Study shows that intimate partner violence is strongly associated with self-harm and suicidality in both men and women, and across all adult ages in England.
Published in The Lancet Psychiatry, a new study is the first to show that intimate partner violence (IPV) is strongly associated with self-harm and suicidality in both men and women, and across all ages in England.
While IPV is a recognised risk factor for psychiatric disorders, there had previously been little evidence on IPV and self-harm and suicidality.
Led by the Violence and Society Centre at City, University of London, in collaboration with the University of Manchester, University of Leicester, University College London, and the University of Bristol, the study was an analysis of results from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (APMS) conducted face to face with over 7,000 adults, in 2014/5.
A nationally representative cross section of households in England were interviewed, capturing information on gender, age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity and regional location.
Study participants were asked about experience of physical violence and sexual, economic, and emotional abuse from a current or former partner, and about suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, and self-harm.
The study found that 27 per cent of women and 15 per cent of men had experienced IPV at some point in their life, confirming that women are far more likely than men to experience violence from a partner. People with experience of IPV were more likely to live in more deprived neighbourhoods and to have also experienced many other adversities in their lives. However, the associations between IPV and self-harm and suicidality remained strong even when these other factors were adjusted for.
After adjusting for experience of other adversities, as well as demographic and socioeconomic factors, people who had ever experienced IPV in their lives, compared to those who had not, had in the previous year:
- over twice the risk of self-harming without suicidal intent
- almost twice the risk of having suicidal thoughts
- and almost three times the risk of attempting suicide
If any IPV had been experienced within the previous year, then the risks were even higher.
Particularly elevated rates of self-harm, suicidal thoughts, and suicide attempts were found in those who were ever subjected to sexual and emotional IPV, those who ever experienced physical injury from IPV, and those who had experienced multiple forms of IPV, which indicates that the more types of IPV someone is exposed to, the higher the risk they are of self-harm and suicidality.
Sally McManus, Senior Lecturer in Health in the Violence and Society Centre and the School of Health Sciences, City, University of London and first author of the study said:
Dr Estela Barbosa, Senior Research Fellow in the Violence and Society Centre, City, University of London and a co-author said:
“Intimate partner violence is common in England, especially among women. The gender gap was widest for sexual IPV, which was about ten times more common in women than men, and this IPV type was associated with particularly high odds of self-harm and suicidality.
Dr Duleeka Knipe, Population Health Sciences at Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol and co-author said:
“Strategies for violence reduction should form part of individual-level suicide risk assessment and safety planning, and they should feature in national suicide prevention strategies. Interventions designed to reduce the prevalence and duration of IPV might protect and improve the lives of people at risk of self-harm and suicide.”
Find out more
Read the article in The Lancet Psychiatry: Intimate partner violence, suicidality, and self-harm: a probability sample survey of the general population in England
For people who may be affected by the contents of this release, a list of organisations from which to seek support in the UK:
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A grassroots federation working together to provide life-saving services in England and build a future where domestic abuse is not tolerated. Links to sister organisations in Scotland
UK-wide charity dedicated to ending domestic abuse, for everyone and for good.
For Women and Children. Against Domestic Violence.
Freephone 24-Hour National Domestic Abuse Helpline: 0808 2000 247
Standing Together Against Domestic Abuse is a national charity bringing communities together to end domestic abuse.
Working to end domestic abuse. Leading the development of safe, effective work with perpetrators, male victims and young people using violence and abuse
We are the only UK-based, umbrella women's organisation dedicated to addressing violence against Black and Minoritised women and girls i.e. women which are defined in policy terms as Black and 'Minority Ethnic' (BME).
We support LGBT+ people who have experienced abuse and violence
The research was supported by the UK Prevention Research Partnership (Violence, Health and Society; MR-VO49879/1), which is funded by the British Heart Foundation, Chief Scientist Office of the Scottish Government Health and Social Care Directorates, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, Economic and Social Research Council, Health and Social Care Research and Development Division (Welsh Government), Medical Research Council, National Institute for Health and Care Research, Natural Environment Research Council, Public Health Agency (Northern Ireland), The Health Foundation, and Wellcome.
The views expressed in the research article are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the UK Prevention Research Partnership or any other funder.