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portrait of Dr Enrique Castro-Sanchez

Dr Enrique Castro-Sanchez

Lecturer in Adult Nursing

School of Health Sciences, Division of Nursing

Contact Information


Postal Address

City, University of London
Northampton Square
United Kingdom



Enrique Castro-Sánchez is Lecturer in Adult Nursing, a position he combines with an NIHR Senior Nurse Research Leader role. He is also an honorary lecturer at Imperial College London, and Honorary Consultant nurse in Communication and Patient Engagement. Enrique is a visiting lecturer at Shifa University (Pakistan) and visiting researcher in global health at the University of Balearic Islands (Spain).

Enrique previously worked as Lead Academic Nurse for Research at the Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare-Associated Infection and Antimicrobial Resistance at Imperial College London, researching on innovations in behaviour change, technology and patient safety to improve infection prevention and antimicrobial use. He has held several clinical posts always focused on infectious and tropical diseases, infection prevention and control, including advanced nurse practice in HIV/AIDS, and specialists nursing in tuberculosis. Enrique has also served as Consultant at the Global Infection Prevention and Control Unit at the World Health Organization, and is currently rostered as an expert in implementation of antimicrobial stewardship for WHO.

Enrique's research interests embrace 3 broad areas, where he is happy to supervise MSc and PhD theses:
- Health literacy and patient/citizen engagement in infectious diseases, vaccination, and antibiotic use.
- Emerging areas of nurse education: antimicrobial stewardship, leadership, and political advocacy.
- Development and evaluation of healthcare workforce and education, in particular nurse- and community worker-based models.

He was awarded a PhD cum laude in Nursing at the University of Alicante (Spain) in 2015, and has an MSc in Public Health by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical. Enrique is a Florence Nightingale Foundation Scholar; an associate editor of BMC Public Health, PLOS ONE, JAC-AMR and Frontiers in Digital Health journals; a Fellow of the European Academy of Nursing Science; and was designated as Emerging Leader in International Infectious Diseases in 2016 by the International Society for Infectious Diseases.


  1. PhD, University of Alicante, Spain, Sep 2015
  2. MSc, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom, 2003
  3. BSc, Universidad de Córdoba, Spain, 1997

Postgraduate training

  1. Independent Non-Medical Prescribing, University of Winchester, Winchester, United Kingdom, 2005
  2. Diploma in Management of Nursing Services, National University of Distance Education, Madrid, Spain, 2001
  3. Diploma in Tropical Nursing, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom, 2000


  1. Lecturer, Adult Nursing, City, University London, May 2020 – present
  2. 70@70 Senior Nurse and Midwife Research Leader, National Institute for Health Research, Mar 2020 – present
  3. Honorary Consultant Nurse in Communication and Patient Involvement, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Jun 2016 – present
  4. Lead Academic Research Nurse, Imperial College London, Jan 2012 – May 2020
  5. National Adviser Sexual Health & HIV, Royal College of Nursing, Aug 2007 – Apr 2008
  6. Specialist HIV Nurse, Camden and Islington NHS Foundation Trust, Apr 2005 – Jan 2012
  7. Associate Lecturer, Open University, Apr 2004 – Jun 2013
  8. Specialist Tuberculosis Nurse, Camden and Islington NHS Foundation Trust, Apr 2004 – Apr 2005
  9. Staff nurse, Camden and Islington NHS Foundation Trust, May 2003 – Jan 2004
  10. Staff nurse, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Mar 2000 – Dec 2002
  11. Staff nurse, Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Jan – Nov 1999

Visiting appointments

  1. Visiting Faculty, Shifa University, Islamabad, Pakistan., Jun 2020 – present
  2. Visiting Researcher, Universitat d’Illes Balears, Global Health Unit, Palma, Spain., Oct 2017 – present


  1. Wellcome Trust ISSF Faculty Fellow, Imperial College London, Oct 2017 – Jun 2018
  2. Early Career Research Fellow, Antimicrobial Resistance Collaborative at Imperial College London, Nov 2015 – Oct 2016

Memberships of committees

  1. Expert on Infectious Diseases, Spanish Parliament, under the Science in Parliament’ initiative, Aug 2018 – present
  2. Member, Healthcare Infection Society Grants Committee, Jul 2018 – present
  3. Member, expert committee, NICE Centre for Guidelines, Sep 2017 – present
  4. Member, Imperial College London Engagement Academy, Jun 2017 – present

Memberships of professional organisations

  1. Member, Joanna Briggs Institute Infection Control Expert Reference Group
  2. Member, European Academy of Nursing Science
  3. Member, European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases


English (can read, write, speak, understand spoken and peer review) and Spanish; Castilian (can read, write, speak, understand spoken and peer review).


Geographic Areas

  • Africa
  • Americas - Latin
  • Europe

Research Students

Zulema Gancedo Gonzalez

Attendance: Dec 2019 – present, part-time

Thesis title: Social determinants of tobacco cessation among patients referred to the hospital-based service in Cantabria

Role: 2nd Supervisor

Further information: Student at Universidad de Alcala (Spain).

Ian Blanco-Mavillard

Attendance: Sep 2017 – present, part-time

Thesis title: ‘Prevention of bloodstream infections associated with the use of central and peripheral catheters via a multimodal intervention

Role: 2nd Supervisor

Further information: Universidad de Iles Balears (Spain).

Ana Cristina Cabellos Garcia

Attendance: Sep 2016 – present, part-time

Thesis title: Self-efficacy and health literacy in oral anticoagulation patients aged 50-75 years old in Valencia, Spain

Role: 2nd Supervisor

Further information: Universidad de Valencia (Spain).


  1. Santillan-Garcia, A., Zaforteza-Lallemand, C. and Castro-Sanchez, E. (2020). Nurses as political knowledge brokers, opportunities for growth in the Spanish context. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 110. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2020.103690.
  2. Rosser, E., Westcott, L., Ali, P.A., Bosanquet, J., Castro-Sanchez, E., Dewing, J. … Witham, G. (2020). The Need for Visible Nursing Leadership During COVID-19. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 52(5), pp. 459–461. doi:10.1111/jnu.12587.
  3. Castro-Sánchez, E., Black, C.A., Whitehouse, C., Hare, N., Tinkler, L., Maxton, F. … Grieve, S. (2020). The NIHR 70@70 programme: Transforming research. British Journal of Nursing, 29(4), pp. 240–241. doi:10.12968/bjon.2020.29.4.240.

Books (2)

  1. Castro-Sanchez, E. (2020). Antimicrobial Resistance and Vaccination Guide. Omen, B., Castro-Sanchez, E. and Verkerk, J. (Eds.), Amsterdam: European Specialist Nurses Organisation.
  2. Courtenay, M. and Castro-Sanchez, E. (Eds.), (2019). Antimicrobial Stewardship for Nursing Practice. London: CABI. ISBN 978-1-78926-984-0.

Chapters (6)

  1. Castro-Sanchez, E. (2016). Gestión del cambio. Herramientas y liderazgo. Oportunidades y amenazas. En La Aportación Enfermera a la Sostenibilidad del Sistema Sanitario. Repercusión Económica de los Cuidados. Madrid: Fundación Economía y Salud. ISBN 978-84-617-4609-5.
  2. Castro-Sánchez, E., Charani, E., Moore, L., Gharbi, M. and Holmes, A. (2014). “On call: antibiotics”- development and evaluation of a serious antimicrobial prescribing game for hospital care. Games for Health 2014 (pp. 1–7). Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden. ISBN 978-3-658-07140-0.
  3. Castro-Sanchez, E. Antimicrobial Prescribing in Practice. In Courtenay, M. and Castro-Sanchez, E. (Eds.), Antimicrobial Stewardship for Nursing Practice London: CABI. ISBN 978-1-78926-984-0.
  4. Castro-Sanchez, E. The role of the nurse in stewardship. Antimicrobial stewardship: from principles to practice London: British Society Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.
  5. Castro-Sánchez, E., Holmes, A. and Pittet, D. Institutional Safety Climate. Hand Hygiene (pp. 193–200). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. ISBN 978-1-118-84686-5.
  6. Castro-Sanchez, E. Antimicrobial prescribing. In Courtenay, M. and Griffiths, M. (Eds.), In Independent and Supplementary Prescribing Cambridge University Press.

Conference papers and proceedings (3)

  1. Castro-Sánchez, E., Charani, E., Moore, L.S.P., Gharbi, M. and Holmes, A.H. (2014). Taking antimicrobial stewardship initiatives to the next level: Development of a serious prescribing game for acute care.
  2. Castro-Sánchez, E., Farrell, S., Drumright, L. and Holmes, A.H. (2014). Do we need to review and escalate the antimicrobial stewardship education in health and veterinary undergraduate courses in the United Kingdom? Results of a national survey.
  3. Castro-Sanchez, E., Edwards, S.G., Minton, J. and Benn, P.D. (2009). Simplifying to Atripla: not always simple?

Journal articles (109)

  1. Castro-Sanchez, E., Alexander, C.M., Atchison, C., Patel, D., Leung, W., Calamita, M.D. … Wells, M. (2020). Evaluation of a Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) support programme (‘PPE Helpers’) for staff during the COVID-19 pandemic in London. Journal of Hospital Infection.
  2. Tsioutis, C., Birgand, G., Bathoorn, E., Deptula, A., ten Horn, L., Castro-Sánchez, E. … Mutters, N.T. (2020). Education and training programmes for infection prevention and control professionals: mapping the current opportunities and local needs in European countries. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 9(1). doi:10.1186/s13756-020-00835-1.
  3. Veepanattu, P., Singh, S., Mendelson, M., Nampoothiri, V., Edathadatil, F., Surendran, S. … Charani, E. (2020). Building resilient and responsive research collaborations to tackle antimicrobial resistance—Lessons learnt from India, South Africa, and UK. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 100, pp. 278–282. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.08.057.
  4. Cortes, R., Bennasar-Veny, M., Castro-Sanchez, E., Fresneda, S., de Pedro-Gomez, J. and Yañez, A. (2020). Nutrition screening tools for risk of malnutrition among hospitalized patients: A protocol for systematic review and meta analysis. Medicine, 99(43). doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000022601.
  5. Blanco-Mavillard, I., Parra-Garcia, G., Fernandez-Fernandez, I., Rodriguez-Calero, M.A., Personat-Labrador, C. and Castro-Sanchez, E. (2020). Care of peripheral intravenous catheters in three hospitals in Spain: Mapping clinical outcomes and implementation of clinical practice guidelines. PLoS One. doi:10.1101/2020.09.04.20187989.
  6. Vila-Candel, R., Martínez-Arnau, F.M., de la Cámara-De las Heras, J.M., Castro-Sánchez, E. and Pérez-Ros, P. (2020). Interventions to improve health among reproductive-age women of low health literacy: A systematic review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(20), pp. 1–17. doi:10.3390/ijerph17207405.
  7. Pouwels, K.B., Roope, L.S.J., Buchanan, J., Morrell, L., Tonkin-Crine, S., Peters, M. … Wordsworth, S. (2020). Awareness of appropriate antibiotic use in primary care for influenza-like illness: Evidence of improvement from UK population-based surveys. Antibiotics, 9(10), pp. 1–16. doi:10.3390/antibiotics9100690.
  8. Courtenay, M., Burnett, E., Castro-Sánchez, E., Du Toit, B., Figueiredo, R.M., Gallagher, R. … Padoveze, M.C. (2020). Preparing nurses for COVID-19 response efforts through involvement in antimicrobial stewardship programmes. Journal of Hospital Infection, 106(1), pp. 176–178. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2020.06.011.
  9. Castro-Sánchez, E., Mena-Tudela, D., Soriano-Vidal, F.J. and Vila-Candel, R. (2020). Health literacy: A crucial determinant of vaccination decision-making. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 97, pp. 202–203. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.05.081.
  10. Rawson, T.M., Moore, L.S.P., Castro-Sanchez, E., Charani, E., Davies, F., Satta, G. … Holmes, A.H. (2020). COVID-19 and the potential long-term impact on antimicrobial resistance. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 75(7), pp. 1681–1684. doi:10.1093/jac/dkaa194.
  11. Masson, C., Birgand, G., Castro-Sánchez, E., Eichel, V.M., Comte, A., Terrisse, H. … Landelle, C. (2020). Is virtual reality effective to teach prevention of surgical site infections in the operating room? study protocol for a randomised controlled multicentre trial entitled VIP Room study. BMJ Open, 10(6). doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-037299.
  12. Castro-Sanchez, E. (2020). Pandemia por SARS-COV-2, el primer reto para la enfermería planetaria. Revista Iberoamericana de Enfermería Comunitaria.
  13. Mena-Tudela, D., González-Chordá, V.M., Soriano-Vidal, F.J., Bonanad-Carrasco, T., Centeno-Rico, L., Vila-Candel, R. … Cervera Gasch, Á. (2020). Changes in health sciences students' perception of obstetric violence after an educational intervention. Nurse Education Today, 88. doi:10.1016/j.nedt.2020.104364.
  14. Rodríguez-Calero, M.A., Blanco-Mavillard, I., Morales-Asencio, J.M., Fernández-Fernández, I., Castro-Sánchez, E. and de Pedro-Gómez, J.E. (2020). Defining risk factors associated with difficult peripheral venous Cannulation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Heart and Lung, 49(3), pp. 273–286. doi:10.1016/j.hrtlng.2020.01.009.
  15. Castro-Sánchez, E. and Santillán-García, A. (2020). Smart Lobbying for Minimum Nurse Staffing Ratios in Spain: Not Just Numbers. Policy, Politics, and Nursing Practice, 21(2), pp. 60–61. doi:10.1177/1527154420923753.
  16. Macduff, C., Marie Rafferty, A., Prendiville, A., Currie, K., Castro-Sanchez, E., King, C. … Iedema, R. (2020). Fostering nursing innovation to prevent and control antimicrobial resistance using approaches from the arts and humanities. Journal of Research in Nursing, 25(3), pp. 189–207. doi:10.1177/1744987120914718.
  17. Roope, L.S.J., Tonkin-Crine, S., Herd, N., Michie, S., Pouwels, K.B., Castro-Sanchez, E. … Wordsworth, S. (2020). Reducing expectations for antibiotics in primary care: A randomised experiment to test the response to fear-based messages about antimicrobial resistance. BMC Medicine, 18(1). doi:10.1186/s12916-020-01553-6.
  18. Vila-Candel, R., Navarro-Illana, E., Mena-Tudela, D., Pérez-Ros, P., Castro-Sánchez, E., Soriano-Vidal, F.J. … Quesada, J.A. (2020). Influence of puerperal health literacy on tobacco use during pregnancy among spanish women: A transversal study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(8). doi:10.3390/ijerph17082910.
  19. Vila-Candel, R., Martín, A., Escuriet, R., Castro-Sánchez, E. and Soriano-Vidal, F.J. (2020). Analysis of caesarean section rates using the robson classification system at a university hospital in Spain. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(5). doi:10.3390/ijerph17051575.
  20. Cabellos-García, A.C., Castro-Sánchez, E., Martínez-Sabater, A., Díaz-Herrera, M.Á., Ocaña-Ortiz, A., Juárez-Vela, R. … Gea-Caballero, V. (2020). Relationship between determinants of health, equity, and dimensions of health literacy in patients with cardiovascular disease. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(6). doi:10.3390/ijerph17062082.
  21. Vila-Candel, R., Soriano-Vidal, F.J., Mena-Tudela, D., Quesada, J.A. and Castro-Sánchez, E. (2020). Health literacy of pregnant women and duration of breastfeeding maintenance: A feasibility study. Journal of Advanced Nursing. doi:10.1111/jan.14625.
  22. Courtenay, M., Castro-Sánchez, E., Gallagher, R., McEwen, J., Bulabula, A.N.H., Carre, Y. … Van Zyl, Y. (2019). Development of consensus-based international antimicrobial stewardship competencies for undergraduate nurse education. Journal of Hospital Infection, 103(3), pp. 244–250. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2019.08.001.
  23. Castro-Sánchez, E., Gilchrist, M., Ahmad, R., Courtenay, M., Bosanquet, J. and Holmes, A.H. (2019). Nurse roles in antimicrobial stewardship: Lessons from public sectors models of acute care service delivery in the United Kingdom. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 8(1). doi:10.1186/s13756-019-0621-4.
  24. Blanco-Mavillard, I., Rodríguez-Calero, M.Á., De Pedro-Gómez, J., Parra-García, G., Fernández-Fernández, I. and Castro-Sánchez, E. (2019). Incidence of peripheral intravenous catheter failure among inpatients: Variability between microbiological data and clinical signs and symptoms. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 8(1). doi:10.1186/s13756-019-0581-8.
  25. Kyratsis, Y., Ahmad, R., Iwami, M., Castro-Sánchez, E., Atun, R. and Holmes, A.H. (2019). A multilevel neo-institutional analysis of infection prevention and control in English hospitals: coerced safety culture change? Sociology of Health and Illness, 41(6), pp. 1138–1158. doi:10.1111/1467-9566.12897.
  26. Charani, E., Ahmad, R., Rawson, T.M., Castro-Sanchèz, E., Tarrant, C. and Holmes, A.H. (2019). The Differences in Antibiotic Decision-making Between Acute Surgical and Acute Medical Teams: An Ethnographic Study of Culture and Team Dynamics. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 69(1), pp. 12–20. doi:10.1093/cid/ciy844.
  27. Castro-Sánchez, E., Sood, A., Rawson, T.M., Firth, J. and Holmes, A.H. (2019). Forecasting Implementation, Adoption, and Evaluation Challenges for an Electronic Game–Based Antimicrobial Stewardship Intervention: Co-Design Workshop With Multidisciplinary Stakeholders (Preprint). . doi:10.2196/preprints.13365.
  28. Castro-Sánchez, E., Sood, A., Rawson, T.M., Firth, J. and Holmes, A.H. (2019). Forecasting implementation, adoption, and evaluation challenges for an electronic game–based antimicrobial stewardship intervention: Co-design workshop with multidisciplinary stakeholders. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 21(6). doi:10.2196/13365.
  29. Zingg, W., Storr, J., Park, B.J., Ahmad, R., Tarrant, C., Castro-Sanchez, E. … Pittet, D. (2019). Implementation research for the prevention of antimicrobial resistance and healthcare-associated infections; 2017 Geneva infection prevention and control (IPC)-think tank (part 1). Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 8(1). doi:10.1186/s13756-019-0527-1.
  30. Zingg, W., Park, B.J., Storr, J., Ahmad, R., Tarrant, C., Castro-Sanchez, E. … Walsh, T. (2019). Technology for the prevention of antimicrobial resistance and healthcare-associated infections; 2017 Geneva IPC-Think Tank (Part 2). Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 8(1). doi:10.1186/s13756-019-0538-y.
  31. Zingg, W., Storr, J., Park, B.J., Jernigan, J.A., Harbarth, S., Grayson, M.L. … Widmer, A. (2019). Broadening the infection prevention and control network globally; 2017 Geneva IPC-think tank (part 3). Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 8(1). doi:10.1186/s13756-019-0528-0.
  32. Courtenay, M., Castro-Sanchez, E., Fitzpatrick, M., Gallagher, R., Lim, R. and Morris, G. (2019). Tackling antimicrobial resistance 2019–2024 – The UK's five-year national action plan. Journal of Hospital Infection, 101(4), pp. 426–427. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2019.02.019.
  33. Gea-Caballero, V., Castro-Sánchez, E., Díaz-Herrera, M.Á., Sarabia-Cobo, C., Juárez-Vela, R. and Zabaleta-Del Olmo, E. (2019). Motivations, Beliefs, and Expectations of Spanish Nurses Planning Migration for Economic Reasons: A Cross-Sectional, Web-Based Survey. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 51(2), pp. 178–186. doi:10.1111/jnu.12455.
  34. Bermúdez-Tamayo, C., Hernández, M.N., Alguacil, J., Vozmediano, E.B., Cantarero, D., Portiño, M.C. … Alvarez-Dardet, C. (2019). GACETA SANITARIA in 2018. Strengthening the presence in Latin America and promoting the publication of essential issues for the National Health System. Gaceta Sanitaria, 33(2), pp. 95–98. doi:10.1016/j.gaceta.2019.02.002.
  35. Courtenay, M., Lim, R., Castro-Sanchez, E., Deslandes, R., Hodson, K., Morris, G. … White, P. (2019). Corrigendum to “Development of consensus-based national antimicrobial stewardship competencies for UK undergraduate healthcare professional education” [J Hosp Infect 100 (2018) 245–256] (Journal of Hospital Infection (2018) 100(3) (245–256), (S0195670118303578), (10.1016/j.jhin.2018.06.022)). Journal of Hospital Infection, 101(3), p. 366. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2019.01.007.
  36. Charani, E., Castro-Sanchéz, E., Bradley, S., Nathwani, D., Holmes, A.H. and Davey, P. (2019). Implementation of antibiotic stewardship in different settings - Results of an international survey. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 8(1). doi:10.1186/s13756-019-0493-7.
  37. Vila-Candel, R., Soriano-Vidal, F.J., Murillo-Llorente, M., Pérez-Bermejo, M. and Castro-Sánchez, E. (2019). Maintenance of exclusive breastfeeding after three months postpartum: An experience in a health department of a Valencian Community. Atencion Primaria, 51(2), pp. 91–98. doi:10.1016/j.aprim.2017.09.002.
  38. Vila-Candel, R., Soriano-Vidal, F.J. and Castro-Sánchez, E. (2019). Third trimester ultrasound scan combined with a clinical method for accurate birthweight prediction at term: A cohort study in Spain. Revista Colombiana de Obstetricia y Ginecologia, 70(1), pp. 27–38. doi:10.18597/rcog.3201.
  39. Ruiz Cantero, M.T., Sánchez, E.C. and Pastor, M.V.Z. (2019). Request for articles on the effects of the Great Recession and the austerity policies on the health of the Spanish population. Gaceta Sanitaria, 33(1), p. 3. doi:10.1016/j.gaceta.2018.12.002.
  40. Courtenay, M., Lim, R., Castro-Sanchez, E., Deslandes, R., Hodson, K., Morris, G. … White, P. (2018). Development of consensus-based national antimicrobial stewardship competencies for UK undergraduate healthcare professional education. Journal of Hospital Infection, 100(3), pp. 245–256. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2018.06.022.
  41. Cabellos-García, A.C., Martínez-Sabater, A., Castro-Sánchez, E., Kangasniemi, M., Juárez-Vela, R. and Gea-Caballero, V. (2018). Relation between health literacy, self-care and adherence to treatment with oral anticoagulants in adults: A narrative systematic review. BMC Public Health, 18(1). doi:10.1186/s12889-018-6070-9.
  42. Blanco-Mavillard, I., Rodríguez-Calero, M.A., Castro-Sánchez, E., Bennasar-Veny, M. and De Pedro-Gómez, J. (2018). Appraising the quality standard underpinning international clinical practice guidelines for the selection and care of vascular access devices: A systematic review of reviews. BMJ Open, 8(10). doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-021040.
  43. Courtenay, M., Castro-Sánchez, E., Deslandes, R., Hodson, K., Lim, R., Morris, G. … Weiss, M. (2018). Defining antimicrobial stewardship competencies for undergraduate health professional education in the United Kingdom: A study protocol. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 32(5), pp. 638–640. doi:10.1080/13561820.2018.1463200.
  44. Alividza, V., Mariano, V., Ahmad, R., Charani, E., Rawson, T.M., Holmes, A.H. … Castro-Sánchez, E. (2018). Investigating the impact of poverty on colonization and infection with drug-resistant organisms in humans: A systematic review. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 7(1). doi:10.1186/s40249-018-0459-7.
  45. Castro-Sánchez, E., Bennasar-Veny, M., Smith, M., Singleton, S., Bennett, E., Appleton, J. … Gallagher, R. (2018). European Commission guidelines for the prudent use of antimicrobials in human health: a missed opportunity to embrace nursing participation in stewardship. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 24(8), pp. 914–915. doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2018.02.030.
  46. Blanco-Mavillard, I., Bennasar-Veny, M., De Pedro-Gómez, J.E., Moya-Suarez, A.B., Parra-Garcia, G., Rodríguez-Calero, M.Á. … Gómez-Queipo, V. (2018). Implementation of a knowledge mobilization model to prevent peripheral venous catheter-related adverse events: PREBACP study-a multicenter cluster-randomized trial protocol. Implementation Science, 13(1). doi:10.1186/s13012-018-0792-z.
  47. Castro-Sánchez, E., Vila-Candel, R., Soriano-Vidal, F.J., Navarro-Illana, E. and Díez-Domingo, J. (2018). Influence of health literacy on acceptance of influenza and pertussis vaccinations: A cross-sectional study among Spanish pregnant women. BMJ Open, 8(7). doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2018-022132.
  48. Nellums, L.B., Thompson, H., Holmes, A., Castro-Sánchez, E., Otter, J.A., Norredam, M. … Hargreaves, S. (2018). Antimicrobial resistance among migrants in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 18(7), pp. 796–811. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30219-6.
  49. Soriano-Vidal, F.J., Vila-Candel, R., Soriano-Martín, P.J., Tejedor-Tornero, A. and Castro-Sánchez, E. (2018). The effect of prenatal education classes on the birth expectations of Spanish women. Midwifery, 60, pp. 41–47. doi:10.1016/j.midw.2018.02.002.
  50. Vila-Candel, R., Duke, K., Soriano-Vidal, F.J. and Castro-Sánchez, E. (2018). Affect of Early Skin-to-Skin Mother–Infant Contact in the Maintenance of Exclusive Breastfeeding: Experience in a Health Department in Spain. Journal of Human Lactation, 34(2), pp. 304–312. doi:10.1177/0890334416676469.
  51. Macduff, C., Rafferty, A.M., Prendiville, A., Currie, K., Castro-Sánchez, E., King, C. … Iedema, R. (2018). Antimicrobial resistance: Join us for a fresh approach. British Journal of Nursing, 27(7), p. 356. doi:10.12968/bjon.2018.27.7.356.
  52. Cabellos-García, A.C., Castro-Sánchez, E., Martínez-Sabater, A. and Gea-Caballero, V.A. (2018). Influence of health literacy on oral anticoagulation therapy: A factor yet to be known. Atencion Primaria, 50(4), pp. 256–257. doi:10.1016/j.aprim.2017.03.012.
  53. Rawson, T.M., Moore, L.S.P., Castro-Sanchez, E., Charani, E., Hernandez, B., Alividza, V. … Holmes, A.H. (2018). Development of a patient-centred intervention to improve knowledge and understanding of antibiotic therapy in secondary care. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 7(1). doi:10.1186/s13756-018-0333-1.
  54. Bermúdez-Tamayo, C., Hernández, M.N., Alguacil, J., Vozmediano, E.B., Cantarero, D., Portiño, M.C. … Alvarez-Dardet, C. (2018). GACETA SANITARIA in 2017. Improving the quality of our journal. Gaceta Sanitaria, 32(2), pp. 129–134. doi:10.1016/j.gaceta.2018.02.002.
  55. Birgand, G., Castro-Sánchez, E., Hansen, S., Gastmeier, P., Lucet, J.C., Ferlie, E. … Ahmad, R. (2018). Comparison of governance approaches for the control of antimicrobial resistance: Analysis of three European countries. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 7(1). doi:10.1186/s13756-018-0321-5.
  56. Budhathoki, S.S., Bhattachan, M., Castro-Sánchez, E., Sagtani, R.A., Rayamajhi, R.B., Rai, P. … Sharma, G. (2018). Menstrual hygiene management among women and adolescent girls in the aftermath of the earthquake in Nepal. BMC Women's Health, 18(1). doi:10.1186/s12905-018-0527-y.
  57. Rawson, T.M., Castro-Sánchez, E., Charani, E., Husson, F., Moore, L.S.P., Holmes, A.H. … Ahmad, R. (2018). Involving citizens in priority setting for public health research: Implementation in infection research. Health Expectations, 21(1), pp. 222–229. doi:10.1111/hex.12604.
  58. Gea-Caballero, V., Castro-Sánchez, E., Júarez-Vela, R., Díaz-Herrera, M.Á., de Miguel-Montoya, I. and Martínez-Riera, J.R. (2018). Essential elements of professional nursing environments in Primary Care and their influence on the quality of care. Enfermeria Clinica, 28(1), pp. 27–35. doi:10.1016/j.enfcli.2017.07.008.
  59. Gea-Caballero, V., Castro-Sánchez, E., Juárez-Vela, R., Sarabia-Cobo, C., Diáz-Herrera, M.Á. and Martínez-Riera, J.R. (2018). Professional practice environment in nursing. Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica/Pan American Journal of Public Health, 42. doi:10.26633/RPSP.2018.48.
  60. Castro-Sánchez, E., Iwami, M., Ahmad, R., Atun, R. and Holmes, A.H. (2018). Articulating citizen participation in national anti-microbial resistance plans: A comparison of European countries. European Journal of Public Health, 28(5), pp. 928–934. doi:10.1093/eurpub/cky128.
  61. Lishman, H., Aylin, P., Alividza, V., Castro-Sanchez, E., Chatterjee, A., Mariano, V. … Costelloe, C. (2017). Investigating the burden of antibiotic resistance in ethnic minority groups in high-income countries: Protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis. Systematic Reviews, 6(1). doi:10.1186/s13643-017-0654-9.
  62. Mariano, V.D. and Castro-Sánchez, E. (2017). Partnering With Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis to Prevent Catheter-Associated Bloodstream Infections. JAVA - Journal of the Association for Vascular Access, 22(4), pp. 210–213. doi:10.1016/
  63. Pellicer-García, B., Antón-Solanas, I., Moreno-González, S., Castro-Sánchez, E. and Juárez-Vela, R. (2017). Prevalence of Depression and Associated Factors in Non-institutionalized Older Adults With a Previous History of Falling. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 31(5), pp. 493–498. doi:10.1016/j.apnu.2017.06.006.
  64. Rawson, T.M., Moore, L.S.P., Charani, E., Castro-Sanchez, E., Holmes, A.H., Hernandez, B. … Hayhoe, B. (2017). A systematic review of clinical decision support systems for antimicrobial management: are we failing to investigate these interventions appropriately? Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 23(8), pp. 524–532. doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2017.02.028.
  65. Birgand, G., Troughton, R., Moore, L.S.P., Charani, E., Rawson, T.M., Castro-Sánchez, E. … Holmes, A.H. (2017). Blogging in infectious diseases and clinical microbiology: Assessment of 'blogosphere' content. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 38(7), pp. 832–839. doi:10.1017/ice.2017.69.
  66. Bermúdez-Tamayo, C., Hernández, M.N., Bolívar, J., Vozmediano, E.B., Cantarero, D., Portiño, M.C. … Álvarez-Dardet, C. (2017). GACETA SANITARIA in 2016. A new stage; the strengthening of e-Gaceta and its internationalisation. Gaceta Sanitaria, 31(2), pp. 77–81. doi:10.1016/j.gaceta.2017.02.002.
  67. Charani, E., Gharbi, M., Moore, L.S.P., Castro-Sanchéz, E., Lawson, W., Gilchrist, M. … Holmes, A.H. (2017). Effect of adding a mobile health intervention to a multimodal antimicrobial stewardship programme across three teaching hospitals: An interrupted time series study. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 72(6), pp. 1825–1831. doi:10.1093/jac/dkx040.
  68. Micallef, C., Kildonaviciute, K., Castro-Sánchez, E., Scibor-Stepien, A., Santos, R., Aliyu, S.H. … Enoch, D.A. (2017). Patient and public understanding and knowledge of antimicrobial resistance and stewardship in a UK hospital: Should public campaigns change focus? Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 72(1), pp. 311–314. doi:10.1093/jac/dkw387.
  69. Boyd, S.E., Moore, L.S.P., Gilchrist, M., Costelloe, C., Castro-Sánchez, E., Franklin, B.D. … Holmes, A.H. (2017). Obtaining antibiotics online from within the UK: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 72(5), pp. 1521–1528. doi:10.1093/jac/dkx003.
  70. Pereira, N.R., Castro-Sanchez, E. and Nathwani, D. (2017). How can multi-professional education support better stewardship? Infectious Disease Reports, 9(1), pp. 1–7. doi:10.4081/idr.2017.6917.
  71. Vila-Candel, R., Castro-Sánchez, E. and Soriano-Vidal, F.J. (2017). What are the main reasons for visiting a blog which contains pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding information? Matronas Profesion, 18(2).
  72. Iwami, M., Ahmad, R., Castro-Sánchez, E., Birgand, G., Johnson, A.P. and Holmes, A. (2017). Capacity of English NHS hospitals to monitor quality in infection prevention and control using a new European framework: A multilevel qualitative analysis. BMJ Open, 7(1). doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-012520.
  73. Rawson, T.M., Charani, E., Moore, L.S.P., Hernandez, B., Castro-Sánchez, E., Herrero, P. … Holmes, A.H. (2016). Mapping the decision pathways of acute infection management in secondary care among UK medical physicians: A qualitative study. BMC Medicine, 14(1). doi:10.1186/s12916-016-0751-y.
  74. Soriano-Vidal, F.J., Vila-Candel, R., Navarro-Illana, P., Martínez-Casas, J.M. and Castro-Sánchez, E. (2016). Identifying Research Priorities in Midwifery, a Multinational Delphi Survey. Birth, 43(4), pp. 366–367. doi:10.1111/birt.12250.
  75. Vila-Candel, R., Navarro-Illana, P., Navarro-Illana, E., Castro-Sánchez, E., Duke, K., Soriano-Vidal, F.J. … Díez-Domingo, J. (2016). Determinants of seasonal influenza vaccination in pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. BMC Public Health, 16(1), pp. 1–7. doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3823-1.
  76. Rawson, T.M., Butters, T.P., Moore, L.S.P., Castro-Sánchez, E., Cooke, F.J. and Holmes, A.H. (2016). Exploring the coverage of antimicrobial stewardship across UK clinical postgraduate training curricula. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 71(11), pp. 3284–3292. doi:10.1093/jac/dkw280.
  77. Castro-Sánchez, E., Kyratsis, Y., Iwami, M., Rawson, T.M. and Holmes, A.H. (2016). Serious electronic games as behavioural change interventions in healthcare-associated infections and infection prevention and control: A scoping review of the literature and future directions. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 5(1). doi:10.1186/s13756-016-0137-0.
  78. Rawson, T.M., Moore, L.S.P., Hernandez, B., Castro-Sanchez, E., Charani, E., Georgiou, P. … Holmes, A.H. (2016). Patient engagement with infection management in secondary care: A qualitative investigation of current experiences. BMJ Open, 6(10). doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011040.
  79. Escobedo, A.A., Lalle, M., Hrastnik, N.I., Rodríguez-Morales, A.J., Castro-Sánchez, E., Cimerman, S. … Jones, J. (2016). Combination therapy in the management of giardiasis: What laboratory and clinical studies tell us, so far. Acta Tropica, 162, pp. 196–205. doi:10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.06.026.
  80. Castro-Sánchez, E., Moore, L.S.P., Husson, F. and Holmes, A.H. (2016). What are the factors driving antimicrobial resistance? Perspectives from a public event in London, England. BMC Infectious Diseases, 16(1). doi:10.1186/s12879-016-1810-x.
  81. Vila-Candel, R., Soriano-Vidal, F.J. and Castro-Sánchez, E. (2016). Midwives, vaccines and health literacy: an underexplored relationship? Gaceta Sanitaria, 30(5), p. 403. doi:10.1016/j.gaceta.2016.05.004.
  82. Gharbi, M., Moore, L.S.P., Castro-Sánchez, E., Spanoudaki, E., Grady, C., Holmes, A.H. … Drumright, L.N. (2016). A needs assessment study for optimising prescribing practice in secondary care junior doctors: The Antibiotic Prescribing Education among Doctors (APED). BMC Infectious Diseases, 16(1). doi:10.1186/s12879-016-1800-z.
  83. Micallef, C., McLeod, M., Castro-Sánchez, E., Gharbi, M., Charani, E., Moore, L.S.P. … Holmes, A.H. (2016). An evidence-based antimicrobial stewardship smartphone app for hospital outpatients: Survey-based needs assessment among patients. JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 4(3). doi:10.2196/mhealth.5243.
  84. Zingg, W., Castro-Sanchez, E., Secci, F.V., Edwards, R., Drumright, L.N., Sevdalis, N. … Holmes, A.H. (2016). Innovative tools for quality assessment: Integrated quality criteria for review of multiple study designs (ICROMS). Public Health, 133, pp. 19–37. doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2015.10.012.
  85. Rawson, T.M., Moore, L.S.P., Hernandez, B., Castro-Sánchez, E., Charani, E., Ahmad, R. … Holmes, A.H. (2016). Missed opportunities for shared decision making in antimicrobial stewardship: The potential consequences of a lack of patient engagement in secondary care. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 45, pp. 122–123. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2016.02.306.
  86. Ahmad, R., Iwami, M., Castro-Sánchez, E., Husson, F., Taiyari, K., Zingg, W. … Holmes, A. (2016). Defining the user role in infection control. Journal of Hospital Infection, 92(4), pp. 321–327. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2015.09.018.
  87. Castro-Sánchez, E., Chang, P.W.S., Vila-Candel, R., Escobedo, A.A. and Holmes, A.H. (2016). Health literacy and infectious diseases: Why does it matter? International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 43, pp. 103–110. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2015.12.019.
  88. Castro-Sánchez, E., Drumright, L.N., Gharbi, M., Farrell, S. and Holmes, A.H. (2016). Mapping antimicrobial stewardship in undergraduate medical, dental, pharmacy, nursing and veterinary education in the United Kingdom. PLoS ONE, 11(2). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0150056.
  89. Holmes, A., Castro-Sánchez, E. and Ahmad, R. (2016). Guidelines in infection prevention: Current challenges and limitations. British Journal of Health Care Management, 22(9), pp. 440–443. doi:10.12968/bjhc.2016.22.9.440.
  90. Micallef, C., Kildonavaciute, K., Castro-Sanchez, E. and Holmes, A.H. (2016). Is there a role for a bespoke app on antimicrobial stewardship targeting patients and the public? Clinical Infectious Diseases, 63(1), pp. 140–141. doi:10.1093/cid/ciw225.
  91. Vila Candel, R., Soriano-Vidal, F.J., Hevilla Cucarella, E., Castro-Sánchez, E. and Martin-Moreno, J.M. (2015). Tobacco use in the third trimester of pregnancy and its relationship to birth weight. A prospective study in Spain. Women and Birth, 28(4). doi:10.1016/j.wombi.2015.06.003.
  92. Castro-Sánchez, E., Spanoudakis, E. and Holmes, A.H. (2015). Readability of Ebola information on websites of public health agencies, United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), pp. 1217–1219. doi:10.3201/eid2107.141829.
  93. Castro-Sánchez, E. and Holmes, A.H. (2015). Impact of organizations on healthcare-associated infections. Journal of Hospital Infection, 89(4), pp. 346–350. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2015.01.012.
  94. Castro-Sánchez, E., Gea-Caballero, V. and Juárez-Vela, R. (2015). Declaration of funding and funding sources received by research projects presented at the largest international nursing research conference. Gaceta Sanitaria, 29(6), p. 474. doi:10.1016/j.gaceta.2015.07.003.
  95. Shah, N., Castro-Sánchez, E., Charani, E., Drumright, L.N. and Holmes, A.H. (2015). Towards changing healthcare workers' behaviour: A qualitative study exploring non-compliance through appraisals of infection prevention and control practices. Journal of Hospital Infection, 90(2), pp. 126–134. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2015.01.023.
  96. Charani, E., Castro-Sánchez, E., Moore, L.S.P. and Holmes, A. (2014). Do smartphone applications in healthcare require a governance and legal framework? It depends on the application! BMC Medicine, 12(1). doi:10.1186/1741-7015-12-29.
  97. Castro-Sánchez, E., Charani, E., Drumright, L.N., Sevdalis, N., Shah, N. and Holmes, A.H. (2014). Fragmentation of care threatens patient safety in peripheral vascular catheter management in acute care- A qualitative study. PLoS ONE, 9(1). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086167.
  98. Castro-Sánchez, E., Gea-Caballero, V. and Juárez-Vela, R. (2014). Evaluación mediante una herramienta piloto de la calidad metodológica de una muestra de artículos de investigación publicados en la revista ENE en el periodo 2009-2013. Ene, 8(3), pp. 0–0. doi:10.4321/s1988-348x2014000300003.
  99. Castro-Sánchez, E., Medina García, J. and Martínez Casas, J.M. (2014). Visibilidad de la enfermería mediante la calidad de su producto científico. Ene, 8(3), pp. 0–0. doi:10.4321/s1988-348x2014000300001.
  100. Medina García, J., Martínez Casas, J.M. and Castro-Sanchez, E. (2014). Evaluación de la calidad de casos clínicos y planes de cuidados en la revista de enfermería ENE en el periodo 2007-2013. Ene, 8(3), pp. 0–0. doi:10.4321/s1988-348x2014000300004.
  101. Martínez Casas, J.M., Castro-Sánchez, E. and Medina García, J. (2014). Análisis de la producción científica de la revista ENE en los años 2009-2013. Ene, 8(3), pp. 0–0. doi:10.4321/s1988-348x2014000300002.
  102. Dyar, O.J., Castro-Sánchez, E. and Holmes, A.H. (2014). What makes people talk about antibiotics on social media? A retrospective analysis of Twitter use. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 69(9), pp. 2568–2572. doi:10.1093/jac/dku165.
  103. Charani, E., Castro-Sánchez, E. and Holmes, A. (2014). The role of behavior change in antimicrobial stewardship. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, 28(2), pp. 169–175. doi:10.1016/j.idc.2014.01.004.
  104. Castro-Sánchez, E. and Holmes, A. (2013). International implementation of WHO's hand hygiene strategy. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 13(10), pp. 824–825. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70223-8.
  105. Charani, E., Castro-Sanchez, E., Sevdalis, N., Kyratsis, Y., Drumright, L., Shah, N. … Holmes, A. (2013). Understanding the determinants of antimicrobial prescribing within hospitals: The role of "prescribing etiquette". Clinical Infectious Diseases, 57(2), pp. 188–196. doi:10.1093/cid/cit212.
  106. Sánchez, E.C. and Holmes, A. (2012). Public behaviour and the response to pandemic influenza. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 12(11), pp. 819–820. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(12)70244-X.
  107. Palfreeman, A., Fisher, M. and Ong, E. (2009). Testing for HIV: concise guidance. Clinical Medicine, 9(5), pp. 471–476. doi:10.7861/clinmedicine.9-5-471.
  108. Naylor, N., Yamashita, K., Iwami, M., Kunisawa, S., Mizuno, S., Castro-Sanchez, E. … Holmes, A. Code-sharing in Cost-of-illness Calculations: An Application to Antibiotic-Resistant Bloodstream Infections. Frontiers in Public Health. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2020.562427.
  109. Castro-Sanchez, E., Russell, A.-.M., Dolman, L. and Wells, M. What place does nurse-led research have in the COVID-19 pandemic? International Nursing Review.

Practitioner article

  1. (2017). Antimicrobial stewardship: learning from low-middle-income nations. Nursing Times


  1. Holmes, A., Dixon-Woods, M., Ahmad, R., Brewster, E., Castro-Sanchez, E., Secci, F. … Zingg, W. (2015). Infection prevention and control: lessons from acute care in England. Towards a whole health economy approach. Health Foundation.

Other Activities

Consultancy (2)

  1. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. (Public Sector) (Jul 2019 – present)
  2. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland (Public Sector) (Jan – Jul 2017)

Editorial activity (6)

  1. Frontiers Digital Health, Associated Editor, Oct 2019 – present.
  2. XPA & Health Communication journal, Editorial Board member, Jul 2019 – present.
  3. JAC-AMR journal, Research Editor, Mar 2019 – present.
  4. PLOS One, Academic Editor, Jun 2018 – present.
  5. BMC Public Health, Associate Editor, Mar 2018 – present.
  6. Gaceta Sanitaria, Associate Editor, May 2016 – Jan 2019.

Keynote lectures/speeches (2)

  1. Antibiotic Resistance: A Global Ticking Timebomb. AMR as a social, cultural and economic problem. Manchester Global Health Society (2016).
  2. Healthcare-associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance. Spanish Royal Society of Medicine, Balearic Islands, Palma, Spain (2016). 1st time a nurse delivers keynote speech at the Royal Society of Medicine of Balearic Islands.

Media appearance

  1. Interview, Spanish national newspaper ‘El Mundo’.

Online articles (6)

  1. ¿Es hora de tomar en serio la contribución ciudadana en la investigación?’ (Is it time to seriously value citizens' contribution to science?). (2016). Gaceta Sanitaria
  2. Where is our nursing ‘Choose Wisely’? (2016). Evidence-Based Nursing
  3. Los pacientes, protagonistas en las redes sociales. La iniciativa FFpaciente. (2016). Gaceta Sanitaria
  4. Uso prudente de los antibióticos (Antimicrobial stewardship). (2016). Ffpaciente blog
  5. Proyecto AVATAR: “Activando la Vacunación de Adultos Trabajando A través de la Red”. (2017). Gaceta Sanitaria
  6. “Seek advice from a qualified healthcare professional before taking antibiotics”. (2017). Institute of Global Health Innovation, World Antibiotic Awareness Week blog

Radio programmes (2)

  1. Antes de que sea tarde. Cadena SER (Spain) Antimicrobial resistance (
  2. Podcast Micromunidad. ‘El papel de la enfermera en las enfermedades infecciosas' (role of nurses in infectious diseases)