About City
  1. Schools and departments
  2. Education
  3. Rector and President
  4. Governance and leadership
  5. Working at City
  6. History of City
  7. More about City
  8. Campus map
  9. Contact us
  10. Guidance on Coronavirus
  1. Arts and Social Sciences
  2. Psychology
  3. Research students
About City

Karen Souza

PhD student

Department of Psychology

E: karen.souza.1@city.ac.uk

Thesis title: The effects of contextual factors on young people's propensity to report crime

Supervisor: Professor Peter Ayton

Overview and research interests

The objective of Karen's PhD research is to identify the antecedents to, and correlates of, crime reporting by young people. The research is guided by two theoretical underpinnings. First, the Moral Action Model was designed to test the predictive utility of specific dimensions of morality on crime reporting. The second explores the concept of resilience and its associated risk and protective factors on young people's propensity to report crime. The study employed mixed methods to collect both quantitative and qualitative data from young people between the ages of 11 and 18.

The findings from the proposed research can contribute to a theoretical understanding of young people's decisions to (not) report crime. It can also inform the development of strategies for intervention and prevention of youth crime and victimisation.

Research interests

  • Youth violence and victimisation
  • Criminal justice and sentencing
  • Forensic mental health
  • Prisoner resettlement
  • Community/restorative justice

Karen is currently a Visiting Scholar at the Institute of Criminology, University of Cambridge. She achieved her MA and BA (with Distinction) in Psychology from the University of Victoria, Canada.


Book chapters

  • Souza, K.A. (2013). Presenting for Maximum Impact. In: I. Daly & A.B. Haney (Eds.), 53 Interesting Ways to Communicate Your Research. Newmarket: The Professional and Higher Partnership
  • Dhami, M.K., & Souza, K.A. (2009). Breaking into Court. In: D.L. Streiner & S. Sidani (Eds.), When Research Studies Go Off the Rails: Solutions and Prevention Strategies. New York: The Guildford Press.
  • Dhami, M.K., Mandel, D., & Souza, K. (2005). Escape from reality: Prisoner's counterfactual thinking about crime, justice and punishment. In: D.R. Mandel, D.J. Hilton, & P. Catellani (Eds.), The Psychology of Counterfactual Thinking (pp. 165 - 182). London: Routledge.

Journal articles

  • Lanskey, C., Lösel, F., Markson, L., & Souza, K.A. (Under review). Children's contact with their imprisoned father and the father-child relationship after his release. Families, Relationships and Societies.
  • Lanskey, C., Lösel, F., Markson, L., & Souza, K.A. (Under review). Re-framing the analysis: A 3-dimensional perspective of prisoners' children's well-being. Children & Society.
  • Souza, K.A., Lösel, F., Markson, L., & Lanskey, C. (In press). Pre-release expectations and post-release experiences of prisoners and their (ex-)partners. Legal and Criminological Pscyhology
  • Souza, K.A., & Dhami, M.K. (2010). First-time and recurrent inmates' experiences of imprisonment. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 37, 1330-1342.
  • Souza, K.A., & Dhami, M.K. (2008). A study of volunteers in community-based restorative justice programs. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 50, 31-57.
  • Souza, K.A., & Dhami, M.K. (2008). Organizational aspects of restorative justice. Resolution, 29, 5.
  • Souza, K.A., & Dhami, M.K. (2007). Restorative justice volunteers' perceptions of effective facilitators. British Journal of Community Justice, 5, 55-61.

Technical reports

  • Lösel, F., Pugh, G., Markson, L., Souza, K. A., & Lanskey, C. (2012). Risk and Protective Factors in the Resettlement of Imprisoned Fathers with their Families. Milton: Ormiston Children and Families Trust.
  • Dhami, M.K., & Souza, K.A. (2009). Sentencing and its Outcomes Project: Part One Pilot Study Report. London: Home Office.
  • Souza, K., & Kemp, V. (2009). Study of Defendants in Magistrates' Courts. London: Legal Services Commission.

Conference presentations

  • Souza, K.A., Markson, L., Lanskey, C., Lösel, F., & Pugh, G. (2012). Conducting longitudinal research with children and young people. Poster presented at the Children of Prisoners Conference, Plymouth, UK.
  • Souza, K. A., Markson, L., Lanskey, C., & Lösel, F. (2011). Families' post-release expectations and experiences. Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology Conference, Washington, DC.
  • Souza, K. (2011). Examining the factors that affect how and why young people report crime. Paper presented at the 1st Annual Postgraduate Symposium, London.
  • Souza, K. (2009). First-time and recurrent inmates' experiences in prison. Paper presented at the 5th Annual Irish Criminology Conference, Dublin.
  • Souza, K., & Dhami, M.K. (2008). Prison life: The inmates' experience. Paper presented at the Division of Forensic Psychology Annual Conference, Edinburgh.
  • Souza, K., & Dhami, M.K. (2003). Exploring the role of volunteers in community-based restorative justice programs. Paper presented at the 6th International Conference on Restorative Justice, Vancouver BC.


Karen is a Teaching Fellow at City, University of London. She has also lectured at Anglia Ruskin University and worked as a Teaching Assistant at the University of Victoria, Canada.