Chris is a mental health nurse, researcher and lecturer with nearly 30 years experience of working in and around the NHS either in clinical practice, research or the training of staff. Chris has worked at City University London since 2003, having previously worked at the University of East Anglia and the Institute of Psychiatry. Chris has also worked for the East London Foundation Trust and the National Patient Safety Agency. His research interests include patient safety, mental health care and health economics. Chris originally trained as an adult nurse at Charing Cross Hospital in London and as a mental health nurse at the Maudsley, London.
Chris has worked as a researcher at the Institute of Psychiatry and a Health Economics Research Associate at the University of East Anglia. He has expertise in research and evaluation with a special interests in patient safety and in health economics, having completed a MSc in Economic Evaluation and Quantitative Methods in Health Care and a PhD based on outcomes measures and economic evaluation both at City University London where he currently works as a Senior Lecturer.
Chris has previously been the Manager of the Research and Evaluation Team at the National Patient Safety Agency for two years between May 2009 and May 2011, managing a research team and ensuring the delivery of the evaluation projects. Whilst there he led national evaluation programmes including an evaluation on reducing the risk of overdose with midazolam injection in adults and an evaluation of resuscitation in mental health and learning disability settings. He also led on a national evaluation of the implementation of the Never Events Framework 2009/10, a policy designed in response to High Quality Care For All (DOH, 2008) to help Primary Care Trusts monitor and prevent serious adverse events.
Chris has participated in a number of clinical trials and has led on the economic evaluations. These trial evaluations have included a Department of Health funded study of the cost effectiveness of Occupational Therapy versus Social Work and an economic evaluation in the use of advance directives for service users with psychosis. With other health economists he also conducted an economic evaluation of laparoscopic surgery versus medication. He has also participated in the development of interview schedules for capturing resource use associated with staff time in mental health care settings. All these projects have been successfully published in top journals including the British Medical Journal, the British Journal of Surgery and Age and Ageing. Chris is currently working on a number of trials including the evaluation of a self booking appointment system for patients undergoing ongoing treatment for blepharospasm and two economic evaluations of clinical trials looking at interventions for arthritis. Additionally he is working with others on a NIHR funded national study mapping and exploring services for parents of children who have gastrostomy tubes in situ long term.
Chris is also Root Cause Analysis trained and occasionally still advises and conducts Serious Incident Reviews for the NHS and the charitable sector.
RGN, RN (MH), BSc, MSc, PhD.
- Lead on recruitment for BSc Mental Health Nursing and Post Graduate Diploma Mental Health Nursing., City, University of London
Chris' current research interests include patient safety, suicide, measuring mental health service utility; and the measurement of costs associated with adverse events. He has a combination of skills around clinical knowledge, applied research skills, and expertise around patient safety and national evaluations.
Chris has made a contribution to the health improvement knowledge base in terms of his research around resource use and decision making to improve patient safety. For example his published work has highlighted the opportunity costs in terms of a cost per prevented incident in mental health care. This was the first study to estimate costs from modelling in this way. The CAMELOT Occupational Therapy study was the first of its kind to measure the cost effectiveness of different professional groups in the care of frail elderly. This included separate analyses of costs for participants and carers, which had not been previously recorded. The Joint Crisis Plan intervention was the first study of resource use, decision making and cost effectiveness in advance directives in mental health.
- Health Economics
- Patient Safety
- Measuring therapeutic change
- Mental Health
- Mcbain, H., Lamontagne-Godwin, F., Haddad, M., Simpson, A., Chapman, J., Jones, J. … Mulligan, K. (2018). Implementation of Type 2 diabetes guidelines in people with severe mental illness (SMI).
- Mulligan, K., McBain, H., Lamontagne-Godwin, F., Chapman, J., Flood, C., Haddad, M. … Simpson, A. (2018). A survey of factors that influence diabetes self-management in people with severe mental illness.
- Mulligan, K., Lamontagne-Godwin, F., McBain, H., Haddad, M., Jones, J., Flood, C. … Simpson, A. (2017). Diabetes care for people with severe mental illness: a survey of health professionals.
- Ayers, S., Crawley, R., Button, S., Thornton, A., Field, A.P., Flood, C. … Smith, H. (2018). Evaluation of expressive writing for postpartum health: a randomised controlled trial. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 41(5), pp. 614–626. doi:10.1007/s10865-018-9970-3.
- Brini, S. (2018). What utility scores do mental health service users, healthcare professionals and members of the general public attribute to different health states? A co-produced mixed methods online survey. PLoS ONE, 13(10). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0205223.
- Hilari, K., Behn, N., Marshall, J., Simpson, A., Northcott, S., Thomas, S. … McVicker, S. (2018). Blinding participants and assessors in a feasibility randomised controlled trial of peer-befriending for people with aphasia post-stroke. Aphasiology, 32(sup1), pp. 88–89. doi:10.1080/02687038.2018.1489121.
- Behn, N., Hilari, K., Marshall, J., Simpson, A., Northcott, S., Thomas, S. … McVicker, S. (2018). SUpporting well-being through PEeR-Befriending (SUPERB) trial: an exploration of fidelity in peer-befriending for people with aphasia. Aphasiology, 32(sup1), pp. 21–23. doi:10.1080/02687038.2018.1489120.
- Jones, J. and Simpson, A. (2018). Barriers to effective diabetes management - a survey of people with severe mental illness. BMC Psychiatry, 18(1). doi:10.1186/s12888-018-1744-5.
- (2018). Correction:Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in people with severe mental illness: an online cross-sectional survey of healthcare professionals. BMJ Open, 8(5). doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019400corr1.
- Flood, C., Yilmaz, M., Phillips, L., Lindsay, T., Eskin, M., Hiley, J. … Tasdelen, B. (2018). Nursing students' attitudes to suicide and suicidal persons: A cross‐national and cultural comparison between Turkey and the United Kingdom. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. doi:10.1111/jpm.12461.
- (2018). Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in people with severe mental illness: An online cross-sectional survey of healthcare professionals. BMJ Open, 8(2). doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019400.
- Shehabi, Z., Flood, C. and Matthews, L. (2018). Midazolam use for dental conscious sedation: how safe are we? British Dental Journal, 224, pp. 98–104. doi:10.1038/sj.bdj.2017.1042.
- Chapman, J., Haddad, M., Jones, J., Flood, C., Thomas, D. and Simpson, A. (2017). Barriers and enablers of type 2 diabetes self-management in people with severe mental illness. Health Expectations, 20(5), pp. 1020–1030. doi:10.1111/hex.12543.
- Eskin, M., Kujan, O., Voracek, M., Shaheen, A., Carta, M.G., Sun, J.-.M. … Tsuno, K. (2016). Cross - national comparisons of attitudes towards suicide and suicidal persons in university students from 12 countries. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. doi:10.1111/sjop.12318.
- Wickwar, S., McBain, H., Newman, S.P., Hirani, S.P., Hurt, C., Dunlop, N. … Ezra, D.G. (2016). Erratum to "Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a patient-initiated botulinum toxin treatment model for blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm compared to standard care: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial" [Trials. 17, (2016), 129]. Trials, 17(1). doi:10.1186/s13063-016-1502-2.
- McBain, H., Mulligan, K., Lamontagne-Godwin, F., Jones, J., Haddad, M., Flood, C. … Simpson, A. (2016). Implementation of recommended type 2 diabetes care for people with severe mental illness - a qualitative exploration with healthcare professionals. BMC Psychiatry, 16(1). doi:10.1186/s12888-016-0942-2.
- (2016). Suicidal behavior and psychological distress in university students: A 12-nation study. Archives of Suicide Research, 20(3), pp. 369–388. doi:10.1080/13811118.2015.1054055.
- Lamontagne-Godwin, F., Mulligan, K., Haddad, M., Flood, C., Thomas, D. and Simpson, A. (2016). Severe mental illness and type 2 diabetes: using theory and research evidence to develop complex behaviour change interventions. Journal of psychiatric and mental health nursing, 23(5), pp. 312–321. doi:10.1111/jpm.12311.
- Hirani, S.P., Hurt, C., Dunlop, N., Flood, C. and Ezra, D.G. (2016). Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a patient-initiated botulinum toxin treatment model for blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm compared to standard care: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials, 17(1). doi:10.1186/s13063-016-1263-y.
- (2015). Reducing risk of overdose with midazolam injection in adults: An evaluation of change in clinical practice to improve patient safety in England. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 21(1), pp. 57–66. doi:10.1111/jep.12228.
- McBain, H., Mulligan, K., Haddad, M., Flood, C., Jones, J., Chapman, J. … Simpson, A. (2014). Diabetes self-management in people with severe mental illness. The European Health Psychologist, 16(6), pp. 240–248.
- Mcbain, H., Mulligan, K., Haddad, M., Flood, C., Jones, J. and Simpson, A. (2014). Self-management interventions for type 2 diabetes in adult people with severe mental illness. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2014(11). doi:10.1002/14651858.CD011361.
- Flood, C., Rowe, J., Quigley, J., Henry, S., Hall, C., Evans, R. … Bowers, L. (2014). Results of a pilot randomised controlled trial to measure the clinical and cost effectiveness of peer support in increasing hope and quality of life in mental health patients discharged from hospital in the UK. BMC Psychiatry, 14(1). doi:10.1186/1471-244X-14-30.
- Flood, C., Gull, N., Thomas, B., Gordon, V. and Cleary, K. (2014). Is knowledge and practice safer in England after the release of national guidance on the resuscitation of patients in mental health and learning disabilities? J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs, 21(9), pp. 806–813. doi:10.1111/jpm.12126.
- (2012). Targeted distribution of National Patient Agency Safer Practice Notice on throat packs. Journal of perioperative practice, 22(6), pp. 200–203. doi:10.1177/175045891202200604.
- (2009). Views of service users and providers on joint crisis plans. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 44(5), pp. 369–376. doi:10.1007/s00127-008-0442-x.
- Bowers, L., Flood, C., Brennan, G. and Allan, T. (2008). A replication study of the City nurse intervention: reducing conflict and containment on three acute psychiatric wards. JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC AND MENTAL HEALTH NURSING, 15(9), pp. 737–742. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2850.2008.01294.x.
- Henderson, C., Flood, C. and Leese, M. (2008). Views of service users and providers on joint crisis plans: Single blind randomized controlled trial. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology, 44(5).
- Bowers, L. and Flood, C. (2008). Nurse staffing, bed numbers and the cost of acute psychiatric inpatient care in England. JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC AND MENTAL HEALTH NURSING, 15(8), pp. 630–637. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2850.2008.01280.x.
- Flood, C., Bowers, L. and Parkin, D. (2008). Estimating the Costs of Conflict and Containment On Adult Acute Inpatient Psychiatric Wards. NURSING ECONOMICS, 26(5), p. 325.
- Lorgelly, P.K., Joshi, D., Gomara, M.I., Flood, C., Hughes, C.A., Dalrymple, J. … Mugford, M. (2008). Infantile gastroenteritis in the community: a cost-of-illness study. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION, 136(1), pp. 34–43. doi:10.1017/S0950268807008163.
- Flood, C. (2008). Should Standard Gamble and Time Trade Off Utility Measurement be Used More in Mental Health Research? The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, 13(2).
- Henderson, C., Flood, C. and Szmukler, G. (2007). Shared decision making. PSYCHIATRIC SERVICES, 58(1), pp. 139–140. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.58.1.139-a.
- Flood, C., Byford, S., Henderson, C., Leese, M., Thornicroft, G., Sutherby, K. … Szmukler, G. (2006). Joint crisis plans for people with psychosis: economic evaluation of a randomised controlled trial. BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, 333(7571), pp. 729–732. doi:10.1136/bmj.38929.653704.55.
- Brennan, G., Flood, C. and Bowers, L. (2006). Constraints and blocks to change and improvement on acute psychiatric wards - lessons from the City Nurses project. JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC AND MENTAL HEALTH NURSING, 13(5), pp. 475–482. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2850.2006.00956.x.
- Flood, C., Brennan, G., Bowers, L., Hamilton, B., Lipang, M. and Oladapo, P. (2006). Reflections on the process of change on acute psychiatric wards during the City Nurse Project. JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC AND MENTAL HEALTH NURSING, 13(3), pp. 260–268. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2850.2006.00932.x.
- Bowers, L., Brennan, G., Flood, C., Lipang, M. and Oladapo, P. (2006). Preliminary outcomes of a trial to reduce conflict and containment on acute psychiatric wards: City Nurses. JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC AND MENTAL HEALTH NURSING, 13(2), pp. 165–172. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2850.2006.00931.x.
- Flood, C. (2005). Moral panics and the media. HEALTH RISK & SOCIETY, 7(2), pp. 193–195. doi:10.1080/13698570500108628.
- (2005). Short-term cost effectiveness and long-term cost analysis comparing laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication with proton-pump inhibitor maintenance for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. British Journal of Surgery, 92(6), pp. 700–706. doi:10.1002/bjs.4933.
- Flood, C., Mugford, M., Stewart, S., Harvey, I., Poland, F. and Lloyd-Smith, W. (2005). Occupational therapy compared with social work assessment for older people. An economic evaluation alongside the CAMELOT randomised controlled trial. AGE AND AGEING, 34(1), pp. 47–52. doi:10.1093/ageing/afh232.
- Lorgelly, P.K., Joshi, D., Iturriza, G.M., Flood, C., Hughes, C.A., Dalrymple, J. … Mugford, M. (2005). Infantile gastroenteritis in the community: A cost of illness study. VALUE IN HEALTH, 8(3), pp. 308–308. doi:10.1016/S1098-3015(10)62795-7.
- Stewart, S., Harvey, I., Poland, F., Lloyd-Smith, W., Mugford, M. and Flood, C. (2005). Are occupational therapists more effective than social workers when assessing frail older people? Results of CAMELOT, a randomised controlled trial. AGE AND AGEING, 34(1), pp. 41–46. doi:10.1093/ageing/afh230.
- Henderson, C., Flood, C., Leese, M., Thornicroft, G., Sutherby, K. and Szmulker, G. (2004). Effect of joint crisis plans on use of compulsory treatment in psychiatry: single blind randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 329(7458), pp. 136–0. doi:10.1136/bmj.38155.585046.63.
- (1999). What are personality disorders and are they treatable? British journal of nursing (Mark Allen Publishing), 8(4), pp. 231–234. doi:10.12968/bjon.19184.108.40.20691.
- (1999). What are personality disorders and are they treatable? International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, 6(4), pp. 171–175. doi:10.12968/bjtr.19220.127.116.1187.
- Eskin, M., Poyrazli, S., Janghorbani, M., Giovanni Carta, M., Tran, U.S., Mechri, A. … Voracek, M. The Role of Religion on Suicidal Behavior, Attitudes and Psychological Distress in University Students: A Multinational Study. Transcultural Psychiatry.
Care Programme Approach and Risk Assessment study days for the local Trust
- Chris provides support to the local trust and commissioners in the serious incident review process.
- Mental Health Nursing - Through the ages. An economic evaluation of a pilot randomised controlled trial to measure the cost-effectiveness of peer support in increasing hope and quality of life in psychiatric patients discharged from hospital. Keble College, Oxford (2012).
Description: Flood, C., International Network for Psychiatric Nursing Research, 26-27 September 2012.
- Mental Health Nursing - Through the ages. Four years on from the release of national guidance on the resuscitation of patients in mental health and learning disabilities. Is knowledge and practice safer? Keble College, Oxford (2012).
Description: Flood, C., International Network for Psychiatric Nursing Research, 26-27 September 2012.