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Startups: A legal profile

City Law School academic, Professor David Collins, has co-authored a research paper outlining a study carried out in conjunction with a pro bono student law clinic providing assistance to over 400 startup businesses in London.
by John Stevenson (Senior Communications Officer)

The dominance of social media businesses, a preponderance of male clients and the primary need for legal advice on basic company structure.

City University London College BuildingThese emerged among several common features observed in a research paper titled “A Legal Profile of Startup London”, co-authored by Professor of International Economic Law, Professor David Collins, and his City Law School colleagues, Eric Klotz and Ben Robinson.

Pro-bono legal advice clinic

Their paper outlines a study which was undertaken between 2013 and 2015 in conjunction with Start-Ed, a pro-bono legal advice clinic which focusses on providing legal assistance to startup businesses in central London.

Data was collected from over 460 startups regarding the nature of their business as well as the type of legal challenges they faced in the current economic climate.

The research paper presents the award-winning Start-Ed project as both a model for successful clinical education and an example of how the university sector can boost innovation and entrepreneurial activity.


The process of translating an idea or invention into a good or or service that creates value or for which customers will pay. To be called an innovation, an idea must be replicable at an economical cost and must satisfy a specific need.

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