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Contact Information


Visit Ana Villar

DG01, Rhind Building

Postal Address

City, University of London
Northampton Square
United Kingdom



Dr Ana Villar joined City, University of London as Research Fellow in January 2012. She has directed cross-national studies testing mixed-mode data collection designs (e.g., telephone and face-to-face, web and face-to-face), and designed and set up the first cross-national online probability-based panel. She has been part of the ESS questionnaire design and translation teams, and is a member of the ESS Translation Expert Panel.

Ana completed her doctorate at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln at the Survey Research and Methodology program, while working as research assistant at the Gallup Research Center. In her dissertation she explored the effects of answer scale translation and cross-cultural differences in response styles and response distributions.

In 2009 she joined Jon Krosnick's Political Psychology Research group at Stanford University as research affiliate where she conducted research on methodological aspects of online panel surveys, nonresponse error and measurement error, and survey weighting. She also collaborated in the implementation and analysis of surveys on public opinion on global warming for the Woods Institute for Environmental Research, and has worked investigating trends in public opinion of climate change and its causes.


Dr Villar's ongoing research interests encompass the study of measurement error due to questionnaire design, nonresponse bias in telephone surveys, measurement error in online surveys, the use of interpreters in survey interviews, nonresponse bias, data collection mode effects and public opinion of climate change.

Her research interests also include measurement error in multilingual surveys and cultural differences in survey responding.


Chapters (4)

  1. Villar, A. and Fitzgerald, R. (2017). Using mixed modes in survey research: Evidence from six experiments in the ESS. Values and Identities in Europe: Evidence from the European Social Survey (pp. 273–310). ISBN 978-1-138-22666-1.
  2. Schoua-Glusberg, A. and Villar, A. (2014). Assessing Translated Questions via Cognitive Testing. In Miller, K., Willson, S., Chepp, V. and Padilla, J.L. (Eds.), Cognitive Interviewing Methodology: An Interpretive Approach for Survey Question Design John Wiley & Sons.
  3. Callegaro, M., Villar, A., Krosnick, J. and Yeager, D. (2014). A Critical Review of Studies Investigating the Quality of Data Obtained With Online Panels. In Callegaro, M., Baker, R., Bethlehem, J., Goritz, A., Krosnick, J. and Lavrakas, P. (Eds.), Online Panel Research: An Interdisciplinary Approach John Wiley & Sons.
  4. Harkness, J.A., Pennell, B.E., Villar, A., Gebler, N., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. and Bilgen, I. (2008). Translation Procedures and Translation Assessment in the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. In Kessler, R.C. and Ustun, T.B. (Eds.), The World Health Organization Mental Health Survey (pp. 91–143). York: Cambridge University Press.

Journal articles (2)

  1. Villar, A., Callegaro, M. and Yang, Y. (2013). Where Am I? A Meta-Analysis of Experiments on the Effects of Progress Indicators for Web Surveys. Social Science Computer Review, 31, pp. 744–762. doi:10.1177/0894439313497468.
  2. Villar, A. and Krosnick, J. (2011). Global Warming vs. Climate Change, Taxes Vs. Prices: Does Word Choice Matter? Climatic Change: an interdisciplinary, international journal devoted to the description, causes and implications of climatic change, 105(1-2), pp. 1–12. doi:10.1007/s10584-010-9882-x.