European Global Product Realisation (EGPR) is an academic course which joins together students from multiple institutions.
Different cultures, experience and knowledge are brought together to realise a project in an virtual environment.
The aim of the project is to materialise a global product, which includes steps ranging from the market research to the production of the physical working prototype.
Now in its 18thedition, EGPR course has been successfully running since 2002. It all started when EPFL from Switzerland, FME Ljubljana from Slovenia and TU Delft from the Netherlands joined forces with two companies - LIV Postojna, Slovenia and deVlamboog, the Netherlands in executing the first edition of the EGPR course.
EGPR through the years
- Host university: University Džemal Bijedić, Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Industrial partner: Masterwerk
- Supporting companies: Kalim and MBT BH – DKR
- Task: Develop innovative modular solar powered car port systems for electric and hybrid vehicles which could be produced globally and flexibly used in variety of applications.
The legislation for reduction of carbon footprint stretches companies and even countries to develop novel solutions. One of the fastest developing areas is electric and hybrid cars. Charging of the electric cars is becoming important topic and opens many opportunities for CO2 reduction.
Looking at changes and trends of our time, we expect that to e-mobility i.e. e-transportation systems will replace the classical means of transportation. Expecting this substantial change to the whole infrastructure Masterwerk wants to combine competencies with contributions from the EGPR Programme to develop and launch a product which will find its place in the global market with the potential for continuous growth.
MASTERWERK® is an ISO 9001: 2015 certified Tier II and III Tier supplier in the German automotive industry, offering services mainly to the Customers in German Industry. DESIGN, MANUFACTURING, and AUTOMATION WITH ROBOTICS are the basic business units.
Read more about Masterwerk.
Project objectives and goals
The students will engage in a variety of design research methods in various outdoor environments to discover business potential for existing and new modular car port systems with solar power charging and battery energy storage.
The focus will be on the good industrial design considering modularity and simplicity, cost efficient and robust structural design and efficient battery energy storage.
The topic is broad allowing students the freedom to explore the overall product environment, with expectations that they identify and define for themselves a meaningful theme for exploration and development.
By the end of the course in June 2019, each student group will produce one working prototype of the solar powered car port system based on their specific vision. The manufacturing of elements of prototypes will be mostly done by company Kalim Profil and will be supervised by the University of Mostar staff and realised jointly by Kalim Profil and Masterwerk and the participating Universities.
The prototypes will be tested during the final workshop which will be held at the University Džemal Bijedić in Mostar.
- Host university: City, University of London, School of Science and Technology
- Academic partners: Budapest University of Technology & Economics and Brigham Young University
- Industrial partner: Black Diamond
- Task: Explore and develop Smart Mobile Outdoor Illumination products that enable or expand the active experiences for Black Diamond's customers
Black Diamond Equipment design and manufacture products for climbing, skiing and mountain sports.
Black Diamond (BD) has become a globally recognized voice for conservation and preservation ethics, particularly in Utah, where BD's global headquarters sit at the foot of the Wasatch Mountains. They view the Utah landscape as an asset. Whether backcountry skiing in the Wasatch, rock climbing in Indian Creek or hiking in Zion, BD is committed to accessing the public lands and National Parks that make Utah unique.
Building world-class product requires exceptional design and ceaseless innovation. BD applies these principles to their material selection, manufacturing processes and environmental compliance program. BD products are synonymous with outstanding performance whilst minimizing adverse environmental effects.
Innovation in equipment requires developing new technologies and materials. BD believes that reducing the environmental impact of a product through design, engineering and efficiency is an equally vital part of innovation. Research shows that approximately 60-70% of a product's environmental impact comes from the raw material and manufacturing supply chain.
With this knowledge, BD has adopted the best available tools in the industry to responsibly manage the environmental impact and consumer safety of their raw materials, chemistries and manufacturing processes. These tools guide the production of all BD products, whether manufactured by themselves or by an outside vendor.
Black Diamond (BD) athletes participate in extreme activities, in extreme situations. However, they also have fairly common, but thoughtfully designed lighting products, that most anybody could use. If you go camping with your family, walk your dog at night or keep a flashlight/torch in your car, BD has useful, useable and affordable products for the common person. BD illumination products are primarily sold online and through large retail stores – such as REI in the USA.
Lighting at BD is nicely profitable, it enables the company to pursue the lower volume, highly technical products for the extreme athlete, that might not be viable as a stand-alone product line. Expanding BD’s illumination product line will further enable the brand to continue the research and development of extreme products, for extreme situations that they have built their brand around.
BD also has only two smart products in their current product line. Trends suggest that smart products are not going away and that BD should embrace and explore how smart products could expand their product line in a meaningful way.
Historically, BD has been “macho” centric. Extreme men for extreme conditions. They are looking to broaden their appeal by authentically embracing women athletes and experiences. This does not mean “Shrink it and Pink it” but empathizing with real needs and desires of women in outdoor experiences.
BD has also recently engaged with a new CEO who is looking for new opportunities to grow the company.
What type of experiences does a Black Diamond tribal member have? There could be an unlimited number of scenarios, but we will start by suggesting two frameworks to help get your exploring.
First, would be new or emerging sporting trends that align with the BD brand values, but might not be served by their current product line. These are athletes who are using existing products in positive deviant behaviours to enable new experiences. For example - In Munich Germany, athletes have started surfing on the river Eisbach pretty much 24/7.
Summer or Winter, day or night, they enable a BD type experience through creative, thoughtful use of products, including illumination. By clamping and locking large lamps to structures nearby, surfers can illuminate the river and extend their outdoor experience long into the night. Understanding creating products to enable unique activities like this one, could find use, usability and desirability by other athletes in others situations.
Second, typically, most BD athletes have some type of support staff that enable the athlete to perform their best. While these other black diamond customers might not be the poster child for advertising or narrative creation, they are critical to the success of every athlete’s story. These black diamond tribe members also enjoy the outdoors, they enjoy cutting edge products, and participating in the BD experiences.
Simple outdoor activities with pets, camping with friends, long nights around a campfire while other are climbing long pitches, spending long weekends in a van, all typically need some type of lighting product. Understanding their needs and enhancing their experiences could generate meaningful new products.
Project objectives and goals
The students will engage in a variety of design research methods in various outdoor environments to discover illumination needs and opportunities and Implementation of mobile lighting product proposals.
The topic is broad allowing students the freedom to explore the overall product environment, with expectations that they identify and define for themselves a meaningful theme for exploration and development.
The proposed solution shall be SMART:
- Specific; to the requirements for outdoor illumination
- Measurable; by surveys of user experience
- Action-oriented; well-defined steps of a clear project plan
- Repeatable; for variety of customer target groups and applications
- Timely; fitting the available timeframe.
Black Diamond will be fully committed in this project with regular design reviews and guiding of students. Reviews will be held with key Black Diamond personnel (who will provide insight to the needs of the end user), together with technical specialists as required. At the end of the project, it is envisaged that full sized prototype(s) will be fabricated which will be audience-user tested and all functionalities could be fully evaluated.
The manufacturing of prototypes will be supervised by the City, University of London staff and realised jointly by the University and Black Diamond; Black Diamond will facilitate the sourcing of components needed for prototype construction. The final workshop will be held at City.
- Host university: City, University of London, School of Science and Technology
- Industrial partner: BetterLife Innovations Ltd.
- Task: Design a lightweight mobility scooter for different target groups of users.
BetterLife Innovation aims to be a facilitator of innovative thinking, merging customer requirements with the newest technology. Our starting point is an analysis of what the perfect customer solution looks like and then finding new, different or affordable ways to provide that solution. As new technologies and approaches emerge the potential for cross over between markets is greater than ever.
However, with today’s emphasis on efficiency and immediate results, less time and resource is devoted to finding new ways of approaching product delivery – the old adage “if it ain’t broke, don’t fix it” seems to reign supreme. When combined with the reluctance of incumbent manufacturers to consider technology that is outside their current investment base, it is hardly surprising that there are few examples of learnings from one market being transferred to others.
BetterLife Innovations’ objective is to try to harness new thinking and apply it to existing consumer needs with a particular emphasis on the elderly.
The Mobility Scooter market is well established but not well researched; the best available data comes from a Research Institute for Consumer Affairs study conducted on behalf of the Department of Transport in 2014. Estimates indicate annual sales of around 100,000 mobility scooters, the majority of which are Class 2 scooters i.e. used on pavements (class 3 are used on roads and require DVLA registration).
Within Class 2 scooters the majority sold are those designed to be carried in the boot of a car (57% of consumers owned a boot scooter) and the key consumer determinants for purchase are: that it fits into the car boot (89% of respondents), ease of lifting (53% of respondents) and price (36% of respondents).
Products currently available on the market range from relatively low priced ‘cut downs’ of standard pavement scooters (e.g. the Airlite from Careco, see https://www.careco.co.uk/) to sophisticated designs specifically for the foldaway market (Moving Life’s ATTO https://movinglife.com and TGA Minimo https://www.tgamobility.co.uk being good examples).
The weakness in all these products is that the claim of being light and easy to lift is not met by the reality. In lower cost models the scooter has to be broken into several parts to be stowed away and at best the unit has to be split in two and even then the lightest single part of any model available currently is 12kg.
Design development may start from how the scooter looks like when ready for use or how it performs (its basic functionality should be a given) or may alternatively start from what the product looks like when folded down. This latter could be the key differentiator and determinate of consumer choice.
Project objectives and goals
The Company would like to develop a lightweight mobility scooter which could be used by different target groups of users, fold into the size that can fit in a car boot or in airplane/bus luggage and be as light as possible so that it can be easily carried by a single person.
The company believe that design development may start from how the scooter looks like when ready for use or may alternatively start from what the product looks like when folded down.
When closed the scooter should resemble a roll along suitcase and, ideally, be as easy to maneuver. When open for use the scooter must deliver the basic functionality of safely transporting the user in relative comfort but there is considerable flexibility in the look and style of the vehicle. It should be noted that over half of the current users of boot scooters are under 65 – this is not an ‘old person’ product and potential consumers may not only be open to more novel design, they may actually welcome it.
Exploring the different design options for different users would be a useful process – potential users range from teenagers to octogenarians. Products currently on offer have improved considerably in the last 5 years with many manufacturers offering brighter, more colourful alternatives although all still retain the fairly clinical appearance of a mobility product.
The company feel that a presentation and design more resembling a normal scooter may help destigmatise the product.
The intention is that this initiative will be run in conjunction with exclusive sales and distribution partners in each market. Each partner will share the values of BetterLife and be prepared to invest the resource to ensure good market access and excellent after sale care.
In the UK this will be Oaktree Mobility Ltd, one of the UK’s leading suppliers of mobility products. We anticipate three routes into the UK market:
- Direct to consumer via a dedicated Internet site.
- Direct advertising/sales via a Oaktree and their team of 40 national sales people.
- Through selected retail outlets led by Middleton Mobility, Oaktree’s retail arm.
The company sees the four key challenges in this project:
- The creativity of design required to deliver something small enough to be easily transported (about the size of a pull along suitcase) but capable of folding out to provide stable transport for an adult weighing up to 120kg.
- The material of construction, which will need to be strong but light if it is to deliver a below 10kg weight; CFRP looks promising but there are many other options.
- The power unit – battery technology has moved on significantly in recent years and the necessary power can already be delivered by a battery of 3kg or less.
- To bring the whole unit in at £500 or less.
The proposed solution shall be SMART – Specific to the requirements for lightweight mobility scooters, Measurable by surveys of user experience, Action-oriented well-defined steps of a clear project plan, Repeatable for variety of customer target groups and applications and Timely fitting the available timeframe.
BetterLife Innovations will be fully committed in this project with regular design reviews and guiding of students. Reviews will be held with key BetterLife personnel and representatives from Oaktree (who will provide insight to the needs of the end user), together with technical specialists as required. At the end of the project, it is envisaged that full sized prototype(s) will be fabricated which will be audience-user tested and all functionalities could be fully evaluated.
The manufacturing of prototypes will be supervised by the City, University of London staff and realised jointly by the University and BetterLife; BetterLife will facilitate the sourcing of components needed for prototype construction. The final workshop will be held at City.
It is expected that both, the Virtual enterprise of NARIP and the Company will:
- Engage in an iterative design and engineering process that is focused on audience participation and interactions
- Engage in a true cross-collaboration multidisciplinary process that includes industrial design students, mechanical, electrical, electronic and other students.
- Develop awareness of requirements for lightweight mobility scooters which allow users experience of security, safety and ease of use.
The outcome of the project will be tested against:
- Usability in global terms
- Modular and flexible abilities
- User Interaction satisfaction
- Innovation – creative technology
- Viable working solution
- Cost effective solution.
The Company expects the Virtual Enterprise of NARIP to commit fully to the project and requests timely and active communication and collaboration, which will allow to gain new knowledge and novel insights for all and result in innovative, trend changing designs to lead the Company to successful new products.
- Host university: University of Technology and Economics, Budapest
- Industrial partner: Philips Lighting, Hungary
- Task: Design elements of an elderly home with ergonomic furniture, age friendly objects, and adaptable lighting making the senior persons’ lives easier.
Population aging is taking place in nearly all the countries of the world. Aging results from decreasing mortality, and, most importantly, declining fertility. The global share of older people (aged 60 years or over) increased from 9.2 per cent in 1990 to 11.7 per cent in 2013 and will continue to grow as a proportion of the world population, reaching 21.1 per cent by 2050.
Globally, 40 per cent of older persons aged 60 years or over live independently, that is to say, alone or with their spouse only. As countries develop and their populations continue to age, living alone or with a spouse only will likely become much more common among older people in the future.
In this design assignment primarily the two most important areas of information sensing and processing are being challenged; visual abilities and cognitive abilities. N.B. 95% of information from outer world is received and processed visually, therefore it is a crucial prerequisite of the cognitive skills.
As we age, natural physical changes of the human eye diminish our visual abilities including our ability to read. The cornea becomes more opaque, the lens absorbs more light, and the pupil diameter decreases, resulting in a reduction in retinal illuminance. Increased fat deposits in the cornea and lens lead to an increase in light scattering inside the eye, making it more difficult for the eye to recognize the visual images.
The lens yellows and absorbs a higher amount of blue wavelengths. Last but not least, weaker ciliary muscles and an increased rigidity and hardening of the lens reduce our ability to focus and to adjust to different light levels easily.
Everyone experiences changes in their eyesight as they age. Research shows that a 60-year-old needs twice as much light as a 30-year-old. For many, it means buying reading glasses to read a menu, newspaper or other small print. Often, the first thing people notice as they get older is their loss of ability to see distance.
That happens around age 45, and is called presbyopia. By 60, most people have a ‘fixed focus’ optical system and need glasses. After age 60, eye and visual system changes accelerate, so that less light reaches the eye. Therefore, people need more light to see details as they age.
Cognitive abilities are the mental skills one need to carry out any task from the simplest to the most complex. These mental skills include awareness, information handling, memory and reasoning. As we get older, our cognitive abilities gradually deteriorate.
A certain amount of cognitive decline is a normal part of aging. Cognitive aging is complex: there is little age-related decline in some mental functions—such as vocabulary, some numerical skills, and general knowledge—but other mental capabilities decline from middle age onward, or even earlier. The latter include aspects of memory, executive functions, processing speed, reasoning, and multitasking.
All of these mental functions are critical for carrying out everyday activities, living independently, and for general health and well-being. A further three findings are striking. First, different aspects of age-related decline occur together.
Second, slowed speed of information processing accounts for a large proportion of age-related decline in all cognitive domains. This slowing of speed of brain processing begins in young adulthood. Third, the ability to schedule and undertake multiple everyday activities appears to be sensitive to aging.
The aging population needs more light of better quality that supports their independent living. State-of-the-art lighting with smart controls can significantly contribute to the elderly’s feeling of safety, comfort and independence.
The project shall be realized through the product ideation, the conceptual design and, as a proof of concepts, the creation of a demonstration room equipped with intelligent solutions based on scientific literature research and user-oriented innovative product design. Technology and materials involved shall be of energy-efficient, sustainable and imposing the least economic footprint.
- Host university: University of Zagreb, Croatia
- Industrial partner: INETEC - Institute for Nuclear Technology, Zagreb, Croatia
- Task: Remotely operated submersible device for inspecting of welds in nuclear reactor pressure vessel.
The project partner for 2015 was INETEC - Institute for Nuclear Technology, based in Zagreb, Croatia. For more than twenty years, INETEC has been a name synonymous with technological and service excellence in nuclear industry. They have gained international recognition for developing technologies for nuclear power plant examination and repair, inspection and repair services, as well as various engineering studies within a broad scope of activities.
In doing so, they are active in permanent programs of research, development, design, construction and fabrication of equipment, tools, plugs and probes, including software and instruments for non-destructive examination.
For the EGPR project, students were set the challenging task of designing a remotely operated device for inspecting the reactor pressure vessel in nuclear power stations.
Many aspects of the problem were investigated including; underwater propulsion, accurate location of vessel features, non-destructive testing methods and scanning procedures, power and data connections, and vehicle control. The most promising design concept identified by INETEC used perpendicular rails and suction cups to ‘walk’ along the surface of the reactor vessel, allowing fast and accurate scanning of welds.
Five teams of students each focussed on different aspects of the design, and excellent teamwork and communication were required to ensure compatibility between subsystems in the final prototype.
The week long workshop was hosted by Zagreb University in early July, with the successful assembly and testing of the prototype performed at INETECs facilities.
- Host university: University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
- Industrial partner: BSH (Bosch and Siemens Home Appliances Group)
- Task: Design and build of a healthy meal preparation device.
EGPR 2014 was hosted by the University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. 42 undergraduate students from five international universities were involved.
BSH Company is a leading European manufacturer of household appliances setting the trends with innovation in the otherwise conservative market of small household appliances and are constantly searching for and opening new market segments.
To intensify this process and to get insights into different target groups, the BSH Company leads a strategy of intensive cooperation with educational institutions. For that reason and based on good experience with EGPR 2010 project the company made an order for a new project within EGPR 2014.
The objects and goals of the project were to develop the idea for a device which would radically ease the process of healthy meal preparation. The initial idea was to shift the traditional perception where food preparation gravitates around the stove to the new device, which will prepare and transform the ingredients into a fresh, healthy meal.
Students investigated mechanical and thermal food processing technologies with special attention on new, innovative and unconventional food processing principals and solutions. Several teams investigated ways to give the user an interactive experience through the use of available technologies, from buying food, tables with nutrition facts, database of recipes or serving ideas.
The final workshop was held in early July 2014 in Ljubljana, where the participating students came together to assemble and test their prototype devices.
- Host institution: City, University of London
- Industrial partner: Condor Project Ltd.
- Task: Design and build an aircraft to be flown by disabled pilots.
Now in its ninth year, EGPR 2013 was hosted by City, University of London. 50 undergraduate students from five international universities were involved.
This year's industrial partner, Condor Projects Ltd, has extensive workshop facilities, skilled engineering workforce and a passion for flying. Condor Projects Ltd plan to expand.
This year's task was to develop an accessible aircraft, that can be flown by people with specific accessibility needs, such as those with lower limb disabilities.
The final workshop was from 10th to 13th June 2013, where the participating students met each other in person and built their own concept's prototype.
During the workshop the students went to Hull for a few days where Condor Projects Ltd is based.
City, University of London hosted the final workshop of this year's European Global Product Realisation (EGPR) course.
On 14th June, members of the public had the opportunity to view the final prototype of the aircraft fuselage developed by the students on EGPR 2013..
Professor Roger Crouch, Conjoint Dean of the School of Engineering & Mathematical Sciences and the School of Informatics, welcomed visitors and congratulated all course participants.
Professor Ahmed Kovacevic, Howden Chair in Engineering Design and Compressor Technology at City, says EGPR gives participants important exposure to the industrial arena:
"The project teaches the students invaluable lessons. They learn how to operate in an industrial environment, working on a sales-driven project. It also offers a glimpse of life at a multinational level, where soft skills count as much as hard data. This year, Condor Projects Ltd has been an ideal partner company and they have come up with the very challenging project of designing a fuselage for a two-seater plane to be flown by disabled people."
Martyn Wiseman, Managing Director of Condor Projects Ltd, is impressed with the high calibre of work presented by the participants:
"EGPR has been a revelation to us at Condor Projects Ltd. The students should be proud of the depth of research and design they have demonstrated. In six months they have achieved more than most design organisations in the aeronautical industry achieve in three years. They have not only come up with a realistic design which we intend to develop into a working prototype but have attained an invaluable platform from which to expand the goals of making flying available to everyone, particularly those suffering a disability."
MEng (Mechanical Engineering) student, Katherine Frost, said:
"Taking part in EGPR this year has been a highlight of my time here at City. EGPR is unlike any other institution course I've taken; not many students leaving the institution are able to say that they've designed a new product which may soon be available to the public."
- Host university: University of Zagreb
- Industrial partner: Suman d.o.o., Zagreb
- Task: Design and optimisation of parasol products
EGPR 2012 was hosted by University of Zagreb's Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture. The partner of the project was Suman d.o.o., the largest Croatian manufacturer and distributor of awnings, sunblinds and other products for protection from the sun.
The task was to increase business opportunities for Suman d.o.o. by the design and optimisation of parasol products.
In 2012, four universities from different countries took part in this project. There were five teams and all of them made an operable prototype of their final concepts with the cooperation of Suman d.o.o..
From February 2012 five international student teams were engaged in the development of new business opportunities for the partner company and in the week from 10 to 15 June, they met face-to-face to build the prototypes of the products they developed during this one semester course.
The final event was held at the University of Zagreb on Friday 15 June, where five working prototypes were presented to the public. Some snapshots from the final workshop are displayed below.
By 2012, City, University of London engineering students had been part of a wider European Academic Virtual Enterprise for eight years.
2012 Project Task
The partner company in 2012, Suman, provided the following information for the students of EGPR 2012 to start from:
1. Problem definition
The market for awnings, parasols and blinds is extremely large especially in countries with warm climates such as Mediterranean area. The portfolio of parasols manufactured by Suman d.o.o. is ranging from small and light beach parasols to a large commercial parasols and pub umbrellas. Majority of users of products manufactured by Suman d.o.o. are pubs and restaurants who are supplied with parasols and awnings through large beverage chains such as Coca Cola, Beer manufacturers etc.
These advertising parasols are owned by the beverage chain and are delivered and installed either by Suman's service department or by companies employed through the beverage chain. Apart of standard use of parasols for protection from sun in pub and restaurant gardens there is increasing demand for their use for alternative applications:
For protection from rain, as outside smoking areas (very rapidly required by legislation in all European countries), outside bars for festivals etc. Additionally, they find extensive use in households and other applications not mentioned here.
Although parasols have been used for centuries for protection from sun, with advent in design methods, new materials, manufacturing process Suman d.o.o believe that it is possible to rediscover their use for new applications and enable easier installation and maintenance. The company wants to take leading position in the Mediterranean area, to set trends within the industry, to comply with the demands of the growing market of such equipment and to take a competitive edge in the manufacturing of their products.
2. Project task
With the EGPR 2012 project, Suman d.o.o is seeking for solutions which will lead to increased business opportunities for their existing products in new markets and development of new products which will improve installation, maintenance and manufacturing process. The students are required to perform structured engineering design process. It should include comprehensive market research, conceptual design resulting with at least three concept variants produced by each group, detailed design as well as manufacturing/assembly of prototypes. The project will finish with the closing workshop where prototypes will be assembled and tested to customer requirements.
3. Areas of interest for the company
There are many possibilities for the realization of the project and Suman would like students in the first phase of the project to evaluate options which will lead to the maximum increase in business. This will then lead to clear definition of a project task for each individual group.
Among other possibilities, Suman d.o.o believe that improvements can be made in following areas.
1. The first area of interest is the use of their standard parasols (MAGNUM) for application as bar, smoking area or protection from rain which in that case may be used during whole year. Company has already made a product design for this application but it did not have the expected impact in the market and therefore they are considering redesign which will increase it's sales. The aim of the project may lead to:
- Developing methods and means for assembly of the whole construction including side
- panels and bar boards.
- Reduce size of elements
- Convenient transport packages
- Means of attaching to various surfaces (grass, concrete, sand…)
- Making the modular system of several individual units
2. In addition company would like to improve ease of installation and maintenance of their parasols. Namely, in order to install parasols in new areas it is necessary to easily and cheaply deliver and assemble the base which will securely keep the parasol in place and allow flexibility in maintenance. Standard parasols manufactured by Suman are size 300x300cm to 400x400 cm. Usually the base is concrete block with a pipe embedded in the base to allow insertion of the parasol. These are of substantial weight of more than 60 kg and often of very inconvenient shape for transport. These also require tools for installation. It would be ideal if the parasol base would be:
- Modular with simple assembly procedure with no requirements for tools.
- Maximum weight of each part is easy to carry by one person.
- Convenient shape and size for transport
- Reduced material and cost of manufacturing and use of new materials
- Reduced storage space
- Used for some additional applications other than just to hold a parasol, for example
- beverage chillers, holders for gas bottles for external heathers …
3. The current project (COBRA) is a parasol with a main holder on the side of the parasol. It allows more space and better accessibility to space below the parasol. However when not in use it obstructs the view and distracts arrangement of tables and equipment below the parasol. There are several solutions for this problem available in the market but Suman is looking for a novel means of resolving this problem. Usually the space above parasols is not limited. They expect that with resolution to this problem they may have the best option for increasing business. It would be preferable if the opening/closing operation will be provided both manually and automatically.