The City Law School's research ranges from doctrinal to socio-legal, across a broad subject matter.
Our Research Centres, Institutes and Groups promote cutting-edge research with a view to advancing knowledge and bringing value to society.
Each research centre or group, their associated academic experts and research students are grouped under our specialist areas of expertise.
Our Research Ethics committee aims to support research into Law and Legal Practice. We seek to foster and support appropriate research into law and legal practice, including that which is carried out as part of postgraduate and doctoral level education.
Law Research Degree at City
The PhD/MPhil programme at the City Law School offers you the opportunity to carry out legal research and to contribute to professional knowledge in this constantly evolving field.
- Law Research
- Working Papers
- Academic Visitors
- Recent publications
- International Trade Law and Regulation
Law Research Centres
- London Universities Maritime Law and Policy Research Group - The London Universities Maritime Law and Policy Research Group (LUMLP) is a non-profit making collaborative network of London academic institutions with research interests in Maritime Law and Policy.
- Institute for the Study of European Laws - The Institute for the Study of European laws (ISEL) is a leading centre for research and teaching on European law and policy.
- The Legal Practice Hub - The Legal Practice Hub complements The City Law School’s mission as a site of excellence in legal research and education.
- The Digital Trade Research Group - The Digital Trade Research Group brings together academics and professional business advisors to explore some of the pressing legal and commercial issues facing enterprises engaged in cross-border e-commerce.
- Intellectual Property Engagement Group - IPEG is a leading research centre of City Law School hosting national and international research funding.
- International Law and Affairs Group - Seeking to combine insights from both International Law and International Relations scholarship, the group provides a forum for research and discussion for those interested in issues of public international law.
- Centre for Criminal Justice and Human Rights - The Centre for Criminal Justice and Human Rights is a group of researchers, practitioners and community members studying the ‘justice’ in the criminal justice system.
- Violence and Society Centre - Violence wrecks lives and causes immense suffering and death. Violence is not inevitable, but shaped by society. The Centre aims to produce the evidence to build the theory needed to inform policy, politics and practice to move towards zero violence.
- Jean Monnet Chair in European Law - The City Law School is an international centre for the study of European Union law.
- Minorities and Rights Research Group - The Minorities and Rights Research Group (MRRG) at the City Law School, City University London, aims to provide a forum for specialised debates on minority groups and other vulnerable persons.
- The Critical Corporation Project - The Critical Corporation Project is funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) and aims to bring together the expertise and insights of scholars.
- Jean Monnet Chair in Law and Transatlantic Relations - The Jean Monnet Chair in Law and Transatlantic Relations aims to study and critically reflect upon the largest case study of global governance in the international legal order, the transatlantic alliance.
- Centre for Law and Social Change - A hub for connections on the topic of law and social change and a space to generate debate, between scholars, students, practitioners, and policy makers.
- Market Structure, Competition and Economic Regulation Research Group - The research of the Market Structure, Competition and Economic Regulation group focuses on the design and analysis of markets, economic regulation and work related with regulatory and competition authorities and other related policy formation institutions.
City Law School (CLS) Working Paper Series
The series aims to further excellence in legal scholarship. This is an excellent opportunity for legal academics, practitioners, and doctoral students to bring their work to a wide audience, facilitating fruitful discussion and critical input on nascent ideas and projects.
We invite authors to submit papers for publication in the series, including shorter case notes and comments, as well as longer articles.
Papers are reviewed by the editorial board and published electronically in open access at City Research Online. Papers should follow the submission guidelines and use OSCOLA referencing.
For general queries, please contact Dr Adrienne Yong, Managing Editor of the CLS Working Paper Series.
Ballardini, R. M., Mimler, M., Minssen, T. & Salmi, M. (2023). 3D Printing, Intellectual Property Rights and Medical Emergencies: In Search of New Flexibilities (City Law School Research Paper 2023/04). London, UK: City Law School.
Ali S Algazlan, N., Arya, H., Katkoria, T. M. & Puri, K. (2023). The Case Against Patent Waivers: Adopting A Practical Approach to the COVID-19 Vaccine Crisis (CLS Working Paper Series 2023/03). London, UK: City Law School.
Fahey, E., Terpan, F. & Zahn, R. (2023). Understanding EU legal integration/disintegration: in search of new perspectives (CLS Working Paper Series 2023/02). London, UK: City Law School.
Ali S Algazlan, N. (2023). An Exploration of the 2Milly’s Litigation from a UK Copyright Law Perspective: A Multi-Factorial Approach? (City Law School Research Paper 2023/01). London, UK: City Law School.
Zhao, L. (2022). Artificial Intelligence and Law: Emerging Divergent National Regulatory Approaches in a Changing Landscape of Fast-evolving AI Technologies (City Law School Research Paper 2022/15). London, UK: City Law School.
Yong, A. (2022). A Gendered EU Settlement Scheme: Intersectional Oppression of Immigrant Women in a Post-Brexit Britain (City Law School Research Paper 2022/14). London, UK: City Law School.
Ali S Algazlan, N. (2022). Mickey Mouse and Character(is)ing Copyright – “Character Protection” in UK Copyright Law? (City Law School Research Paper 2022/13). London, UK: City Law School.
Wiener, C. & Hargreaves, D. (2022). Sexual Assault R v Abdulahi (City Law School Research Paper 2022/12). London, UK: City Law School.
Fahey,E.(2022). Imagining the future of good global governance (City Law School Research Paper 2022/11). London, UK: City Law School.
Goold, P. (2022). Intellectual Property’s Faith-Based Empiricism (City Law School Research Paper 2022/10). London, UK: City Law School, City, University of London.
Stanton, J. (2022). Small states and constitutional reform: democracy in Malta (City Law School Research Paper 2022/09). London, UK: City Law School.
Fahey, E. and Poli, S. (2022). The strengthening of European technological sovereignty and its legal bases in the Treaties (City Law School Research Paper 2022/08). London, UK: City Law School, City, University of London.
Zammit Borda, A and Hosen, S. (2022). The challenges of long-delayed prosecutions in fighting impunity in Bangladesh (City Law School Research Paper 2022/07). London, UK: City Law School, City, University of London.
Seymour, D (2022). COVID, Commodification and the Market (City Law School Research Paper 2022/06). London, UK: City Law School, City, University of London.
Zammit Borda, A and Mandelbaum, S (2022). If I Would Stay Alive, I Would Be Their Voice’: On the Legitimacy of International People's Tribunals (City Law School Research Paper 2022/05). London, UK: City Law School, City, University of London.
Chuah, J. C. T. (2022). Forward Planning – Regulation of Artificial Intelligence and Maritime Trade (City Law School Research Paper 2022/04). London, UK: City Law School.
Goold, P. and Simon, D. A. (2022). Lucky IP (City Law School Research Paper 2022/03). London, UK: City Law School.
Goold, P. (2022). IP Accidents: Negligence Liability in Intellectual Property (City Law School Research Paper 2022/02). London, UK: City Law School, City, University of London
Germain, S. & Yong, A. (2022). Ethnic minority and migrant women’s struggles in accessing healthcare during COVID-19: an intersectional analysis (City Law School Research Paper 2022/01). London, UK: City Law School.
Chuah, J. C. T. (2021). Money Laundering Considerations in Blockchain based International Commerce (City Law School Research Paper 2021/08). London, UK: The City Law School.
Karaivanova, I., Blunt, G. D., Couture-Ménard, M-È., Bernier, L., Breton, M., Ménard, J. F., Pires de Vasconcelos, N., Gilbar, R., Karako-Eyal, N., Tomlinson, J., Meers, J., Cardo, V., Boelle, J., Baek, B-S., Yeh, D., Chen, B., Jacob, M-., Ferraz, O., Littler, J., De Visser, M., Ashford, C., Renz, F., Liu, S-J. S., Tuitt, P., Yong, A. and Germain, S. (2021). Beyond the Virus: Multidisciplinary and International Perspectives on Inequalities raised by COVID-19 (City Law School Research Paper 2021/07). London, UK: The City Law School.
Germain, S. (2021). The Role of Medical Professionals in Shaping Healthcare Law During COVID-19 (City Law School Research Paper 2021/06). London, UK: The City Law School.
Germain, S. and Yong, A. (2021). Written evidence from the Gender & Sexualities Research Centre (GSRC) at City, University of London for Women’s Health Strategy (City Law School Research Paper 2021/05). London, UK: City Law School.
Hervey, T., Antova, I., Flear, M., McHale, J., Speakman, E. and Matthew, W. (2021). Health ‘Brexternalities’: The Brexit effect on health and health care outside the UK. (City Law School Research Paper 2021/04). London, UK: The City Law School.
Goold, P. (2021). The Curious Case of Computer-Generated Works under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (City Law School Research Paper 2021/03). London, UK: The City Law School.
Goold, P. (2021). Artificial Authors: Case Studies of Copyright In Works of Machine Learning (City Law School Research Paper 2021/02). London, UK: The City Law School.
Goold,P (2021). Moral Reflections on Strict Liability in Copyright. (City Law School Research Paper 2021/01). London, UK: City Law School, City, University of London.
Seymour, D. (2020). At War with Themselves: Coronavirus, Commodification and Conspiracy (City Law School Research Paper 2020/14). London, UK: City Law School, City, University of London.
Rebelo, P. and Rebelo, X. (2020). Avenues for private climate change litigation: the advancement of a South African constitutional rights approach (City Law School Research Paper 2020/13). London, UK: City, University of London.
Germain, S. and Yong, A. (2020). COVID-19 highlighting inequalities in access to healthcare in England: a case study of ethnic minority and migrant women (City Law School Research Paper 2020/12). London, UK: City Law School, City, University of London.
Rebelo, P. (2020). Poseidon Principles: Legal Directions for Implementation & Enforcement (City Law School (CLS) Research Paper No. 2020/11). London, UK: City Law School, City, University of London.
Fahey, E. (2020). Future-mapping the directions of European Union (EU) law: how do we predict the future of EU law? (City Law School (CLS) Research Paper No. 2020/10). London: City Law School, City, University of London.
Kendrick, M. (2020). The Future of EU Differentiated Integration: The Tax Microcosm (City Law School Research Paper 2020/09) London, UK: City Law School, City, University of London.
Curtis, M., Smith, M., Parmar, I., Rees, W., Mai'a, K., Cross, D., Moraes, C., Christakis, T., Fahey, E., Chen, X., Gao, X., Henig, D., Collins, D. A., Lyons, T., Egan, M. and Shleina, V. (2020). Contemporary Issues in Translantic Relations (City Law School Research Paper 2020/08) London, UK: City Law School, City, University of London.
Bonadio, E. and Baldini, A. (2020). Covid-19, Patents and the Never-Ending Tension between Proprietary Rights and the Protection of Public Health (City Law School Research Paper 2020/07) London, UK: City Law School, City, University of London.
Mancini, I.(2020). Fundamental rights in the institutional architecture of EU trade agreements: a tale of omissions (City Law School Research Paper 2020/06) London, UK: City Law School, City, University of London.
Germain, S.(2020). Will COVID-19 Mark the End of an Egalitarian National Health Service? (City Law School (CLS) Research Paper No. 2020/05). London, UK: City Law School, City, University of London.
Fahey, E., Mancini, I., Harrison, J., Suttle, O., Zelazna, E., Garcia, M., Gammage, C., Araujo, B. M., Kuner, C., Yakovleva, S., Ott, A., Moerland, A., Gehrke, T., Farrell, H., Newman, A., Kalypso, N. and Shleina, V. (2020). The EU as a Good Global Actor (City Law School (CLS) Research Paper No. 2020/04). London, UK: City Law School, City, University of London.
Yong, A. (2020). The future of EU citizenship status during crisis – is there a role for fundamental rights protection? (City Law School (CLS) Research Paper No. 2020/03). London, UK: City Law School, City, University of London.
Pelliconi, A.,Odermatt, J. and Wessel, R. A. (2020). The European Union’s External Action and International Law: A View From the Outside. (City Law School (CLS) Research Paper No. 2020/02). London, UK: The City Law School.
Shleina, V. and Fahey, E., Klonick, K., Menéndez González, N., Murray, A. and Tzanou, M. (2020). The Law of Facebook: Borders, Regulation and Global Social Media (City Law School (CLS) Research Paper No. 2020/01). London, UK: The City Law School Working Paper Series.
Bonadio, E., Collins, D. A., Fahey, E., McDonagh, L. and Rogers, A. (2019). Report on the TRILATTRADE Project: Trade regulation & IP Post-Brexit (City Law School (CLS) Research Paper No. 2019/08). London, UK: The City Law School.
Townley, L. and Kaul QC, HHJ K. In the Age of 'Us Too?': Moving Towards A Zero-Tolerance Attitute To Harassment and Bullying at the Bar - A Report on the Association of Women Barristers' Roundtable on harassment and Bullying With Recommendations (City Law School (CLS) Research Paper No. 2019/07). London, UK: City Law School Working Paper Series.
Kalintiri, A. and Stones, R. (2019). FIDE Congress 2020 - EU Competition Law and the Digital Economy: United Kingdom Report (City Law School (CLS) Research Paper No. 2019/06). London, UK: The City Law School Working Paper Series.
Goold, P. (2019). Patent Accidents: Questioning Strict Liability in Patent Law (City Law School (CLS) Research Paper No. 2019/05). London, UK: The City Law School
Stanton, J. (2019). Metro Mayors and Devolution Deals (City Law School (CLS) Research Paper No. 2019/04). London, UK: City Law School Working Paper Series.
Benson, M., Bica, M. C., Desira, C., Erdunast, P., Masri, N., Persey, O., Sumption, M., Wilkins, H., Yong, A., York, S., Zagrodniczek, K. and Zarkovic, M. (2019). Brexit’s Effect on Citizens, Human Rights & Immigration (City Law School (CLS) Research Paper No. 2019/03). London, UK: The City Law School
Fahey, E., Odermatt, J. and O'Loughlin, E. (2019). Whose Global law? Comparative, Regional and Cyber Approaches to Law-Making (City Law School (CLS) Research Paper No. 2019/02). London, UK: The City Law School.
Ahmed, T. and Fahey, E. (2019). On Brexit: Law, Justices and Injustices (City Law School (CLS) Research Paper No. 2019/01). London, UK: The City Law School.
Odermatt, J. and Wessel, R.A. (2018). Multilateralism under Strain: The Challenges of the European Union’s Engagement With International Institutions (Research Paper, 2018/01). London, UK: The City Law School.
McDonagh, L. (2017). From brand performance to consumer performativity - European trade mark law after the rise of anthropological marketing (Research Paper, 2017/06). London, UK: The City Law School.
Crutchley, J. (2017). How can a decolonial critique rearticulate concepts of peace and victims in international criminal law? (Research Paper, 2017/05). London, UK: The City Law School.
McDonagh, L. (2017). A new beginning for the European patent system? (Research Paper, 2017/04). London, UK: The City Law School.
Bardutzky, S. and Fahey, E. (2017). The subjects and objects of EU law: Exploring a research platform (Research Paper, 2017/03). London, UK: The City Law School.
Costa, M. and Peers, S. (2016). Access to justice and the role of the court of justice: The case of private litigants (Research Paper, 2017/02). London, UK: The City Law School.
Bonadio, E. (2017). On the nature of trademark rights: Does trademark registration confer positive or negative rights? (Research Paper, 2017/01). London, UK: The City Law School.
Please submit any queries to Dr Adrienne Yong, Managing Editor of the CLS Working Paper Series.
- Dr. Tawhida Ahmed
- Prof. Elaine Fahey
- Prof. Peter Hungerford-Welch
- Dr. Jed Odermatt
- Dr. John Stanton
- Lynne Townley
- Dr. Adrienne Yong
- Julie Crutchley (PhD rep)
- Emily Allbon
- Dr Patrick Goold
Dr. Adrienne Yong
Academic Visitor Programme
The Academic Visitor Programme is a key component of The City Law School’s commitment to research exchange and underscores the value placed on the exciting contributions that visitors can make.
Our Academic Visitors must have a specific research project which they will pursue during their stay. Academic Visitors are expected to stay for minimum of three months and will have access to selected library resources and to our facilities within the Law School building. Visitors are paired with an academic member of staff based on shared research interests.
This colleague acts as their mentor, and supports the visiting academic's application process. Ideally, the Academic Visitor would have received a mentorship letter to support their application, yet we can also pair the Academic Visitor with staff holding relevant expertise, provided that the specific research project is aligned with ongoing legal research at City.
Please see the Law Research pages for a list of our research centres and groups and their associated academic experts. Academic Visitors are also invited to all Law School events and are expected to present their work to a supportive scholarly community. There is no teaching associated with the Academic Visitors Programme.
Please note that The City Law School does not offer any formal supervision to its visiting PhD students.
There are two types of visitors:
- Visiting Fellows: established academics, normally holding a full-time position at an academic institution.
- Visiting Scholars: early career researchers or PhD students.
The City Law School awards Distinguished Visitor status to up to two applicants each year for academics with an outstanding record of publications and an international reputation in their field of expertise. Visitors in this category will benefit from a fee waiver.
Academic Visitors will be granted physical access to all CityLibrary sites and are entitled to use Library print resources on a reference-only basis. Academic Visitors will also have access to a limited number of the University's electronic resources at both our Law Library and through the use of a "walk-in" terminal at the Northampton Square Library.
Our Library webpages contain a list of the electronic resources available on the walk-in terminal.
We also encourage visitors to take advantage of our proximity to the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies Library.
Bookable desk space:
We have a number of desks which are available to all staff though an online booking system. Desks in demarcated offices can be booked for periods of 12 hours on week days.
All Academic Visitors are invited to attend our faculty, external and PhD research seminars.
Length of Programme and Expectations:
For Visiting Fellows, the typical duration of a visiting fellowship is twelve weeks. Academic Fellows are expected to coincide their stay with the availability of their mentor and should keep in mind the dates of any relevant events that they intend to participate in.
We expect Visiting Fellows to present their research project in a workshop advertised to the entire faculty, the organisation of which will be supported by the Programme Director.
For Visiting Scholars, the expectation for early career (post-doctoral) researchers is the same as the expectations of Visiting Fellows. For doctoral candidates, we expect the Visiting Scholar to present their PhD thesis in a workshop as part of the PhD training programme and to attend weekly research skills sessions.
As such, the Visiting Scholar doctoral candidate is required to be present during either Term 1 (September-December) or Term 2 (January-April). We do not run our PhD training sessions during the Summer months (May – August).
Visa & Accommodation:
The programme can provide a Letter of Invitation, but cannot assist further with visa applications nor can we guarantee a successful outcome. Applicants should ensure that they have funding for their travel and living expenses in London.
Applicants are advised to ensure that they have adequate travel insurance and health cover in place prior to arrival in the UK. Regrettably, The City Law School cannot provide housing to Academic Visitors.
Application & Fees:
All applications must be submitted electronically and include:
- The applicant’s CV
- A brief statement of interest
- A one-page description of the research project
- Two scanned academic references on official headed letter
- A declaration from the applicant confirming their proficiency in English (written and spoken)
- The email confirmation of mentorship from a City Law School academic in PDF format (if available).
Please submit all of the aforementioned application materials into ONE consolidated PDF document and email the document to the Programme Director, Dr Lijun Zhao, We kindly ask that you also copy in Dr Pia Rebelo.
The reference letters and the mentorship confirmation can alternatively be sent to the Programme Director by email from the academic or professional email account of the referee or mentor.
Once we have reviewed your application and are satisfied that you meet the requirements, we will invite you for an interview over Zoom or MS Teams with the Programme Director and relevant staff members to discuss your suitability for the programme and your research expectations.
The deadline for Visiting Scholars who are doctoral candidates are as follows:
For Term 1 (September-December): 31 July 2023
For Term 2 (January – April): 1 December 2023
We accept all other applications for Visiting Fellows and Visiting Scholars (post-doctoral) at any time during the year. The duration of the candidate’s stay will be negotiated in the interview process.
The fee is £500 for Visiting Scholars and £250 for Visiting Fellows. Fees are payable at the start of the visit.
Recent publications by BVS staff
Our staff also share their knowledge through the “Bar manuals” series, written specifically for Bar students and published by Oxford University Press (OUP). This series covers the compulsory subjects taught on the Bar course.
You receive copies of course manuals when you enrol on one of our Bar Vocational Studies programmes.
Titles in this series include:
- Conference Skills
- Criminal Litigation and Sentencing and Evidence
- Opinion Writing, Case Preparation and Legal Research
- Professional Ethics
For full information on the publications in this series please visit the Oxford University Press website.
Other texts written by Bar Vocational Studies programme staff can be viewed on their profiles:
International Trade Law and Regulation
International Trade Law & Regulation is a leading quarterly international law journal published in the UK by Sweet & Maxwell and co-edited by two members of the City Law School’s academic staff.
The journal provides topical analysis on key debates and developments in both public and private aspects of international trade law (the law of the WTO and free trade agreements as well as international commercial law) and investment law (investment treaties and investor-state arbitration). It features:
- In-depth analytical articles by leading academics, practitioners and policy makers
- Shorter opinion pieces on recent developments and emerging issues
- Book reviews of recent publications in the field
Call for Submissions and Guidelines for Contributors
The Int. T.L.R. actively seeks submissions from academics and practitioners in the fields noted above throughout the year. All contributions must be in English and contributors should supply their full contact details, including email address, for further correspondence.
Please include an abstract of no more than 50 words, describing the contents of the contribution. This abstract will appear on the contents page of Int. T.L.R.
The authors of accepted contributions will receive two complimentary copies of the issue in which their paper appears.
Contributions are welcome under the following headings:
Articles should analyse a major, current theme of international interest in the field. Articles should aim to discuss a subject with an emphasis on theory, although practical relevance may also be considered.
Articles should be between 6,000–9,000 words, though shorter or longer contributions may be considered.
In the style of an editorial, the Opinion should be a topical, ideally controversial piece on a recent development in the field aimed at stimulating debate. Opinions are approximately 2,000–4,000 words in length.
Book reviews should offer a short summary of a recent book (published in the last two years) in the field along with critical analysis and insight. Book reviews are normally between 1000 and 1,500 words in length.
Please contact email@example.com to discuss a book review or to obtain a review copy.
The contribution should be sent as an email attachment in Microsoft Word together with the abstract, the contributor’s full contact details and the contributor’s biography to:
Eleanor Loutzenhiser, Commissioning Editor.
Cases and statutes, etc. should be cited accurately and in the correct format, preferably in the footnotes.
Submission of a paper will be held to imply that it contains original unpublished work. Please note that it is the responsibility of the contributor of each paper to collect any permissions and acknowledgements necessary for the paper to be published prior to submission.
The publishers reserve the right to check the submitted paper for originality and sources.
Copyright in contributions is vested jointly with the contributors and the publishers.
- Jason Chuah, Professor of Commercial and Maritime Law, City, University of London
- David Collins, Professor of International Economic Law, City, University of London
Editorial Advisory Board
- Yoshinori Abe, Professor of Law, Gakushuin University
- Camilla Andersen, Professor of International Commercial Law, University of Western Australia
- Raj Bhala, Rice Distinguished Professor, The University of Kansas
- Chi Carmody, Professor of Law, University of Western Ontario
- John Clarke, Director of International Affairs, European Commission, Brussels
- Aline Doussin, Partner, Hogan Lovells LLP, London
- Anne Macgregor, Brussels Bureau Chief, The Capitol Forum
- Bryan Mercurio, Professor of Law, Chinese University of Hong Kong
- Yenkong Ngangjoh Hodu, Professor of International Economic Law, University of Manchester
- Djakhongir Saidov, Professor of Commercial Law, King’s College London
- Kenneth Vandevelde, Dean and Professor of Law, Thomas Jefferson School of Law
- Valentina Vadi, Ph.D., Adjunct Professor, University of Florence