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portrait of Dr Christian Reynolds

Dr Christian Reynolds

Senior Lecturer in Food Policy

School of Health Sciences, Division of Health Services Research and Management

Contact Information


Postal Address

City, University of London
Northampton Square
United Kingdom



Dr Christian Reynolds is Senior Lecturer at the Centre for Food Policy, City University, London; and an adjunct Research Fellow at the Institute for Sustainable Food, University of Sheffield, and at the Barbara Hardy Institute for Sustainable Environments and Technologies, University of South Australia.

Christian is recognised as a global expert on food loss and waste and sustainable diets. He has worked on these issues in Australia, New Zealand, Indonesia, the UK, US, and Europe. He is the lead editor of the Routledge Handbook of Food Waste (2019); he has also co-authoured over 40 peer reviewed publications, as well as multiple reports and book chapters. Christian has given evidence to UK and NZ parliaments on FLW and contributed to the Food Loss and Waste Accounting and Reporting Standard. Christian also researches sustainable cookery; food history; and the political power of food in international relations.

From 2017 to 2020, Christian was employed WRAP as Technical Specialist in international food sustainability. In 2017-18 Christian worked on integrating healthy sustainable eating and food waste reduction messages on a wide variety of projects including the EU-LIFE funded TRiFOCAL project. From 2018-2020 Christian moved to the WRAP Global team, working on Food Waste and Sustainable Eating, working on the REFRESH project, and with multiple global partners including the World Bank, NRDC, and WWF.

From 2016-2020 Christian was a Knowledge Exchange Research Fellow (N8 AgriFood project) at the Department of Geography, University of Sheffield, and a STFC Food network+ Champion.

From 2014-2016, Christian was employed as a Public Health Research Fellow at the Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen, where he looked at healthy sustainable diets for high and low income groups using linear programming and agent based modelling.

In 2020, Christian was awarded the Alpro foundation, Scientific Paper award for Young Scientists for his research on Affordable, healthy and sustainable diets for all income groups in the UK.

In 2019, Christian was awarded "best presentation" at the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery for his research on sustainable cookery.

In 2014, Christian was a finalist in the PhD Research Excellence – Life or Environmental Sciences category of the South Australian Science Excellence Awards; and was the Waste Management Association of Australia, Young Professionals NSW 2012 Scholarship recipient.


Chapters (11)

  1. Hoornweg, D., Lougheed, S., Walker, M., Salemdeeb, R., Soma, T. and Reynolds, C. (2020). Food Waste Management, Treatment and Disposal Options. Routledge Handbook of Food Waste (pp. 443–454). Routledge.
  2. Kandemir, C., Reynolds, C., Verma, M., Grainger, M., Stewart, G., Righi, S. … Quested, T. (2020). Modelling Approaches to Food Waste. Routledge Handbook of Food Waste (pp. 326–344). Routledge.
  3. Oelofse, S., Nahman, A., Barjees Baig, M., Salemdeeb, R., Nizami, A.-.S. and Reynolds, C. (2020). Food Waste Within South Africa and Saudi Arabia. Routledge Handbook of Food Waste (pp. 207–224). Routledge.
  4. Mirosa, M., Pearson, D. and Reynolds, C. (2020). Food Waste in Australia and New Zealand. Routledge Handbook of Food Waste (pp. 225–236). Routledge.
  5. Spring, C., Soma, T., Lazell, J. and Reynolds, C. (2020). Food Waste. Routledge Handbook of Food Waste (pp. 1–20). Routledge.
  6. Kandemir, C., Reynolds, C., Verma, M., Grainger, M., Stewart, G., Righi, S. … Quested, T. (2020). Modelling Approaches to Food Waste. Routledge Handbook of Food Waste (pp. 326–344). Routledge.
  7. Hoornweg, D., Lougheed, S., Walker, M., Salemdeeb, R., Soma, T. and Reynolds, C. (2020). Food Waste Management, Treatment and Disposal Options. Routledge Handbook of Food Waste (pp. 443–454). Routledge.
  8. Gover, M., Swannell, R. and Reynolds, C. (2019). Addressing the Food Loss and Waste Challenge – a WRAP perspective. Proceedings of the Workshop Food Loss and Waste Reduction Vatican City: The Pontifical Academy of Sciences.
  9. Reynolds, C.J., Buckley, J., Weinstein, P. and Boland, J. (2017). Sustainability Challenges, Human Diet and Environmental Concerns. In Bhat, R. (Ed.), Sustainability Challenges in the Agrofood Sector (pp. 48–78). Wiley. ISBN 978-1-119-07276-8.
  10. (2007). The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology. In Blackwell Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-1-4051-2433-1.
  11. Reynolds, C. and Mavrakis, V. Food Waste. (pp. 1–2). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBN 978-1-4051-2433-1.

Conference papers and proceedings (4)

  1. Reynolds, C. (2020). Sustainable Gastronomy: the Environmental Impacts of How We Cook Now and How the “Sustainable Diets” Agenda Might Shape How We Cook in the Future? Dublin Gastronomy Symposium 25-29 May, Dublin (online).
  2. Quadros, V., Balcerzak, A., Sousa, R., Ferrari, M., Schmidt Rivera, X., Reynolds, C. … Leclercq, C. (2019). Using individual food consumption data to estimate the environmental impact of diets: the potentiality of the FAO/WHO GIFT platform. Sustainable Food Systems < > Sustainable Diets 11 October.
  3. Reynolds, C. (2019). Sustainable Gastronomy; power and energy use in food - is it possible to fight climate change though cookery? Oxford Food Symposium on Food and Cookery 12 July.
  4. Matthews, R. and Reynolds, C. (2017). The market value of sleep: using economic input-output analysis to shift society's views on sleep loss.

Internet publication

  1. Reynolds, C.J. (2017). Can statistics tell us what is a representative recipe? The case of Yorkshire pudding.

Journal articles (50)

  1. da Silva, J.T., da Cruz, G.L., Rauber, F., Louzada, M.L., Kluczkovski, A.R.G., Frankowska, A. … Levy, R.B. (2020). The impact of ultra-processed food on carbon, water and ecological footprints of food in Brazil. European Journal of Public Health, 30(Supplement_5). doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckaa165.433.
  2. Armstrong, B., Bridge, G., Oakden, L., Reynolds, C., Wang, C., Panzone, L.A. … Serjeant, S. (2020). Piloting Citizen Science Methods to Measure Perceptions of Carbon Footprint and Energy Content of Food. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, 4. doi:10.3389/fsufs.2020.00120.
  3. Menon, M., Sarkar, B., Hufton, J., Reynolds, C., Reina, S.V. and Young, S. (2020). Do arsenic levels in rice pose a health risk to the UK population? Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 197. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110601.
  4. He, H., Reynolds, C.J., Hadjikakou, M., Holyoak, N. and Boland, J. (2020). Quantification of indirect waste generation and treatment arising from Australian household consumption: A waste input-output analysis. Journal of Cleaner Production, 258. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.120935.
  5. Armstrong, B. and Reynolds, C. (2020). China and the USA, a higher perceived risk for UK consumers in a post COVID-19 food system: the impact of country of origin and ethical information on consumer perceptions of food. Emerald Open Research, 2, pp. 35–35. doi:10.35241/emeraldopenres.13711.1.
  6. Rust, N.A., Ridding, L., Ward, C., Clark, B., Kehoe, L., Dora, M. … West, N. (2020). How to transition to reduced-meat diets that benefit people and the planet. Science of the Total Environment, 718. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137208.
  7. Benthem de Grave, R., Rust, N.A., Reynolds, C.J., Watson, A.W., Smeddinck, J.D. and Souza Monteiro, D.M. (2020). A catalogue of UK household datasets to monitor transitions to sustainable diets. Global Food Security, 24. doi:10.1016/j.gfs.2019.100344.
  8. Kluczkovski, A., Cook, J., Downie, H.F., Fletcher, A., McLoughlin, L., Markwick, A. … Ajagun-Brauns, J. (2020). Interacting with members of the public to discuss the impact of food choices on climate change-experiences from two UK public engagement events. Sustainability (Switzerland), 12(6), pp. 1–21. doi:10.3390/su12062323.
  9. de Gorter, H., Drabik, D., Just, D.R., Reynolds, C. and Sethi, G. (2020). Analyzing the economics of food loss and waste reductions in a food supply chain. Food Policy. doi:10.1016/j.foodpol.2020.101953.
  10. Macdiarmid, J.I., Cerroni, S., Kalentakis, D. and Reynolds, C. (2020). How important is healthiness, carbon footprint and meat content when purchasing a ready meal? Evidence from a non-hypothetical discrete choice experiment. Journal of Cleaner Production. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.124510.
  11. Kanemoto, K., Moran, D., Shigetomi, Y., Reynolds, C. and Kondo, Y. (2019). Meat Consumption Does Not Explain Differences in Household Food Carbon Footprints in Japan. One Earth, 1(4), pp. 464–471. doi:10.1016/j.oneear.2019.12.004.
  12. Chalmers, N., Stetkiewicz, S., Sudhakar, P., Osei-Kwasi, H. and Reynolds, C.J. (2019). Impacts of reducing UK beef consumption using a revised sustainable diets framework. Sustainability (Switzerland), 11(23). doi:10.3390/su11236863.
  13. Drabik, D., de Gorter, H. and Reynolds, C. (2019). A conceptual and empirical framework to analyze the economics of consumer food waste. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 149, pp. 500–509. doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2019.06.008.
  14. Horton, P., Bruce, R., Reynolds, C. and Milligan, G. (2019). Food Chain Inefficiency (FCI): Accounting Conversion Efficiencies Across Entire Food Supply Chains to Re-define Food Loss and Waste. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, 3. doi:10.3389/fsufs.2019.00079.
  15. Nicholes, M.J., Quested, T.E., Reynolds, C., Gillick, S. and Parry, A.D. (2019). Surely you don't eat parsnip skins? Categorising the edibility of food waste. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 147, pp. 179–188. doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2019.03.004.
  16. Psarikidou, K., Kaloudis, H., Fielden, A. and Reynolds, C. (2019). Local food hubs in deprived areas: de-stigmatising food poverty? Local Environment, 24(6), pp. 525–538. doi:10.1080/13549839.2019.1593952.
  17. Reynolds, C.J., Horgan, G.W., Whybrow, S. and Macdiarmid, J.I. (2019). Healthy and sustainable diets that meet greenhouse gas emission reduction targets and are affordable for different income groups in the UK. Public Health Nutrition, 22(8), pp. 1503–1517. doi:10.1017/S1368980018003774.
  18. He, H., Reynolds, C.J., Li, L. and Boland, J. (2019). Assessing net energy consumption of Australian economy from 2004–05 to 2014–15: Environmentally-extended input-output analysis, structural decomposition analysis, and linkage analysis. Applied Energy, 240, pp. 766–777. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.02.081.
  19. Reynolds, C. (2019). The complexities of food system change - the long view on vegetable consumption. The Global Fruit & Veg Newsletter, 22, pp. 3–3.
  20. Reynolds, C., Goucher, L., Quested, T., Bromley, S., Gillick, S., Wells, V.K. … Jackson, P. (2019). Review: Consumption-stage food waste reduction interventions – What works and how to design better interventions. Food Policy, 83, pp. 7–27. doi:10.1016/j.foodpol.2019.01.009.
  21. He, H., Reynolds, C.J., Zhou, Z., Wang, Y. and Boland, J. (2019). Changes of waste generation in Australia: Insights from structural decomposition analysis. Waste Management, 83, pp. 142–150. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2018.11.004.
  22. Salemdeeb, R., Bin Daina, M., Reynolds, C. and Al-Tabbaa, A. (2018). An environmental evaluation of food waste downstream management options: a hybrid LCA approach. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture, 7(3), pp. 217–229. doi:10.1007/s40093-018-0208-8.
  23. He, H., Reynolds, C.J. and Boland, J. (2018). Assessment of solid waste generation and treatment in the Australian economic system: A Closed Waste Supply-Use model. Waste Management, 78, pp. 346–355. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2018.05.056.
  24. Reynolds, C., Agrawal, M., Lee, I., Zhan, C., Li, J., Taylor, P. … Roos, G. (2018). A sub-national economic complexity analysis of Australia’s states and territories. Regional Studies, 52(5), pp. 715–726. doi:10.1080/00343404.2017.1283012.
  25. Bridle, S., Denby, K., Flanagan, K., Grieve, B., Halford, J., Koh, L. … Fletcher, A. (2017). STFC Food Network+. Food Science & Technology, 31(4), pp. 34–39.
  26. Bridle, S., Denby, K., Flanagan, K., Grieve, B., Halford, J., Koh, L. … Fletcher, A. (2017). Spotlight: STFC food network+. Food Science and Technology (London), 31(4), pp. 34–39. doi:10.1002/fsat.3104_9.x.
  27. Halford, J. and Reynolds, C.J. (2017). Editorial “Food preferences”. The Global Fruit & Veg Newsletter, (22).
  28. Reutter, B., Lant, P., Lane, J., Reynolds, C. and Reynolds, C. (2017). Food waste consequences: Environmentally extended input-output as a framework for analysis. Journal of Cleaner Production, 153, pp. 506–514. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.09.104.
  29. Reynolds, C.J. (2017). Energy embodied in household cookery: The missing part of a sustainable food system? Part 2: A life cycle assessment of roast beef and Yorkshire pudding. Energy Procedia, 123, pp. 228–234. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2017.07.248.
  30. Reynolds, C.J. (2017). Energy embodied in household cookery: The missing part of a sustainable food system? Part 1: A method to survey and calculate representative recipes. Energy Procedia, 123, pp. 220–227. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2017.07.245.
  31. He, H., Reynolds, C.J., Piantadosi, J. and Boland, J. (2017). Effects of australian economic activities on waste generation and treatment. Recycling, 2(3). doi:10.3390/recycling2030012.
  32. Salemdeeb, R., Al-Tabbaa, A. and Reynolds, C. (2016). The UK waste input-output table: Linking waste generation to the UK economy. Waste Management and Research, 34(10), pp. 1089–1094. doi:10.1177/0734242X16658545.
  33. Reynolds, C., Geschke, A., Piantadosi, J. and Boland, J. (2016). Estimating industrial solid waste and municipal solid waste data at high resolution using economic accounts: an input–output approach with Australian case study. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, 18(4), pp. 677–686. doi:10.1007/s10163-015-0363-1.
  34. Reynolds, C.J., Mirosa, M. and Clothier, B. (2016). New Zealand’s food waste: Estimating the tonnes, value, calories and resources wasted. Agriculture (Switzerland), 6(1). doi:10.3390/agriculture6010009.
  35. Zaman, A. and Reynolds, C.J. (2015). The Economic and Bio-Energy Production Potential of South Australian Food Waste Using Anaerobic Digestion. .
  36. Reynolds, C.J., Piantadosi, J., Buckley, J.D., Weinstein, P. and Boland, J. (2015). Evaluation of the environmental impact of weekly food consumption in different socio-economic households in Australia using environmentally extended input-output analysis. Ecological Economics, 111, pp. 58–64. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2015.01.007.
  37. Thompson, K., O'Dwyer, L., Sharp, A., Smith, B., Reynolds, C.J., Hadley, T. … Hazel, S. (2015). What's in a dog's breakfast? Considering the social, veterinary and environmental implications of feeding food scraps to pets using three australian surveys. Sustainability (Switzerland), 7(6), pp. 7195–7213. doi:10.3390/su7067195.
  38. Reynolds, C.J., Piantadosi, J. and Boland, J. (2015). Rescuing food from the organics waste stream to feed the food insecure: An economic and environmental assessment of australian food rescue operations using environmentally extended waste input-output analysis. Sustainability (Switzerland), 7(4), pp. 4707–4726. doi:10.3390/su7044707.
  39. Reynolds, C.J., Macdiarmid, J.I., Whybrow, S., Horgan, G. and Kyle, J. (2015). Greenhouse gas emissions associated with sustainable diets in relation to climate change and health. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 74(OCE5). doi:10.1017/s0029665115003985.
  40. Reynolds, C.J., Piantadosi, J. and Boland, J. (2014). A Waste Supply-Use Analysis of Australian Waste Flows. Journal of Economic Structures, 3(1). doi:10.1186/s40008-014-0005-0.
  41. Reynolds, C.J., Thompson, K., Boland, J. and Dawson, D. (2014). Climate Change on the Menu? A Retrospective Look at the Development of South Australian Municipal Food Waste Policy. .
  42. Lenzen, M., Geschke, A., Wiedmann, T., Lane, J., Anderson, N., Baynes, T. … West, J. (2014). Compiling and using input-output frameworks through collaborative virtual laboratories. Science of the Total Environment, 485-486(1), pp. 241–251. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.03.062.
  43. John Reynolds, C., David Buckley, J., Weinstein, P. and Boland, J. (2014). Are the dietary guidelines for meat, fat, fruit and vegetable consumption appropriate for environmental sustainability? A review of the literature. Nutrients, 6(6), pp. 2251–2265. doi:10.3390/nu6062251.
  44. Reynolds, C.J., Mavrakis, V., Davison, S., Høj, S.B., Vlaholias, E., Sharp, A. … Dawson, D. (2014). Estimating informal household food waste in developed countries: The case of Australia. Waste Management and Research, 32(12), pp. 1254–1258. doi:10.1177/0734242X14549797.
  45. Lenzen, M. and Reynolds, C.J. (2014). A supply-use approach to waste input-output analysis. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 18(2), pp. 212–226. doi:10.1111/jiec.12105.
  46. Reynolds, C.J. (2012). Diplomatic Gastronomy: The Convivial Nature of the Power of Prestige, Cultural Diplomacy and Soft Power. .
  47. Reynolds, C.J. (2012). The Soft Power of Food: A Diplomacy of Hamburgers and Sushi? .
  48. Reynolds, C.J. (2010). Tipping the scales: A new understanding of food's power in the political sphere. International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, 5(7), pp. 295–304. doi:10.18848/1833-1882/CGP/v05i07/51783.
  49. Dobson, M.C., Reynolds, C., Warren, P.H. and Edmondson, J. “My little piece of the planet”: the multiplicity of wellbeing benefits from allotment gardening. British Food Journal.
  50. Kandemir, C., Reynolds, C., Quested, T., Fisher, K., Devine, R., Herszenhorn, E. … Evans, D. Using Discrete Event Simulation to Explore Food Wasted in the Home. Journal of Simulation.

Posters (2)

  1. Reynolds, C., Schmidt Rivera, X., Frankowska, A., Kluczkovski, A., Bridle, S., Martins, C. … Mensah, D. Cooking as part of a global sustainable food system - a 6 country pilot survey. Nutrition & Cooking Education Symposium, The University of Newcastle, Australia, 2020.
  2. Kluczkovski, A., Lait, R., Baird, L., Menezes, C.A., Cruz, B., Cerqueira, B. … Bridle, S. How to engage schools with food sustainability? An analysis of environmental impacts of school menus and development of educational materials in Bahia, Brazil. The 8th World Sustainability Forum 15/09/2020 - 17/09/2020, VIRTUAL, Switzerland, 2020.

Reports (9)

  1. Defeyter, G., Stretesky, P., Long, M., Furey, S., Reynolds, C., Dodds, A. … McAnallen, A. (2020). Food Insecurity and Lived Experience of Students (FILES)..
  2. Reynolds, C., Boulding, A., Pollock, H., Sweet, N., Ruiz, J. and Draeger de Teran, T. (2020). Halving Food Loss and Waste in the EU by 2030: the major steps needed to accelerate progress. Berlin (Germany): WWF-WRAP.
  3. Sethi, G., Bedregal, L.P.A., Cassou, E., Constantino, L., Hou, X., Jain, S. … Kneller, C. (2020). Addressing Food Loss and Waste : A Global Problem with Local Solutions..
  4. Guzman, P., Reynolds, C. and Sharpe, R. (2019). Revitalising local economies: How food hubs can help. London: Food Research Collaboration.
  5. Guzman, P. and Reynolds, C. (2019). Food Hubs in the UK: Where are we and what next? Food Research Collaboration. ISBN 978-1-903957-52-3.
  6. Bajzelj, B., Reynolds, C., Falconer Hall, M. and Kramer, G. (2019). Eating healthily, sustainably and conveniently - Meeting nutritional and environmental goals without sacrificing convenience. Banbury: WRAP.
  7. Reynolds, C., Hodgson, H. and Bajzelj, B. (2019). An improved picture of the UK diet - Linking production, consumption and waste data to provide a better dietary picture. Banbury: WRAP.
  8. Bajzelj, B., Morgan, S., Tustian, E., Reynolds, C. and Kerrell, E. (2019). ‘Eat Well, Waste Less’ pilot study. Banbury: WRAP.
  9. Psarikidou, K., Kaloudis, H., Fielden, A. and Reynolds, C.J. (2018). Local Food Hubs in Deprived Areas: An ‘Action Pack’ for Community Organisations. Lancaster University: Lancaster University. ISBN 978-1-86220-354-9.

Other (6)

  1. Reynolds, C. and Armstrong, B. (2020). Dr Reynolds and Dr Armstrong response to the EFRA committee enquiry COVID-19 and food supply.
  2. Reynolds, C., Isaacs, A., Neve, K., Pereira, L., Sharpe, R. and Wells, R. (2020). Centre for Food Policy at City, University of London response to the EFRA committee enquiry COVID-19 and food supply.
  3. Reynolds, C. (2019). UK Food Hub Survey Preliminary Results.
  4. Kandemir, C., Quested, T., Reynolds, C., Fisher, K. and Devine, R. (2019). Household food waste simulation model: Investigation of interventions for staple food items waste.
  5. Reynolds, C.J. and Bridle, S. (2018). The greenhouse gas emission impacts of generational and temporal change on the UK diet.
  6. Bridle, S., Reynolds, C.J., Fennell, J., Foster, E., Schmidt, X., Green, M. … Mellor, D. (2018). Greenhouse Gas and Dietary choices Open source Toolkit (GGDOT) Hacknights.