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About City

Sophie Anns

Department of Psychology

Autism Research Group

E: sophie.anns.1@city.ac.uk

Thesis title: Declarative memory and structural language in children with high and low functioning autism and intellectual disability without autism

Supervisors: Professor Jill Boucher and Professor Dermot Bowler

Higher education background

  • Graduate diploma in Psychology (Distinction), University of West London 2006-2007
  • Masters in Social Anthropology of Development, SOAS, University of London 1995-1997
  • BSocSci Social Anthropology, University of Manchester 1991-1994

Overview and research interests

My current research is investigating the possible causes of the structural language impairment in children with low functioning autism (LFA), high functioning autism (HFA) and intellectual disability (ID) - an area of research that is highly neglected due to its complexity at theoretical, practical and economic levels.

I am testing the hypothesis that the language impairment in LFA is caused by a declarative memory impairment (Ullman, 2004). To test this I have two paradigms within which to test both familiarity and recollection, including one that I have developed to be specifically used with children (Bigham, Boucher, Mayes & Anns), 2010). A non-verbal test of semantic ability (Pyramids and Palm Trees Test) is being used as the clinical outcome measure for language.

In addition, other variables that are associated with language are being tested. These variables are weak central coherence (measured using the Children's Embedded Features Test), non-verbal IQ (Ravens matrices), Social Economic Status and implicit mindreading (an eye tracking study that is based on an implicit theory of mind task) and using the Social Responsiveness Scale as a diagnostic filter.

Not only is the research investigating the hypothesis that declarative memory is linked to the language impairment in LFA but also more specifically that recollection is impaired across the autistic spectrum whilst familiarity is only impaired at the lower functioning end. In addition, one of the clinical groups comprises 'intellectually disabled' children without autism and possible links of their language impairment will be explored by testing for social economic status of parents, as well as verbal and non-verbal IQs.

I have recruited four groups of 20+ children (3 clinical, 1 control) to be included in all my tests and they are matched on chronological age and verbal IQ. Preliminary results show support for the hypothesis but more analysis is needed. These findings are essential to our understanding of how children learn and will be extremely useful at an international level.

Research interests

  • Declarative memory in low and high functioning autism, specifically in children
  • Structural language ability in children with autism and intellectual disability without autism
  • Current techniques and theoretical paradigms of measuring implicit mindreading in autism
  • Current research of the 'self' in relation to language and memory.

Publications, posters and talks

Anns, S., Bigham, S., Boucher, J., & Mayes, A., (2013) Familiarity and recollection in children with low and high functioning autism. Invited talk at City University London Research Symposium.

Anns, S., Bigham, S., Boucher, J., & Mayes, A., (2011). Tests of the hypothesis that children with autistic disorder have a more extensive declarative memory impairment than children with high functioning forms of autism spectrum disorder. Poster presented at International Meeting for Autism Research, San Diego, USA.

Bigham, S., Boucher, J., Mayes, M., & Anns, S. (2010). Assessing recollection and familiarity in autistic spectrum disorders: Methods and findings. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 40, 878-889.

Anns, S., Boucher, J., Bowler, D., Bigham, S., & Mayes, A. (2010). Behavioural evidence for more extensive MTL dysfunction in low-functioning than in high-functioning individuals with ASD. Poster presented at International Meeting for Autism Research, Philadelphia, USA.

Anns, S., Bigham, S., Boucher, J. & Mayes, A. (2008). Development and test of a method of discriminating between the contributions of recollection and familiarity to declarative memory in young or learning disabled individuals with ASD's. Poster presented at the International Meeting for Autism Research, London, UK.


  • Visiting Lecturer at City, University of London on Lifespan Psychology
  • Visiting Lecturer at Richmond International University, Mind and Language module
  • Associate Tutor at Sussex University on various psychology and neuroscience undergraduate modules.