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Contact Information


Visit Catherine Suttle

M107, Myddelton Street Building

Postal Address

City, University of London
Northampton Square
United Kingdom



Catherine is an optometrist who joined City University London in 2013, having previously worked at the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Catherine studied dispensing optics by correspondence at City College, graduating in 1980. She then enrolled at City University London as an Optometry student, and graduated in 1992. Her PhD research was conducted from 1994 to 1997, on the development of colour vision, at Aston University in Birmingham. She took a post-doc position at the School of Optometry, University of California, Berkeley, from 1997 to 2000, then moved to Sydney, Australia to take a lectureship in optometry at the University of New South Wales. In 2013 she returned to City University London as a Senior Lecturer in Optometry and Visual Science.


PhD (Vision Science); BSc (Optometry); GradCert (University Learning and Teaching)

Memberships of professional bodies

- College of Optometrists


Research overview

Catherine's research focuses on two key areas

(1) vision therapy for amblyopia ('lazy eye') and other visual disorders;
(2) evidence-based practice in optometry.

(1) Amblyopia is a visual disorder affecting about 2% of the general population. It is entirely treatable during early childhood, but becomes less amenable to treatment with maturity. Amblyopia and its conventional treatment (patching of one eye) have significant negative impacts on some aspects of function (such as ability to accurately reach and grasp objects) and self-esteem. In addition, childhood compliance with patching treatment is generally not high, and treatment often fails for this reason. Alternative treatment methods have been introduced in recent years, involving short, regular periods of patching together with active tasks such as target discrimination, known as 'perceptual training'. These may not only enhance treatment in children but also allow treatment in adulthood, and this is exciting since it suggests the possibility of treatment for the 1 in 50 adults with amblyopia worldwide. However, questions remain around the efficacy of such treatment methods. Catherine's current research aims to answer some of those questions and to contribute to a sound evidence base for vision treatment in amblyopia and other visual disorders.

(2) Evidence-based practice (EBP) involves clinical decision-making on the basis of the best available evidence together with the practitioner's expertise and the patient's preferences/values. EBP was formally introduced to Medicine in the 1990s, and since then its value in terms of health care quality and safety has been widely recognised by allied health. However, research into EBP indicates that the extent to which practitioners make clinical decisions in this way varies widely. In 2012, research Catherine conducted with colleagues at the University of New South Wales in Australia suggested that clinical decisions are made largely on the basis of undergraduate and postgraduate education. This does not necessarily include the best evidence, which would require search and appraisal of relevant research. Since then, Catherine has worked with collaborators to develop and validate an optometry-specific test of EBP skills and knowledge and build a web site providing resources to support optometry students and practitioners in their evidence-based practice. Currently, Catherine is researching learning and teaching methods that support the development of EBP skills and knowledge in optometry students, with the ultimate aim of ensuring that optometry graduates are equipped to be evidence-based practitioners.

Research areas

- Vision therapy
- Evidence-based practice


- Curriculum Review for Evidence-based Practice in Australasian Optometry (AUD217,000) Australian Learning and Teaching Council 2011-2013

Research centres

- Visual Development and Plasticity
- Centre for Public Health Research

Principal collaborators

- Professor John Lawrenson
- Dr Simon Grant
- Dr Catherine Stewart
- Dr Isabelle Jalbert (UNSW Australia)
- Dr Mei Boon (UNSW Australia)
- Ms Sheela Devi (LV Prasad Eye Institute)


Conference paper/proceedings

  1. Sethu, S., Lawrenson, J., Fielder, A.R., Kekunnaya, R., Ali, R., Borah, R.R. … Suttle, C.M. (2017). Barriers to childhood cataract services across India. A mixed methods study using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) of behaviour change.

Journal articles (51)

  1. Yap, T.P., Luu, C.D., Suttle, C.M., Chia, A. and Boon, M.Y. (2019). Electrophysiological and Psychophysical Studies of Meridional Anisotropies in Children With and Without Astigmatism. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 60(6), pp. 1906–1913. doi:10.1167/iovs.18-25924.
  2. Sheeladevi, S., Lawrenson, J.G., Fielder, A., Kekunnaya, R., Ali, R., Borah, R.R. … Suttle, C. (2018). Delay in presentation to hospital for childhood cataract surgery in India. Eye (Basingstoke), 32(12), pp. 1811–1818. doi:10.1038/s41433-018-0176-2.
  3. Suttle, C.M., Lawrenson, J.G. and Conway, M.L. (2018). Efficacy of coloured overlays and lenses for treating reading difficulty: an overview of systematic reviews. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 101(4), pp. 514–520. doi:10.1111/cxo.12676.
  4. Suttle, C.M., Barbur, J. and Conway, M.L. (2018). Author's reply. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 38(4), p. 469. doi:10.1111/opo.12569.
  5. (2017). Corrigendum. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 37(5), pp. 629–629. doi:10.1111/opo.12404.
  6. Suttle, C.M., Barbur, J. and Conway, M.L. (2017). Coloured overlays and precision-tinted lenses: poor repeatability in a sample of adults diagnosed with visual stress. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 37(4), pp. 542–548. doi:10.1111/opo.12389.
  7. Conway, M.L., Evans, B.J.W., Evans, J.C. and Suttle, C.M. (2016). Does Gender Influence Colour Choice in the Treatment of Visual Stress? PLOS ONE, 11(9). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0163326.
  8. Boon, M.Y., Henry, B.I., Chu, B.S., Basahi, N., Suttle, C.M., Luu, C. … Hing, S. (2016). Fractal Dimension Analysis of Transient Visual Evoked Potentials: Optimisation and Applications. PLOS ONE, 11(9). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0161565.
  9. Sheeladevi, S., Lawrenson, J.G., Fielder, A.R. and Suttle, C.M. (2016). Global prevalence of childhood cataract: A systematic review. Eye (Basingstoke), 30(9), pp. 1160–1169. doi:10.1038/eye.2016.156.
  10. Asper, L., Leung, A., Tran, C., Suttle, C.M. and Watt, K. (2015). The effects of vertical yoked prism on horizontal heterophoria. Optometry and Vision Science, 92(10), pp. 1016–1020. doi:10.1097/OPX.0000000000000686.
  11. Suttle, C.M., Challinor, K.L., Thompson, R.E., Pesudovs, K., Togher, L., Chiavaroli, N. … Jalbert, I. (2015). Attitudes and Barriers to Evidence-Based Practice in Optometry Educators. Optometry and Vision Science, 92(4), pp. 514–523. doi:10.1097/opx.0000000000000550.
  12. Alnahedh, T., Suttle, C.M., Alabdelmoneam, M. and Jalbert, I. (2015). Optometrists show rudimentary understanding of evidence-based practice but are ready to embrace it: Can barriers be overcome? Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 98(3), pp. 263–272. doi:10.1111/cxo.12238.
  13. Suttle, C.M., Asper, L.J., Sturnieks, D. and Menant, J. (2015). Negligible impact on posture from 5-Diopter vertical yoked prisms. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 56(5), pp. 2980–2984. doi:10.1167/iovs.14-15866.
  14. Lee, K., Junghans, B.M., Ryan, M., Khuu, S. and Suttle, C.M. (2014). Development of a novel approach to the assessment of eye-hand coordination. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 228, pp. 50–56. doi:10.1016/j.jneumeth.2014.02.012.
  15. Grant, S., Suttle, C., Melmoth, D.R., Conway, M.L. and Sloper, J.J. (2014). Age- and stereovision-dependent eye–hand coordination deficits in children with amblyopia and abnormal binocularity. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 55(9), pp. 5687–5701. doi:10.1167/iovs.14-14745.
  16. Yeotikar, N.S., Khuu, S.K., Asper, L.J. and Suttle, C.M. (2013). Context and Crowding in Perceptual Learning on a Peripheral Contrast Discrimination Task: Context-Specificity in Contrast Learning. PLoS ONE, 8(5). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063278.
  17. Suttle, C., Bokhary, K.A., Alotaibi, A.G., Stapleton, F. and Boon, M.Y. (2013). Development and validation of the 21-item Children's Vision for Living Scale (CVLS) by Rasch analysis. Clinical and Experimental Optometry.
  18. Errington, J.A., Menant, J.C., Suttle, C.M., Bruce, J. and Asper, L.J. (2013). The effects of vertical yoked prisms on gait. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 54(6), pp. 3949–3956.
  19. Suttle, C., Jalbert, I. and Alnahedh, T. (2013). Re: The evidence in evidence-based practice. Why the confusion? Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 96(1), pp. 130–130.
  20. Lai, X.J., Alexander, J., He, M.G., Yang, Z.K. and Suttle, C. (2012). A novel apparatus for interocular interaction evaluation in children with and without anisometropic amblyopia. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 95(4), pp. 410–420.
  21. Lai, X.J., Alexander, J., Ho, A., Yang, Z., He, M. and Suttle, C. (2012). Design and validation of a method for evaluation of interocular interaction. Optometry and Vision Science, 89(2), pp. 183–196.
  22. Suttle, C.M., Jalbert, I. and Alnahedh, T. (2012). Examining the evidence base used by optometrists in Australia and New Zealand. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 95(1), pp. 28–36.
  23. Suttle, C.M., Melmoth, D.R., Finlay, A.L., Sloper, J.J. and Grant, S. (2011). Eye-hand coordination skills in children with and without amblyopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 52(3), pp. 1851–1864. doi:10.1167/iovs.10-6341.
  24. Masgoret, X., Asper, L., Alexander, J. and Suttle, C. (2011). The development of crowding and interocular interactions in a resolution acuity task. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 52(13), pp. 9452–9456.
  25. Lai, X.J., Alexander, J., He, M., Yang, Z. and Suttle, C. (2011). Visual functions and interocular interactions in anisometropic children with and without amblyopia. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 52(9), pp. 6849–6859.
  26. Yeotikar, N.S., Khuu, S.K., Asper, L.J. and Suttle, C.M. (2011). Configuration specificity of crowding in peripheral vision. Vision Research, 51(11), pp. 1239–1248.
  27. Boon, M.Y., Chan, K.Y., Chiang, J., Milston, R. and Suttle, C. (2011). EEG alpha rhythms and transient chromatic and achromatic pattern visual evoked potentials in children and adults. Documenta Ophthalmologica, 122(2), pp. 99–113.
  28. Masgoret, X., Asper, L., Alexander, J. and Suttle, C. (2010). Enhancement of resolution acuity in a half-binocular viewing condition. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 51(11), pp. 6066–6069.
  29. Suttle, C.M. (2010). Active treatments for amblyopia: A review of the methods and evidence base. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 93(5), pp. 287–299.
  30. Cui, Y., Stapleton, F., Suttle, C. and Bundy, A. (2010). Health- and vision-related quality of life in intellectually disabled children. Optometry and Vision Science, 87(1), pp. 37–44.
  31. Suttle, C. (2009). Visual acuity assessment in infants and young children. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 84(6), pp. 337–345. doi:10.1111/j.1444-0938.2001.tb06605.x.
  32. Boon, M.Y., Suttle, C.M., Henry, B.I. and Dain, S.J. (2009). Dynamics of chromatic visual system processing differ in complexity between children and adults. Journal of Vision, 9(6).
  33. Whatham, A., Suttle, C., Blumenthal, C., Allen, J. and Gaskin, K. (2009). ERGs in children with pancreatic enzyme insufficient and pancreatic enzyme sufficient cystic fibrosis. Documenta Ophthalmologica, 119(1), pp. 43–50.
  34. Suttle, C., Alexander, J., Liu, M., Ng, S., Poon, J. and Tran, T. (2009). Sensory ocular dominance based on resolution acuity, contrast sensitivity and alignment sensitivity. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 92(1), pp. 2–8.
  35. Vedamurthy, I., Suttle, C.M., Alexander, J. and Asper, L.J. (2008). A psychophysical study of human binocular interactions in normal and amblyopic visual systems. Vision Research, 48(14), pp. 1522–1531.
  36. Cui, Y., Stapleton, F. and Suttle, C. (2008). Developing an instrument to assess vision-related and subjective quality of life in children with intellectual disability: Data collection and preliminary analysis in a Chinese population. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 28(3), pp. 238–246.
  37. Boon, M.Y., Henry, B.I., Suttle, C.M. and Dain, S.J. (2008). The correlation dimension: A useful objective measure of the transient visual evoked potential? Journal of Vision, 8(1), pp. 1–21.
  38. Whatham, A., Bartlett, H., Eperjesi, F., Blumenthal, C., Allen, J., Suttle, C. … Gaskin, K. (2008). Vitamin and mineral deficiencies in the developed world and their effect on the eye and vision. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 28(1), pp. 1–12.
  39. Boon, M.Y., Suttle, C.M. and Dain, S.J. (2007). Transient VEP and psychophysical chromatic contrast thresholds in children and adults. Vision Research, 47(16), pp. 2124–2133.
  40. Vedamurthy, I., Suttle, C.M., Alexander, J. and Asper, L.J. (2007). Interocular interactions during acuity measurement in children and adults, and in adults with amblyopia. Vision Research, 47(2), pp. 179–188.
  41. Suttle, C.M. and Lloyd, R. (2005). Chromatic and achromatic transient VEPs in adults with Down syndrome. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 25(6), pp. 501–513.
  42. Mei, Y.B., Suttle, C.M. and Henry, B. (2005). Estimating chromatic contrast thresholds from the transient visual evoked potential. Vision Research, 45(18), pp. 2367–2383.
  43. Suttle, C.M. and Turner, A.M. (2004). Transient pattern visual evoked potentials in children with Down's syndrome. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 24(2), pp. 91–99.
  44. Suttle, C.M., Wong, R., Anderton, P.J., Kim, H.J., Kim, J.D. and Lee, M.Y. (2003). A survey of paediatric visual assessment by optometrists in New South Wales. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 86(1), pp. 19–33.
  45. Suttle, C.M., Banks, M.S. and Graf, E.W. (2002). FPL and sweep VEP to tritan stimuli in young human infants. Vision Research, 42(26), pp. 2879–2891.
  46. Suttle, C.M., Banksa, M.S. and Rowan Candy, T. (2000). Does a front-end nonlinearity confound VEP acuity measures in human infants? Vision Research, 40(26), pp. 3665–3675.
  47. Suttle, C.M. and Harding, G.F.A. (1999). Morphology of transient VEPs to luminance and chromatic pattern onset and offset. Vision Research, 39(8), pp. 1577–1584.
  48. Suttle, C.M. and Harding, G.F.A. (1998). The VEP and ERG in a young infant with cystic fibrosis. Documenta Ophthalmologica, 95(1), pp. 63–71.
  49. Suttle, C.M., Anderson, S.J. and Harding, G.F.A. (1997). A longitudinal study of visual evoked responses to tritan stimuli in human infants. Optometry and Vision Science, 74(9), pp. 717–725.
  50. Suttle, C.M., Anderson, S.J. and Harding, G.F.A. (1996). Visual evoked responses to blue-yellow stimuli in human infants. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 37(3).
  51. Suttle, C.M. Who put the 'paediatric' in paediatric eye care? Clinical and Experimental Optometry.

Other (2)

  1. Bokhary, K.A., Suttle, C., Alotaibi, A.G., Stapleton, F. and Boon, M.Y. (2013). Development and validation of the 21-item Children's Vision for Living Scale (CVLS) by Rasch analysis.
  2. Lai, X.J.A., Alexander, J., Ho, A., Yang, Z., He, M. and Suttle, C. (2011). Design and validation of a method for evaluation of interocular interaction.


Modules taught on

- OV1012/OV2207 Clinical Skills 1 (leader and teacher)
- OV2018 Binocular Vision (teacher)

Other Activities


  1. Embedding High Quality EBP into Australasian Optometry Curricula. (2013).
    Description: Oral presentation, Evidence-based Health Care conference November