courage, M.L. and Bryant-Brown, L. (1993). Reinstating Preschoolers' Memories. Developmental Psychology, 29(5), pp. 854–869.
  114. Brainerd, C.J., Reyna, V.F., Harnishfeger, K.K. and Howe, M.L. (1993). Is Retrievability Grouping Good for Recall? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 122(2), pp. 249–268.
  115. Howe, M.L. (1991). Misleading Children's Story Recall: Forgetting and Reminiscence of the Facts. Developmental Psychology, 27(5), pp. 746–762.
  116. Brainerd, C.J., Reyna, V.F., Howe, M.L. and Kevershan, J. (1991). Fuzzy-Trace Theory and Cognitive Triage in Memory Development. Developmental Psychology, 27(3), pp. 351–369.
  117. Howe, M.L. and Rabinowitz, F.M. (1991). Gist another panacea? Or just the illusion of inclusion. Developmental Review, 11(4), pp. 305–316. doi:10.1016/0273-2297(91)90016-H.
  118. Howe, M. and Rabinowitz, F.M. (1991). Development: Sequences, structure, and chaos. Annals of Theoretical Psychology, 7, pp. 65–71.
  119. Howe, M., Montevecchi, W.A., Rabinowitz, F.M. and Stones, M.J. (1991). Modeling adaptation in the next generation: A developmental perspective. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 14, pp. 100–101.
  120. Brainerd, C.J., Reyna, V.F., Howe, M.L. and Kingma, J. (1990). The development of forgetting and reminiscence. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 55(3-4) .
  121. Brainerd, C.J., Reyna, V.F. and Howe, M.L. (1990). Children's cognitive triage: Optimal retrieval or effortful processing? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 49(3), pp. 428–447. doi:10.1016/0022-0965(90)90068-J.
  122. Howe, M.L. and Rabinowitz, F.M. (1990). Resource panacea? Or just another day in the developmental forest. Developmental Review, 10(1), pp. 125–154. doi:10.1016/0273-2297(90)90007-Q.
  123. Brainerd, C.J., Reyna, V.F., Howe, M. and Kevershan, J. (1990). The last shall be first: How memory strength affects children's retrieval. Psychological Science, 1, pp. 247–252.
  124. Brainerd, C.J., Reyna, V.F., Howe, M. and Kingma, J. (1990). Development of forgetting and reminiscence. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 55(3-4) .
  125. Rabinowitz, F.M., Howe, M.L. and Lawrence, J.A. (1989). Class inclusion and working memory. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 48(3), pp. 379–409. doi:10.1016/0022-0965(89)90048-9.
  126. Howe, M.L. and Brainerd, C.J. (1989). Development of children's long-term retention. Developmental Review, 9(4), pp. 301–340. doi:10.1016/0273-2297(89)90032-4.
  127. Howe, M.L., O'Sullivan, J.T., Brainerd, C.J. and Kingma, J. (1989). Localizing the development of ability differences in organized memory. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 14(4), pp. 336–356. doi:10.1016/0361-476X(89)90020-9.
  128. Howe, M.L. and Rabinowitz, F.M. (1989). On the uninterpretability of dual-task performance. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 47(1), pp. 32–38. doi:10.1016/0022-0965(89)90059-3.
  129. Howe, M.L. and Hunter, M.A. (1986). Long-term memory in adulthood: An examination of the development of storage and retrieval processes at acquisition and retention. Developmental Review, 6(4), pp. 334–364. doi:10.1016/0273-2297(86)90017-1.
  130. Kingma, J., Brainerd, C.J. and Howe, M. (1986). Spread of encoding and the development of organization in memory. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 40, pp. 203–223.
  131. Howe, M.L., Brainerd, C.J. and Kingma, J. (1985). Development of organization in recall: A stages-of-learning analysis. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 39(2), pp. 230–251. doi:10.1016/0022-0965(85)90039-6.
  132. Howe, M., Brainerd, C.J. and Kingma, J. (1985). Storage-retrieval processes of normal and learning-disabled children: A stages-of-learning analysis of picture-word effects. Child Development, 56, pp. 1120–1133.
  133. Brainerd, C.J., Kingma, J. and Howe, M. (1985). On the development of forgetting. Child Development, 56, pp. 1103–1119.
  134. Howe, M. and Hunter, M.A. (1985). Adult age differences in storage-retrieval processes: A stages-of-learning analysis of developmental interactions in concreteness effects. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 39, pp. 130–150.
  135. Howe, M. (1985). Storage and retrieval of associative clusters: A stages-of-learning analysis of associative memory traces. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 39, pp. 34–53.
  136. HOWE, M.L., BRAINERD, C.J. and KINGMA, J. (1985). STORAGE-RETRIEVAL PROCESSES OF NORMAL AND LEARNING-DISABLED CHILDREN - A STAGES-OF-LEARNING ANALYSIS OF PICTURE-WORD EFFECTS. CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 56(5), pp. 1120–1133. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.1985.tb00181.x.
  137. Brainerd, C.J., Howe, M.L., Kingma, J. and Brainerd, S.H. (1984). On the measurement of storage and retrieval contributions to memory development. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 37(3), pp. 478–499. doi:10.1016/0022-0965(84)90072-9.
  138. Brainerd, C.J., Howe, M., Kingma, J. and Brainerd, S.H. (1984). Explaining category interference effects in associative memory. 38 pp. 454–477.
  139. Brainerd, C.J., Howe, M.L. and Kingma, J. (1982). An identifiable model of two-stage learning. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 26(3), pp. 263–293. doi:10.1016/0022-2496(82)90005-0.
  140. Brainerd, C.J., Howe, M. and Desrochers, A. (1982). The general theory of two-stage learning: A mathematical review with illustrations from memory development. Psychological Bulletin, 91, pp. 634–665.
  141. Brainerd, C.J. and Howe, M. (1982). Stages-of-learning analysis of developmental interactions in memory, with illustrations from developmental interactions in picture-word effects. Developmental Review, 2, pp. 251–273.
  142. BRAINERD, C.J., HOWE, M.L. and DESROCHERS, A. (1982). THE GENERAL-THEORY OF 2-STAGE LEARNING - A MATHEMATICAL REVIEW WITH ILLUSTRATIONS FROM MEMORY DEVELOPMENT. PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN, 91(3), pp. 634–665. doi:10.1037//0033-2909.91.3.634.
  143. Brainerd, C.J., Desrochers, A. and Howe, M. (1981). Stages-of-learning analysis of picture-word effects in associative memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 7, pp. 1–14.
  144. Brainerd, C.J., Howe, M. and Desrochers, A. (1980). Interpreting associative-learning stages. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 6, pp. 754–765.
  145. Brainerd, C.J. and Howe, M. (1980). Developmental invariance in a mathematical model of associative learning. Child Development, 51, pp. 349–363.
  146. Brainerd, C.J. and Howe, M. (1979). An attentional analysis of small cardinal number concepts in five-year-olds. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 11, pp. 112–113.
  147. Brainerd, C.J. and Howe, M. (1978). The origins of all-or-none learning. Child Development, 49, pp. 1028–1034.

Other Activities

Editorial Activities (6)

  1. Howe, M. L., & Otgaar, H. (Eds.) (2014). Adaptive memory: The emergence and nature of proximate mechanisms [Special Double Issue]. Memory, 22(1-2)..
  2. Conway, M. A., & Howe, M. L. (Eds.) (2013). Memory and the law: Case studies [Special Issue]. Memory, 21(5)..
  3. Courage, M. L., & Howe, M. L. (Eds.) (2010). Television and toddlers: The medium, the message, and their impact on early cognitive development [Special Issue]. Developmental Review, 30(2)..
  4. Howe, M. L., & Lewis, M. D. (Eds.) (2005). Development as self-organization: New approaches to the psychology and neurobiology of development [Special Issue]. Developmental Review, 25(3/4)..
  5. Howe, M. L., & Courage, M. L. (Eds.) (2004). The nature and consequences of very early memory development [Special Issue]. Developmental Review, 24[1]..
  6. .

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City, University of London is an independent member institution of the University of London. Established by Royal Charter in 1836, the University of London consists of 18 independent member institutions with outstanding global reputations and several prestigious central academic bodies and activities.