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Contact Information


Visit Chris Hull

M137, Myddelton Street Building

Postal Address

City, University of London
Northampton Square
United Kingdom



Chris is Associate Dean for Research and Enterprise and professor of optics of vision within the School of Health Sciences. He joined City University London in 1991 after completing a PhD in applied optics at Imperial College.

Chris's specialism is in the optics of the eye and how it affects vision. He also has a longstanding interest in ophthalmic instrumentation. Chris's interests have led to work on keratoprosthesis (artificial cornea) optics, refractive surgery, cataract and intraocular lenses. Chris originally studied applied physics at the University of Hull before spending two years as an optical development engineer in the defence industry working on helicopter sighting systems, aircraft displays and covert communication systems. He then returned to academia and to Imperial College to study for a PhD in applied optics where his specific interests were in numerical optimisation methods for computer-aided optical design.

At the end of 1991 Chris came to City University London and joined the staff of the then Department of Optometry Visual Science as a lecturer in optics. His teaching at undergraduate and postgraduate level covers optics, visual optics, clinical instrumentation, statistics, cataract and refractive surgery. Chris was promoted to senior lecturer in 1998 and to a chair in optics in vision in 2009. He is currently Associate Dean for Research in the School of Health Sciences and was previously Divisional Lead for Optometry & Visual Science from 2008- 2016.


  1. PhD in Applied Optics, DIC, Imperial College London, United Kingdom, 1991
  2. BSc Applied Physics, University of Hull, United Kingdom, 1986

Administrative roles

  1. Divisional Lead of Optometry and Visual Science
  2. Elected Member of Senate
  3. Deputy Chair of Validation and Institutional Partnerships Committee
  4. Deputy Chair of Partnerships sub-committee
  5. Chair Scholarships and Bursaries Group
  6. Member of Access and Success Committee
  7. Chair of the City & Islington College Course Board
  8. Senior Tutor for Research


  1. Professor of Optics of Vision, City, University of London, 2009 – present
  2. Senior Lecturer in Clinical and Visual Optics, City, University of London, 1998 – 2009
  3. Lecturer in Optics, City, University of London, 1991 – 1998
  4. Development Engineer (optical systems), Ferranti Instrumentation Plc, 1986 – 1988

Memberships of committees

  1. Member, College of Optometrists' Education and Standards Committee
  2. Member, Professorial Committee of the Worshipful Company of Spectacle Makers
  3. Member, British Standards Committee CH172-6 Ophthalmic Instruments
  4. Member, Education Committee of the Worshipful Company of Spectacle Makers

Memberships of professional organisations

  1. Member (Chartered Status), Institute of Physics
  2. Founding Member, European Academy for Optometry and Optics
  3. Liveryman, Worshipful Company of Spectacle Makers
  4. Member, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology
  5. British Society for Refractive Surgery
  6. Member, Optometry Schools Council
  7. Member, Ophthalmic Workforce Group, College of Optometrists


  1. City, University of London (2002) Teaching & Learning Award


Research Overview

Chris' ocular optics laboratory is part of the Ocular Optics and Instrumentation research theme (of which Chris is lead) within the Division of Optometry and Visual Science. Current work falls within two areas: light scatter within intraocular lenses and keratoprosthesis optics and visual function.

The ocular optics laboratory has broad interests and recent projects have included in vitro light scattering in a posterior capsule model, lens changes with glucose and an evaluation of enhanced cataract service schemes in London.

Chris has been part of the Brighton OOKP team for the past 16 years, the only centre in the UK offering OOKP surgery to restore sight for end-stage corneal disease.

Research Areas

- Keratoprosthesis optics with a specific interest in the osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis
- Refractive surgery and in particular wavefront-guided and wavefront-optimised corrections
- Light scatter in the eye including in vitro measurement of scatter; Intraocular lenses
- Vision in cataract

Research Centre

Centre for Applied Vision Research


- Prof Christopher S-C, Liu, Consultant ophthalmologist, Sussex Eye Hospital
- Professor John Marshall, Institute of Ophthalmology
- Dr Sarah Barman, Kingston University
- Dr. Bunyarit Uyyanonvara, Thammasat University, Thailand
- Mr David O'Brart, St Thomas' Hospital
- Dr Young So, Advanced Vision Science Inc, Santa Barbara, CA

Current and Recently Completed Grants / Activities

Light scatter caused by intra-ocular lens glistenings This project is investigating the correlation between in vitro and in vivo measurements of light scatter caused by glistenings in intraocular lenses. The in vitro work involves a modified version of the light scatter measurement system developed over the past few years for posterior capsule opacification. Attempts will be made to correlate in vitro measurements with glistening size, location and density. The size, location and density is derived from processing slit-lamp images and is being carried out in collaboration with Dr Sarah Barman at Kingston University. Finally these results will be associated with in vivo measurements of light scatter and visual performance in patients with glistenings. Sources of funding: Applied Vision Sciences (Santen Inc)

Keratoprosthesis Optics and Visual Function A new optical cylinder has been designed and evaluated by our group for osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis surgery. Results have been previously published on visual outcomes, the procedure and improvements. A project has recently been completed on an in vitro and in vivo evaluation of the visual and optical performance of this OOKP optical cylinder. This was presented at the 2012 ARVO Meeting and a manuscript has now been submitted to Investigative Ophthalmology. Sources of funding: None

Effect of hyperglycaemia on the refractive properties of the eye A bovine lens model has been used to investigate ray optical properties (focusing distance and aberrations) for physiological levels of glucose including changes in glucose level. The project is now looking at light transmission data because of the possible changes in scatter caused by sorbitol build-up in cells. With Professor John Lawrenson (PI) and Vikram Mehta Sources of funding: Lein Applied Diagnostics

Cataract Enhanced Service Pathways There is little published information about enhanced service pathways for cataract. The topic is coming into sharp focus with the implementation of the new clinical commissioning groups and funding constraints. In 2012, a previous survey of direct referral cataract pathways in London by our team was updated and a paper on this subject has now been submitted. With Mitesh Amin and Professor David Edgar Sources of funding: EyeNet funding to Mitesh Amin (principal author)

Light scatter in posterior capsule opacification An in vitro light scatter measurement apparatus has been developed and validated for assessing forward light scatter in posterior lens capsules. Results have been correlated with digital images and subjective grading systems. With Dr Georgia Cleary (Moorfields) and Professor John Marshall (Institute of Ophthalmology)

Research Students

Evangelia Philippaki

Thesis title: In vitro and in vivo measurement of light scatter and visual performance in intraocular lenses with glistenings

Yik Chong Tsang

Thesis title: The effect of aberrations and light scatter on visual performance at photopic and mesopic light levels

Jod Mehta

Thesis title: Use of Femrosecond lasers in Corneal Refractive Surgery

Further information: PhD by prior publication

Massimo Turola (2nd supervisor)

Thesis title: Applications of 4D Light Field Technology to Retinal Imaging and Digital Aberration Correction

Irene Ctori (2nd supervisor)

Thesis title: An investigation of ethnic differences in the spatial profile of macular pigment and its relation to foveal anatomy.


Books (2)

  1. Freeman, M.H. and Hull, C.C. (2003). Optics. Butterworth-Heinemann Medical. ISBN 978-0-7506-4248-4.
  2. Freeman, M. and Hull, C. (2003). Optics: Eleventh Edition. ISBN 978-0-7506-4248-4.


  1. Hull, C. (2007). Ocular Aberrations. Bennett & Rabbett's Clinical Visual Optics

Conference papers and proceedings (12)

  1. Mihic, K., Hull, C.C., Nagra, M. and Huntjens, B. (2020). Inter-eye asymmetry in corneal topography and classification of corneal astigmatism.
  2. Huntjens, B., Mihic, K. and Hull, C.C. (2020). Difference in corneal asphericity and sagittal height between emmetropes and myopes.
  3. (2018). Is bigger better? Glistenings, forward light scatter and visual performance.
  4. Min Han, K.T., Uyyanonvara, B., Kazunori, K. and Hull, C. (2018). Deep learning for glistening quantification in intraocular lens.
  5. Philippaki, E., Doraiswamy, A. and Hull, C.C. (2014). Association between grade of intraocular lens glistenings and in vitro forward light scatter.
  6. Hull, C., Perera, S., Okera, S., Tandon, R., Herold, J., Thorp, S. … Liu, C. (2007). UK experience and evolving strategies to improve results I - clinical results. European Association for Vision and Eye Research 2007 3-6 October, Portoroz, Slovenia.
  7. Liu, C.S., Hull, C., Herold, J., Paul, B. and Tandon, R. (2004). Functional vision after osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP). Our experience with different cylinder designs.
  8. Hull, C.C., Al-Farhan, H.M., Hameed, R. and Horgan, S.E. (2004). A Fourier method for assessing wrinkling and fribrotic bands on the posterior capsule following cataract surgery.
  9. Liu, C.S., Syam, P.P., Herold, J. and Hull, C.C. (2002). Medium term visual and retention results of modem osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) surgery.
  10. Hull, C.C. (1996). Ill-conditioning during damped least squares optimization of optical systems.
  12. Maxwell, J. and Hull, C.C. (1990). Simple multidimensional quadratic extrapolation method for the correction of specific aberrations in lens systems.

Journal articles (36)

  1. Stanojcic, N., Hull, C. and O’Brart, D.P.S. (2020). Clinical and material degradations of intraocular lenses: A review. European Journal of Ophthalmology, 30(5), pp. 823–839. doi:10.1177/1120672119867818.
  2. Stanojcic, N., OʼBrart, D., Hull, C., Wagh, V., Azan, E., Bhogal, M. … Li, J.P.O. (2020). Visual and refractive outcomes and glistenings occurrence after implantation of 2 hydrophobic acrylic aspheric monofocal IOLs. Journal of cataract and refractive surgery, 46(7), pp. 986–994. doi:10.1097/j.jcrs.0000000000000201.
  3. Philippaki, E., O'Brart, D.P. and Hull, C.C. (2020). Comparison of glistenings formation and their effect on forward light scatter between the Acrysof SN60WF and Eternity Natural Uni NW-60 intraocular lenses. BMJ Open Ophthalmology, 5(1). doi:10.1136/bmjophth-2019-000399.
  4. Stanojcic, N., O'Brart, D.P.S., Maycock, N. and Hull, C.C. (2019). Effects of intraocular lens glistenings on visual function: A prospective study and presentation of a new glistenings grading methodology. BMJ Open Ophthalmology, 4(1). doi:10.1136/bmjophth-2018-000266.
  5. Downie, L.E., Keller, P.R., Busija, L., Lawrenson, J.G. and Hull, C.C. (2019). Blue-light filtering spectacle lenses for visual performance, sleep, and macular health in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2019(1). doi:10.1002/14651858.CD013244.
  6. Subramanian, A. and Hull, C. (2017). Optical Low Vision hardware: what is currently available. Optometry in Practice, 18(2), pp. 83–92.
  7. Lawrenson, J.G., Hull, C.C. and Downie, L.E. (2017). The effect of blue-light blocking spectacle lenses on visual performance, macular health and the sleep-wake cycle: a systematic review of the literature. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 37(6), pp. 644–654. doi:10.1111/opo.12406.
  8. Mehta, V.V., Hull, C.C. and Lawrenson, J.G. (2016). The effect of varying glucose levels on the ex vivo crystalline lens: Implications for hyperglycaemia-induced refractive changes. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 35(1), pp. 52–59. doi:10.1111/opo.12176.
  9. Lee, R.M.H., Ong, G.L., Lam, F.C., White, J., Crook, D., Liu, C.S.C. … Hull, C.S.C. (2014). Optical functional performance of the osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis. Cornea, 33(10), pp. 1038–1045. doi:10.1097/ICO.0000000000000235.
  10. Japunya, T., Jitpakdee, P., Uyyanonvara, B., Aimmanee, P., Philippaki, E., Hull, C. … Barman, S. (2014). Software for the quantification of glistenings in intra-ocular lenses. Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science, 1, pp. 34–38.
  11. Amin, M., Edgar D.F., , Parkins D, and Hull C.C., (2014). A Survey of Local Optical Committees (LOCs) involved in Cataract Pathways within the London Region. Optometry in Practice, 15(1), pp. 29–36.
  12. Pelosini, L., Hull, C.C., Boyce, J.F., McHugh, D., Stanford, M.R. and Marshall, J. (2012). Author Response: Predictors of Visual Acuity in Macular Edema. INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE, 53(2), pp. 924–924. doi:10.1167/iovs.11-9278.
  13. Pelosini, L., Hull, C.C., Boyce, J.F., McHugh, D., Stanford, M.R. and Marshall, J. (2011). Optical Coherence Tomography May Be Used to Predict Visual Acuity in Patients with Macular Edema. INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE, 52(5), pp. 2741–2748. doi:10.1167/iovs.09-4493.
  14. Hull, C. (2009). Digital Imaging and Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy. Optometry Today pp. 28–35.
  15. Hull, C. and Know-Cartwright, N.E. (2008). The Biomechanics of Keratorefractive Surgery. Optometry Today pp. 30–37.
  16. Liu, C., Okera, S., Tandon, R., Herold, J., Hull, C. and Thorp, S. (2008). Visual rehabilitation in end-stage inflammatory ocular surface disease with the osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis: results from the UK. BRITISH JOURNAL OF OPHTHALMOLOGY, 92(9), pp. 1211–1217. doi:10.1136/bjo.2007.130567.
  17. Monteiro, P.M.L. and Hull, C.C. (2007). The effect of videokeratoscope faceplate design on radius of curvature maps. OPHTHALMIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL OPTICS, 27(1), pp. 76–84. doi:10.1111/j.1475-1313.2006.00426.x.
  18. Brittain, C.J., Fong, K.C.S., Hull, C.C. and Gillespie, I.H. (2007). Changes in scanning laser polarimetry before and after laser capsulotomy for posterior capsular opacification. JOURNAL OF GLAUCOMA, 16(1), pp. 112–116. doi:10.1097/01.ijg.0000243469.05719.0d.
  19. Perera, S., Okera, S., Tandon, R., Herold, J., Hull, C., Thorp, S. … Liu, C. (2007). UK experience and evolving strategies to improve results I - clinical results. Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, Supplement, 85(Supplement s240). doi:10.1111/j.1600-0420.2007.01063_3563.x.
  20. Liu, C., Paul, B., Tandon, R., Lee, E., Fong, K., Mavrikakis, I. … Hamada, S. (2005). The osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP). Seminars in Ophthalmology, 20(2), pp. 113–128. doi:10.1080/08820530590931386.
  21. Sciscio, A., Hull, C.C., Stephenson, C.G., Baldwin, H., O'Brart, D. and Marshall, J. (2003). Fourier analysis of induced irregular astigmatism - Photorefractive keratectomy versus laser in situ keratomileusis in a bilateral cohort of hyperopic patients. JOURNAL OF CATARACT AND REFRACTIVE SURGERY, 29(9), pp. 1709–1717. doi:10.1016/S0886-3350(03)00524-8.
  22. Eleftheriadis, H., Sciscio, A., Ismail, A., Hull, C.C. and Liu, C. (2001). Primary polypseudophakia for cataract surgery in hypermetropic eyes: refractive results and long term stability of the implants within the capsular bag. BRITISH JOURNAL OF OPHTHALMOLOGY, 85(10), pp. 1198–1202. doi:10.1136/bjo.85.10.1198.
  23. Hull, C.C., Liu, C.S., Sciscio, A., Eleftheriadis, H. and Herold, J. (2000). Optical cylinder designs to increase the field of vision in the osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol, 238(12), pp. 1002–1008. doi:10.1007/s004170000191.
  24. Spiers, T. and Hull, C.C. (2000). Optical Fourier filtering for whole lens assessment of progressive power lenses. OPHTHALMIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL OPTICS, 20(4), pp. 281–289. doi:10.1016/S0275-5408(99)00105-2.
  25. Hull, C.C., Tomlin, S.G., Patel, N.M. and Fletcher, S.J. (2000). Effect of controlled light scatter on visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE, 41(4).
  26. Hull, C.C. (1999). Loss of resolution in a corneal topography system. GRAEFES ARCHIVE FOR CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL OPHTHALMOLOGY, 237(10), pp. 800–805. doi:10.1007/s004170050315.
  27. Hull, C.C., Liu, C.S.C. and Sciscio, A. (1999). Image quality in polypseudophakia for extremely short eyes. BRITISH JOURNAL OF OPHTHALMOLOGY, 83(6), pp. 656–663. doi:10.1136/bjo.83.6.656.
  28. Liu, C., Herold, J., Sciscio, A., Smith, G. and Hull, C. (1999). Osteon-odonto-keratoprosthesis surgery [7]. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 83(1), p. 127.
  29. Hull, C.C. and Liu, C.S.C. (1997). Osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis optics with an improved field of vision. INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE, 38(4), pp. 4715–4715.
  30. Barbur, J.L., Hull, C.C., Wakefield, M. and Welford, W.T. (1997). A novel method for the photometric evaluation of searchlights. MEASUREMENT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 8(2), pp. 117–122. doi:10.1088/0957-0233/8/2/002.
  31. Barbur, J.L., Hull, C.C., Wakefield, M. and Welford, W.T. (1997). A novel method for the photometric evaluation of searchlights. Measurement Science and Technology, 8(2), pp. 117–122. doi:10.1088/0957-0233/8/2/002.
  32. Hull, C.C. and Crofts, N.C. (1996). Determination of the total attenuation coefficient for six contact lens materials using the Beer-Lambert law. OPHTHALMIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL OPTICS, 16(2), pp. 150–157.
  33. Horgan, S.E. and Hull, C.C. (1996). An improved method for the accurate assessment of intraocular lens displacement. INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE, 37(3), pp. 3500–3500.
  35. HULL, C.C. and MAXWELL, J. (1995). A QUADRATIC ADAPTIVE METHOD FOR ABERRATION CORRECTION. JOURNAL OF MODERN OPTICS, 42(6), pp. 1213–1229. doi:10.1080/09500349514551061.
  36. Maxwell, J. and Hull, C.C. (1992). Multidimensional quadratic extrapolation method for the correction of aberrations in lens systems. Applied Optics, 31(13), pp. 2234–2240. doi:10.1364/AO.31.002234.



Modules taught on:

- OV1013 Visual Optics (module leader)
- OV1012 Clinical Skills
- OV2006 Contact Lenses
- OV2020 Visual neuroscience
- OVM022 Refractive surgery (co-facilitator)
- OVM012 Vision in the Aged
- OVM005 Diabetic Eye Disease
- OVM013 Visual Impairment

Other Activities

Editorial activity (5)

  1. Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, Reviewer.
  2. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Reviewer.
  3. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, Reviewer.
  4. Contact Lens and Anterior Eye, Reviewer.
  5. Optical Engineering, Reviewer.

Events/conferences (3)

  1. ARVO Meeting. Orlando, FL (2014).
    Paper: Association between grade of Intraocular Lens (IOL) glistenings and in-vitro Forward Light Scatter. Eva Philippaki, Andy Doraiswamy and Chris C. Hull
  2. European Academy of Optometry and Optics. (2013).
    Paper: Binocular Contrast Summation with Unequal Monocular Light Scatter
  3. Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Annual Meeting. (2012).
    Paper: Functional Properties of the Osteo-Odonto-Keratoprosthesis (OOKP)

Keynote lectures/speeches (9)

  1. The optics of artificial corneas (invited talk). Vienna, Austria (2011). European Cornea Meeting
  2. Squaring the Circle; IOL optics and asphericity (invited talk). Brighton (2010). United Kingdom and Ireland Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery Congress
  3. Wavefront application of IOLs (invited talk). Birmingham (2010). British Society of Refractive Surgery Annual Scientific Congress
  4. Improving the Optics of KPros (invited talk). Portoroz, Slovenia (2009). 7th Kpro Study Group Meeting, EVER Conference
  5. Refractive surgery education (invited talk). British Society of Refractive Surgery Annual Scientific Congress (2009).
  6. Wavefront and topography-guided ablation (invited talk). Birmingham (2009). British Society of Refractive Surgery Annual Scientific Congress
  7. The Principles of Wavefront Aberrometry (invited talk). Birmingham (2009). Wavefront Symposium, Royal College of Ophthalmologists’ Meeting
  8. From 0 to 50 in 1500s; optical aspects of aspheric, multifocal and accommodating intraocular lenses (invited talk). Cardiff (2009). Cymru Anterior Segment Symposium
  9. Multifocality and focus-shift IOLs; theoretical aspects (invited talk). Portoroz, Slovenia (2008). Special Interest Symposium on new IOL technology, EVER Conference