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  1. Energy and Environmental Law
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Energy and Environmental Law

The course will seek to provide students with an overview of the different legal sources that regulate energy and environment in the EU. We shall then try to show how far the principles underlying this are consistent with wider goals of the EU such as free trade, security and environmentalism.

We will begin with a look at energy sources in modern economies and the security and economics of each: oil-based, coal, nuclear, solar, wind, biofuels, biomass. We ask what a new energy revolution might look like and what kinds of regulatory structures there need to be to achieve this.

Competition and energy law. This seminar and the next will consider the legal basis for the regulation of the energy markets in the EU. We shall consider the structure of energy markets and issues relating to competition and the need to liberalise markets. We consider the liberalisation packages so far enacted.

We will next look at the regulation of environmental aspects of energy, focusing upon the EU's aim to reduce carbon emissions. This will lead to review of the UN Framework on Climate Change and the Kyoto protocol. We also then consider the European Emissions Trading Scheme.

The next area will be the compatibility of Member States actions to support renewables, nuclear and clean coal with competition law. This will focus upon the state aids case law. We will also consider the legal issues raised by the ETS and state aid.

We will then seek to consider the policy issues, beyond carbon emissions, driving EU energy policy, including security of supply from Russia and then need for diversity. We shall consider how far energy security, competition and carbon reduction are compatible.

We will also consider the EU regime regarding alternative fuels to those which are oil-based. We will briefly look at the effectiveness of regulation in this field thus far.

We thus provide and overview of EU energy law and policy as it relates to the most pressing issues for the next 50 years.