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  1. Professor Robin Bloomfield

portrait of Professor Robin Bloomfield

Professor Robin Bloomfield

Professor of System and Software Dependability

School of Mathematics, Computer Science & Engineering, Department of Computer Science

Contact Information


Visit Robin

A229F, College Building


Postal Address

City University London
Northampton Square



Robin Bloomfield is Professor of Software and System Dependability at the City University, London. His research interests are in the dependability (reliability, safety, security) of computer-based systems. His work in safety in the past 20 yrs has combined policy formulation, technical consulting and underpinning research. He is a founder member of the consultancy Adelard and prior to this he worked in industry for the UK electricity utility (CEGB) where he was concerned with the design and validation of the control and safety systems of nuclear power stations. The post is shared with Peter Bishop and he spends most of his time with the consultancy Adelard.

Professor Bloomfield attended St John's College, Cambridge and holds an MA in Natural Sciences from Cambridge University and is also a chartered engineer.

Prof Bloomfield has held a variety of professional and honorary posts. He was an independent member of the UK Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (NUSAC) before it was disbanded and in 2007 and was a member of the UK Cabinet Office Information Assurance Research and Co-ordination Group. He was the UK member of NATO Research Task on dual use technologies and co-chaired, for the EU, the 2007 Joint US-EU workshop on ICT-Enabled Critical Infrastructures and Interdependencies. Recently he has been a member of the UK Treasury Engineering Infrastructure and Interdependencies Expert Group that supported the revised UK Infrastructure Plans. He has been chairman of the European Workshop on Industrial Computer Systems (EWICS), and a long term member of the Safecomp programme committee.


CEng Institute of Energy, Engineering Council, 1983
MA (Cantab) Natural Sciences, University of Cambridge, 1978


2011 - to date City University London, Professor
2003 - 2011 City University London, Head of Department, Centre for Software Reliability
2000 City University London, Appointed Professor of System & Software Dependability
1987 - to date Founder of specialist consultancy Adelard LLP
1976 - 1987 CEGB, Research Officer

Other appointments

1987 - to date Adelard LLP

Membership of professional bodies

1983 Institute of Energy, ME


Research interests

• Safety and Assurance Cases and security informed safety
• Underpinning models for evaluating the trustworthiness of software based systems
• Security, resilience and critical infrastructure and interdependencies
• Setting policy and research agendas

- Conservative models of reliability prediction
- Development process modelling
- Industrial Liaison Director for DIRC


Journal Article (10)

  1. Netkachova, K. and Bloomfield, R.E. (01 Jun 2016). Security-Informed Safety. Computer, 49(6), 98-102. doi: 10.1109/MC.2016.158
  2. Bishop, P., Bloomfield, R., Littlewood, B., Popov, P., Povyakalo, A. and Strigini, L. (01 Jan 2014). A conservative bound for the probability of failure of a 1-out-of-2 protection system with one hardware-only and one software-based protection train. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 130, 61-68. doi: 10.1016/j.ress.2014.04.002
  3. Bloomfield, R.E. (2012). Are Things Getting Worse?. IEEE Security & Privacy, 10, 3-3. doi: 10.1109/MSP.2012.115
  4. Littlewood, B., Bishop, P., Bloomfield, R., Povyakalo, A. and Wright, D. (Sep 2011). Towards a formalism for conservative claims about the dependability of software-based systems. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering. doi: 10.1109/TSE.2010.67
  5. Bloomfield, R.E. (01 May 2011). Resilient to the unexpected. IEEE Security and Privacy, 9(3), 3-4. doi: 10.1109/MSP.2011.62
  6. Bloomfield, R.E. (25 Jul 2011). Evaluating resilience of multiple infrastructures: Some initial challenges. Proceedings - 5th Latin-American Symposium on Dependable Computing Workshops, LADCW 2011, 39-40. doi: 10.1109/LADCW.2011.22
  7. Bloomfield, R.E., Guerra, S., Masera, M., Miller, A. and Weinstock, C.B. (2006). International working group on assurance cases (for security). IEEE SECURITY & PRIVACY, 4(3), 66-68. doi: 10.1109/MSP.2006.73
  8. Bishop, P., Bloomfield, R., Guerra, S. and Tourlas, K. (01 Dec 2005). Justification of smart sensors for nuclear applications. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 3688 LNCS, 194-207. doi: 10.1007/11563228_15
  9. Bloomfield, R., Courtois, P.J., Littlewood, B., Strigini, L., Yih, S. and Fan, C.F. (01 Jan 2002). Letter to the editor [1] (multiple letters). Nuclear Engineering International, 47(570), 11.
  10. Bloomfield, R.E. and Froome, P.K.D. (1986). The Application of Formal Methods to the Assessment of High Integrity Software.. IEEE Trans. Software Eng., 12, 988-993. doi: 10.1109/TSE.1986.6313053

Conference (34)

  1. Bloom Field, R., Bendele, M., Bishop, P., Stroud, R. and Tonks, S. (01 Jan 2016). The risk assessment of ERTMS-based railway systems from a cyber security perspective: Methodology and lessons learned. , doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-33951-1_1
  2. Netkachova, K., Müller, K., Paulitsch, M. and Bloomfield, R. (20 Jan 2015). Security-Informed Safety Case Approach to Analysing MILS Systems. European Network of Excellence on High Performance and Embedded Architecture and Compilation (HiPEAC), International Workshop on MILS: Architecture and Assurance for Secure Systems, 19 Jan 2015, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
  3. Bloomfield, R.E. and Parisaca-Vargas, A. (2015). Using Ontologies to Support Model-based Exploration of the Dependencies between Causes and Consequences of Hazards. 7th International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Ontology Development, 12 Nov 2015, Lisbon, Portugal.
  4. Netkachova, K., Mueller, K., Paulitsch, M. and Bloomfield, R. (01 Jan 2015). INVESTIGATION INTO A LAYERED APPROACH TO ARCHITECTING SECURITY-INFORMED SAFETY CASES. IEEE/AIAA 34th Digital Avionics Systems Conference (DASC), 13 Sep 2015, Prague, CZECH REPUBLIC.
  5. Netkachova, K., Bloomfield, R., Popov, P. and Netkachov, O. (01 Jan 2015). Using structured assurance case approach to analyse security and reliability of critical infrastructures. , doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-24249-1_30
  6. Netkachova, K., Netkachov, O. and Bloomfield, R. (01 Jan 2015). Tool support for assurance case building blocks: Providing a helping hand with CAE. , doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-24249-1_6
  7. Bishop, P.G., Bloomfiel, R.E. and Cyra, L. (04 Nov 2013). Combining Testing and Proof to Gain High Assurance in Software: a Case Study. (ISSRE 2013) IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering, 04 Nov 2013, Pasadena, CA, USA.

    [publisher's website]

  8. Bloomfield, R.E., Netkachova, K. and Stroud, R. (2013). Security-Informed Safety: If it's not secure, it's not safe. 5th International Workshop on Software Engineering for Resilient Systems (SERENE 2013), 03 Oct 2013, Kiev, Ukraine.
  9. Shittu, R., Healing, A., Bloomfield, R.E. and Rajarajan, M. (2012). Visual Analytic Agent-Based Framework for Intrusion Alert Analysis.. , doi: 10.1109/CyberC.2012.41

    [publisher's website]

  10. Stankovic, V., Bloomfield, R., Bishop, P. and Gashi, I. (2011). Diversity for Security: a Study with Off-The-Shelf AntiVirus Engines. 21st International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE 2011), , Hiroshima, Japan.
  11. (2010). Critical Information Infrastructures Security, 4th International Workshop, CRITIS 2009, Bonn, Germany, September 30 - October 2, 2009. Revised Papers. , doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-14379-3
  12. Bloomfield, R. and Bishop, P. (2010). Safety and Assurance Cases: Past, Present and Possible Future - an Adelard Perspective. , doi: 10.1007/978-1-84996-086-1_4
  13. Bloomfield, R.E., Buzna, L., Popov, P.T., Salako, K. and Wright, D. (2009). Stochastic Modelling of the Effects of Interdependencies between Critical Infrastructure.. , doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-14379-3_17

  14. Bloomfield, R.E., Chozos, N. and Salako, K. (2009). Current Capabilities, Requirements and a Proposed Strategy for Interdependency Analysis in the UK.. , doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-14379-3_16

  15. Bloomfield, R.E., Gashi, I., Povyakalo, A. and Stankovic, V. (2008). Comparison of Empirical Data from Two Honeynets and a Distributed Honeypot Network.. , doi: 10.1109/ISSRE.2008.62

    [publisher's website]

  16. Bloomfield, R.E., Masera, M., Miller, A., Saydjari, O.S. and Weinstock, C.B. (2007). Assurance Cases for Security: The Metrics Challenge.. , doi: 10.1109/DSN.2007.18

    [publisher's website]

  17. Bloomfield, R.E., Littlewood, B. and Wright, D. (2007). Confidence: Its role in dependability cases for risk assessment. , doi: 10.1109/DSN.2007.29
  18. Littlewood, B. and Bloomfield, R. (2004). On the use of diverse arguments to increase confidence in dependability claims. International Conference on Control and Instrumentation in Nuclear Installations, ,
  19. Littlewood, B., Bloomfield, R., Popov, P., Povyakalo, A. and Strigini, L. (2004). The impact of ‘difficulty’ variation on the probability of coincident failure of diverse systems. International Conference on Control and Instrumentation in Nuclear Installations, , Liverpool.
  20. Bishop, P.G. and Bloomfield, R.E. (2003). Using a Log-normal Failure Rate Distribution for Worst Case Bound Reliability Prediction. 14th IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE 2003), 17 Nov 2003, Denver, Colorado.
  21. Bishop, P., Bloomfield, R., Clement, T. and Guerra, S. (01 Sep 2003). Software criticality analysis of COTS/SOUP. , doi: 10.1016/S0951-8320(03)00093-0
  22. Bishop, P., Bloomfield, R., Clement, T., Guerra, S. and Jones, C. (2003). Integrity static analysis of COTS/SOUP. ,
  23. Bloomfield, R. and Littlewood, B. (2003). Multi-legged arguments: the impact of diversity upon confidence in dependability arguments. , doi: 10.1109/DSN.2003.1209913
  24. Bishop, P.G. and Bloomfield, R.E. (2002). Worst Case Reliability Prediction Based on a Prior Estimate of Residual Defects. Thirteenth International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE '02), 12 Nov 2002, Annapolis, Maryland.
  25. Bishop, P.G., Bloomfield, R.E., Clement, T. and Guerra, S. (2002). Software Criticality Analysis of COTS/SOUP.. , doi: 10.1007/3-540-45732-1_20

    [publisher's website]

  26. Bloomfield, R.E. and Guerra, S. (2002). Process Modelling to Support Dependability Arguments.. , doi: 10.1109/DSN.2002.1028892

    [publisher's website]

  27. Oussalah, M., Nguyen, H.T., Kreinovich, V., Bloomfield, R.E. and Newby, M. (2001). Theoretical foundation for iterative assessment of conditional confidence measures in the framework of conditional measure theoretic-approach.. ,

    [publisher's website]

  28. Bishop, P.G., Penny, J., Eaton, A. and Bloomfield, R. (2001). The Practicalities of Goal-Based Safety Regulation. Ninth Safety-Critical Systems Symposium, 06 Feb 2001, Bristol, UK.
  29. Bloomfield, R.E., Craigen, D., Koob, F., Ullmann, M. and Wittmann, S. (2000). Formal Methods Diffusion: Past Lessons and Future Prospects.. , doi: 10.1007/3-540-40891-6_19

    [publisher's website]

  30. Bishop, P.G. and Bloomfield, R.E. (1998). A Methodology for Safety Case Development. Safety-critical Systems Symposium 98, Feb 1998, Birmingham, UK.
  31. Bishop, P.G. and Bloomfield, R.E. (1995). The SHIP Safety Case - A Combination of System and Software Methods. 14th IFAC Conf. on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security (SafeComp95), 11 Oct 1995, Belgirate, Italy.
  32. (1988). VDM '88, VDM - The Way Ahead, 2nd VDM-Europe Symposium, Dublin, Ireland, September 11-16, 1988, Proceedings. ,
  33. Gashi, I. How secure is ERTMS?. Workshop on Dependable and Secure Computing for Large-scale Complex Critical Infrastructures (DESEC4LCCI), 25 Sep 2012, Herrenkrug, Germany.
  34. Strigini, L., Bloomfield, Robin, , Paulitsch, Michael, and Reiger, Rupert, Evidence-Based Security in Aerospace. From Safety to Security and Back Again. 23rd International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE 2012), Fast Abstracts Track, 26 Nov 2012, Dallas, Texas, USA.

    [publisher's website]

Report (8)

  1. Bloomfield, R.E. (2012). ERTMS Specification Security Audit, Analysis of Attack Scenarios.
  2. Bishop, P., Bloomfield, R., Gashi, I. and Stankovic, V. (2012). Diverse protection systems for improving security: a study with AntiVirus engines. London, UK: City University London.
  3. Bloomfield, R, , Chozos, N., , Popov, P.T., Stankovic, V., , Wright, D, and Howell-Morris, R, (15 Nov 2010). Preliminary Interdependency Analysis (PIA): Method and tool support.
  4. Gashi, I. and Bloomfield, R.E. (2008). Evaluating the resilience and security of boundaryless, evolving socio-technical Systems of Systems.

    [publisher's website]

  5. Bishop, P.G., Bloomfield, R.E., Emmet, L.O., Johnson, C., Black, W., Hamilton, V. and Koorneef, F. (Dec 2003). Learning from incidents involving E/E/PE systems, Part 1: Review of methods and industry practice.
  6. Bishop, P.G., Jones, C.C.M., Bloomfield, R.E. and Froome, P.K.D. (May 2001). Methods for assessing the safety integrity of safety-related software of uncertain pedigree (SOUP).
  7. Bloomfield, R.E. and Wetherilt, A. Computer trading and systemic risk: a nuclear perspective. London, UK: Government Office for Science.
  8. Bishop, P.G., Bloomfield, R.E. and Froome, P.K.D. Justifying the use of software of uncertain pedigree (SOUP) in safety-related applications. May 2001.

Other Activities

Keynote Lectures/Speeches (1)

  • The open challenge of security, 04 Nov 2013, Pasadena, CA, USA. Keynote speaker at The 3rd International Workshop on Open Systems Dependability: Adaptation to Changing World at the 24th IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE), Pasadena, CA, USA Nov 2013

Editorial Activities (1)

  • I am an Associate Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE Security and Privacy magazine

Other Activities (1)

  • In 2013 I was called to give evidence to the Parliamentary Commission on Banking Standards following my wok on systemic risk and computer based trading.

Find us

City, University of London

Northampton Square

London EC1V 0HB

United Kingdom

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