People
  1. Students
  2. Alumni
  3. Honorary Graduates
  4. Academic Experts
  1. Professor Bev Littlewood
People

portrait of Professor Bev Littlewood

Professor Bev Littlewood

Professor of Software Engineering

School of Mathematics, Computer Science & Engineering, Department of Computer Science

Contact Information

Contact

Visit Bev

A229, College Building

null

Postal Address

City University London
Northampton Square
London
EC1V 0HB
UK

About

Background

Bev Littlewood has degrees in mathematics and statistics, and a PhD in statistics and computer science; he is a Chartered Engineer, and a Chartered Statistician. He has worked for more than 30 years on problems associated with the dependability of software-based systems, and has published many papers in international journals and conference proceedings and has edited several books.

In 1983 he founded the Centre for Software Reliability (CSR) at City University, London, and was its Director from then until his semi-retirement in 2003. During this period CSR attracted many millions of pounds of research funding from various European and UK national agencies such as EPSRC, and industry, and gained an international reputation for the quality of its research. He has successfully managed almost 40 research projects as Principal Investigator. He is currently Professor of Software Engineering at City University.

His technical contributions have largely focused on the application of probabilistic and statistical techniques in software systems engineering. He has published over a hundred scientific papers on topics that include:

- Software reliability growth modeling
- Modelling of software design diversity for fault tolerance
- Exploring the limits of what can be claimed rigorously for system dependability
- Application of Bayesian probability and statistics to systems dependability
- Software testing
- Combining reliability and correctness claims in safety arguments

He has a long term interest in the question of how far these approaches can take us in providing assurance that systems are fit for purpose - in particular, whether certain critical systems are sufficiently safe to be allowed to operate. He has encouraged - and taken part in - debate about such issues in both technical and non-technical forums. This has involved several TV and radio appearances in documentary and news programmes discussing general issues of software reliability and safety. For example, he presented, and was co-author, of an edition of the BBC2 TV programme, 'Antenna', on safety-critical software.

From 1990 to 2005 he was a member of the UK Nuclear Safety Advisory Committee (NuSAC), in which role he played a part in the extensive discussions, and controversy, concerning the first use of a software-based protection system for a UK power reactor. He chaired the NuSAC Working Group on the use of software in critical applications, which reported to the Health and Safety Commission in 1998. Its report was published as 'The Use of Computers in Safety-critical Applications' (www.hse.gov.uk/nuclear/computers.pdf).

His professional activities related to his scientific work are numerous. He is a member of the UK Computing Research Committee (UKCRC), and is a past member of the EPSRC College for Computing. He is currently serving his third term as an Associate Editor of IEEE Trans on Software Engineering, the premier journal in SE. He is on the editorial boards of several other international journals. He is a member of IFIP Working Group 10.4 on Reliable Computing and Fault Tolerance. He was a member of the British Computer Society's Safety Critical Systems Task Force until its recent untimely demise. He was the only non-US member of the Panel on Statistical Methods in Software Engineering (1992-4), convened by the US National Research Council. He was a member of the HSC Working Group that wrote the influential 'Tolerability of Risk from Nuclear Power Stations', being responsible for the section on the contribution of critical computing systems to risk. From 2007 until 2009 he was a member of the IEEE John von Neumann Award Committee. He is currently a member of the IEEE Computer Society's Harlan D Mills Award Committee.

He has been a consultant to many organizations and companies in Europe and the US. As consultant to Harlan Mills' IBM Fellow Department in the 1980s, BL gave advice on the statistical underpinnings of the well-known Cleanroom approach to software development and evaluation.

BL has been a member of the programme committees of many international conferences, including several ICSEs. He has given keynote addresses and invited talks at numerous conferences.

In 2007 he was the recipient of the IEEE Computer Society's prestigious Harlan D Mills Award, the citation of which reads: "For leading research on the application of rigorous probabilistic and statistical techniques in software engineering, particularly in systems dependability".

Qualifications

CITP (Chartered IT Professional) IT, British Computer Society, 2008
PhD Statistics & Computer Science, City University London, 1978
Msc Statistics, University of London, 1966
BSc Mathematics, Imperial College London, 1963

CE (Chartered Engineer) Computing, British Computer Society, 1994
CS (Chartered Statistician) Statistics, Royal Statistical Society, 1993
ARCS (Associate of the Royal College of Science) Mathematics, Imperial College London, 1963

Employment

2011 - to date City University London, Professor of Software Engineering (50% research-only appointment)
1966 - 2011 City University London, Professor of Software Engineering since 1985
1980 - 1981 George Washington University, Visiting Associate Professor

Membership of professional bodies

2003 UK Computing Research Committee, Member
2000 Conference of Professors & Heads of Computing, Member
1985 British Computer Society, Member
1984 IEEE Computer Society, Member
1966 Royal Statistical Society, Fellow

Research

Research interests

- Reliability and safety modeling of software-based systems
- Software fault tolerance
- Software testing
- Dependability cases for software-based systems

Publications

Journal Article (58)

  1. Bishop, P., Bloomfield, R., Littlewood, B., Popov, P., Povyakalo, A. and Strigini, L. (01 Jan 2014). A conservative bound for the probability of failure of a 1-out-of-2 protection system with one hardware-only and one software-based protection train. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 130, 61-68. doi: 10.1016/j.ress.2014.04.002
  2. Littlewood, B. and Povyakalo, A. (2013). Conservative reasoning about epistemic uncertainty for the probability of failure on demand of a 1-out-of-2 software-based system in which one channel is “possibly perfect”. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering.
  3. Littlewood, B. and Povyakalo, A. (2013). Conservative bounds for the pfd of a 1-out-of-2 software-based system based on an assessor’s subjective probability of “not worse than independence”. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering.
  4. Littlewood, B. and Rushby, J. (04 Aug 2011). Reasoning about the Reliability of Diverse Two-Channel Systems in which One Channel is "Possibly Perfect". IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 38(5), 1178-1194. doi: 10.1109/TSE.2011.80
  5. Littlewood, B. and Strigini, L. (May 2011). “Validation of ultra-high dependability…” – 20 years on. SCSC Newsletter.
  6. Littlewood, B., Bishop, P., Bloomfield, R., Povyakalo, A. and Wright, D. (Sep 2011). Towards a formalism for conservative claims about the dependability of software-based systems. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering. doi: 10.1109/TSE.2010.67
  7. Littlewood, B. (Aug 2008). Comments on "Multi-objective genetic algorithm for solving N-version program design problem". RELIABILITY ENGINEERING & SYSTEM SAFETY, 93(8), 1287-1287. doi: 10.1016/j.ress.2007.06.005
  8. Littlewood, B. and Wright, D. (May 2007). The use of multilegged arguments to increase confidence in safety claims for software-based systems: A study based on a BBN analysis of an idealized example. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, 33(5), 347-365. doi: 10.1109/TSE.2007.1002
  9. Littlewood, B. (Jan 2006). Comments on 'Reliability and performance analysis for fault-tolerant programs consisting of versions with different characteristics' by Gregory Levitin [Reliability Engineering and System Safety 86 (2004) 75-81]. RELIABILITY ENGINEERING & SYSTEM SAFETY, 91(1), 119-120. doi: 10.1016/j.ress.2004.11.005
  10. Littlewood, B. (2005). Dependability evaluation: a question of confidence. Safety Systems: the Safety-Critical Systems Club Newsletter, 15(1), 1-4.
  11. Bloomfield, R., Courtois, P.J., Littlewood, B., Strigini, L., Yih, S. and Fan, C.F. (01 Jan 2002). Letter to the editor [1] (multiple letters). Nuclear Engineering International, 47(570), 11.
  12. Littlewood, B., Popov, P. and Strigini, L. (Dec 2002). Assessing the reliability of diverse fault-tolerant software-based systems. SAFETY SCIENCE, 40(9), 781-796.
  13. Littlewood, B. (2000). The use of proofs in diversity arguments. IEEE Trans Software Engineering, 26(10), 1022-1023.
  14. Littlewood, B., Popov, P.T., Strigini, L. and Shryane, N. (Dec 2000). Modeling the effects of combining diverse software fault detection techniques. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, 26(12), 1157-1167. doi: 10.1109/32.888629
  15. Frankl, P., Hamlet, D., Littlewood, B. and Strigini, L. (1999). Evaluating testing methods by delivered reliability (vol 24, pg 586, 1998). IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, 25(2), 286-286. doi: 10.1109/TSE.1999.761452
  16. Littlewood, B., Popov, P. and Strigini, L. (01 Oct 1999). Note on reliability estimation of functionally diverse systems. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 66(1), 93-95. doi: 10.1016/S0951-8320(99)00014-9
  17. Littlewood, B., Fenton, N., Neil, M., Strigini, L., Sutcliffe, A. and Wright, D. (1998). Assessing dependability of safety-critical systems using diverse evidence. IEE Proceedings - Software Engineering, 145(1), 35-39.
  18. Frankl, P.G., Hamlet, R.G., Littlewood, B. and Strigini, L. (1998). Evaluating Testing Methods by Delivered Reliability.. IEEE Trans. Software Eng., 24, 586-601. doi: 10.1109/32.707695
  19. Littlewood, B., Barghout, M. and Abdel-Ghaly, A.A. (1998). A non-parametric order statistics software reliability model. Software Testing, Verification and Reliability, 8, 113-132.
  20. Littlewood, B. and Wright, D. (Nov 1997). Some conservative stopping rules for the operational testing of safety-critical software. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, 23(11), 673-683. doi: 10.1109/32.637384
  21. Littlewood, B. (1996). The impact of diversity upon common mode failures. RELIABILITY ENGINEERING & SYSTEM SAFETY, 51(1), 101-113. doi: 10.1016/0951-8320(95)00120-4
  22. Littlewood, B., Neil, M. and Ostrolenk, G. (1995). Uncertainty in software-intensive systems. High Integrity Systems Journal, 1(5).
  23. LITTLEWOOD, B., NEIL, M. and OSTROLENK, G. (1995). THE ROLE OF MODELS IN MANAGING THE UNCERTAINTY OF SOFTWARE-INTENSIVE SYSTEMS. RELIABILITY ENGINEERING & SYSTEM SAFETY, 50(1), 87-95. doi: 10.1016/0951-8320(95)00073-B
  24. ANDERSON, T., BLOOMFIELD, R., LITTLEWOOD, B. and MALCOLM, B. (1994). SPECIAL ISSUE ON SOFTWARE SAFETY. RELIABILITY ENGINEERING & SYSTEM SAFETY, 43(2), 101-102. doi: 10.1016/0951-8320(94)90055-8
  25. BROCKLEHURST, S., LITTLEWOOD, B., OLOVSSON, T. and JONSSON, E. (Oct 1994). ON MEASUREMENT OF OPERATIONAL SECURITY. IEEE AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS MAGAZINE, 9(10), 7-16. doi: 10.1109/62.318876
  26. KNIGHT, J. and LITTLEWOOD, B. (Jan 1994). CRITICAL TASK OF WRITING DEPENDABLE SOFTWARE - INTRODUCTION. IEEE SOFTWARE, 11(1), 16-20. doi: 10.1109/52.251196
  27. Littlewood, B., Lu, M. and Brocklehurst, S. (1993). Combination of predictions obtained from different software reliability growth models. Journal of Computer and Software Engineering, 1(4), 303-324.
  28. Littlewood, B., Brocklehurst, S., Fenton, N., Mellor, P., Page, S., Wright, D., Dobson, J., McDermid, J. and Gollmann, D. (1993). Towards operational measures of computer security. Journal of Computer Security, 2(3), 211-229.
  29. Littlewood, B. and Strigini, L. (1993). Validation of Ultrahigh Dependability for Software-Based Systems.. Commun. ACM, 36, 69-80. doi: 10.1145/163359.163373
  30. BROCKLEHURST, S. and LITTLEWOOD, B. (Jul 1992). NEW WAYS TO GET ACCURATE RELIABILITY-MEASURES. IEEE SOFTWARE, 9(4), 34-42. doi: 10.1109/52.143100
  31. LAPRIE, J. and LITTLEWOOD, B. (Feb 1992). PROBABILISTIC ASSESSMENT OF SAFETY-CRITICAL SOFTWARE - WHY AND HOW. COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM, 35(2), 13-&. doi: 10.1145/129630.376087
  32. LITTLEWOOD, B. and STRIGINI, L. (Nov 1992). THE RISKS OF SOFTWARE. SCI AM, 267(5), 38-43.
  33. LITTLEWOOD, B. and MILLER, D. (1991). SPECIAL ISSUE ON SOFTWARE-RELIABILITY AND SAFETY - PREFACE. RELIABILITY ENGINEERING & SYSTEM SAFETY, 32(1-2), R5-R7.
  34. BROCKLEHURST, S., CHAN, P., LITTLEWOOD, B. and SNELL, J. (Apr 1990). RECALIBRATING SOFTWARE-RELIABILITY MODELS. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, 16(4), 458-470. doi: 10.1109/32.54297
  35. LITTLEWOOD, B. (24 Feb 1989). PREDICTING SOFTWARE-RELIABILITY. PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY A-MATHEMATICAL PHYSICAL AND ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 327(1596), 513-527. doi: 10.1098/rsta.1989.0007
  36. Littlewood, B. and Miller, D.R. (01 Jan 1989). Conceptual Modeling of Coincident Failures in Multiversion Software. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 15(12), 1596-1614. doi: 10.1109/32.58771
  37. LITTLEWOOD, B. (1988). FORECASTING SOFTWARE-RELIABILITY. LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE, 341, 141-209.
  38. Littlewood, B. and Miller, D.R. (01 Jan 1987). CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF MULTI-VERSION SOFTWARE.. Digest of Papers - FTCS (Fault-Tolerant Computing Symposium), 150-155.
  39. LITTLEWOOD, B. and SOFER, A. (Mar 1987). A BAYESIAN MODIFICATION TO THE JELINSKI-MORANDA SOFTWARE-RELIABILITY GROWTH-MODEL. SOFTWARE ENGINEERING JOURNAL, 2(2), 30-41.
  40. ABDELGHALY, A., CHAN, P. and LITTLEWOOD, B. (Sep 1986). EVALUATION OF COMPETING SOFTWARE-RELIABILITY PREDICTIONS. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, 12(9), 950-967.
  41. LITTLEWOOD, B. (1984). RATIONALE FOR A MODIFIED DUANE MODEL. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON RELIABILITY, 33(2), 157-159.
  42. LITTLEWOOD, B. (1984). SUBJECTIVE-PROBABILITY AND THE DFR-MIXTURE CLOSURE THEOREM. COMMUNICATIONS IN STATISTICS-THEORY AND METHODS, 13(7), 859-863.
  43. IANNINO, A., MUSA, J., OKUMOTO, K. and LITTLEWOOD, B. (1984). CRITERIA FOR SOFTWARE-RELIABILITY MODEL COMPARISONS. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, 10(6), 687-691.
  44. LITTLEWOOD, B. (1981). STOCHASTIC RELIABILITY-GROWTH - A MODEL FOR FAULT-REMOVAL IN COMPUTER-PROGRAMS AND HARDWARE-DESIGNS. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON RELIABILITY, 30(4), 313-320.
  45. LITTLEWOOD, B. and VERRALL, J. (1981). LIKELIHOOD FUNCTION OF A DEBUGGING MODEL FOR COMPUTER SOFTWARE-RELIABILITY. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON RELIABILITY, 30(2), 145-148.
  46. LITTLEWOOD, B. (1980). THEORIES OF SOFTWARE-RELIABILITY - HOW GOOD ARE THEY AND HOW CAN THEY BE IMPROVED. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, 6(5), 489-500. doi: 10.1109/TSE.1980.230790
  47. Littlewood, B. (1980). The Littlewood-Verall model for software reliability compared with some rivals. Systems and Software, 1(3), 252-258.
  48. Littlewood, B. (1980). The Littlewood-Verrall model for software reliability compared with some rivals.. Journal of Systems and Software, 1, 251-258. doi: 10.1016/0164-1212(79)90025-6
  49. LITTLEWOOD, B. (1979). SOFTWARE RELIABILITY MODEL FOR MODULAR PROGRAM STRUCTURE. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON RELIABILITY, 28(3), 241-246.
  50. LITTLEWOOD, B. (1979). HOW TO MEASURE SOFTWARE RELIABILITY AND HOW NOT TO. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON RELIABILITY, 28(2), 103-110.
  51. LITTLEWOOD, B. (1975). RELIABILITY MODEL FOR SYSTEMS WITH MARKOV STRUCTURE. JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY SERIES C-APPLIED STATISTICS, 24(2), 172-177.
  52. LITTLEWOOD, B. (1975). MTBF IS MEANINGLESS IN SOFTWARE RELIABILITY. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON RELIABILITY, R 24(1), 82-82.
  53. LITTLEWO, B. and VERRALL, J. (1974). BAYESIAN RELIABILITY MODEL WITH A STOCHASTICALLY MONOTONE FAILURE RATE. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON RELIABILITY, R 23(2), 108-114.
  54. LITTLEWO, B. and VERRALL, J. (1973). RANDOM SEQUENTIAL ADDITION OF HARD ATOMS TO ONE-DIMENSIONAL INTEGER LATTICE. JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, 59(4), 1613-1615. doi: 10.1063/1.1680240
  55. Littlewood, B. and Verrall, J.L. (1973). A Bayesian reliability growth model for computer software. Royal Statistical Society Series C (Applied Statistics), 22(3), 332-346.
  56. Littlewood, B. and Verrall, L.J. (1972). Equilibrium distributions of polymers on sites which are linearly arrayed. Journal of Applied Probability, 9(1), 54-64.
  57. Littlewood, B. and Verrall, J.L. (1970). Limiting proportion of hydrations in irradiated RNA molecules. Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 29(2), 283-287.
  58. Littlewood, B. and Verrall, J.L. (1970). Equilibrium distribution of dimers in irradiated RNA molecules. Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 28(5), 1308-1310.

Book (2)

  1. Commission, G.B.H.A.S., Staff, H.A.S.E. and Littlewood, B. (30 Oct 1998). Use of Computers in Safety-Critical Applications, Final Report to Nuclear Safety Advisory Committee (NuSAC) of the Study Group on the Safety of Operational Computer Systems. ISBN: 0717616207.
  2. Fenton, N.E. and Littlewood, B. (1991). Software reliability and metrics. Garmisch-Partenkirchen: Kluwer Academic Pub. ISBN: 1851666753.

Chapter (11)

  1. Littlewood, B. and Strigini, L. (2000). Software reliability and dependability: a roadmap.. Finkelstein, A. (Ed.), 22nd International Conference on on Software Engineering, Future of Software Engineering Track, ICSE 2000, Limerick Ireland, June 4-11, 2000. (pp. 175-188) ACM. ISBN: 1-58113-253-0. doi: 10.1145/336512.336551

    [publisher's website]

  2. Littlewood, B. and Wright, D. (1997). Mathematics of dependable systems 2. Stavridou, V. and Applications, I.F.M.A.I. (Ed.), Mathematics of dependable systems 2 (pp. 243-258) Oxford University Press, USA.
  3. Littlewood, B. and Brocklehurst, S. (1996). Techniques for prediction analysis and recalibration. Lyu, M.R. (Ed.), Handbook of software reliability engineering (pp. 119-166) New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN: 0070394008.
  4. Littlewood, B. (1996). Evaluation of software dependability. Wand, I.C. and Milner, R. (Ed.), Computing Tomorrow: Future Research Directions in Computer Science (pp. ) Cambridge Univ Pr. ISBN: 0521460859.
  5. Strigini, L. and Littlewood, B. (1995). Validation of Ultra-High Dependability for Software-Based Systems. Randell, B., Laprie, J.C., Kopetz, H. and Littlewood, B. (Ed.), Predictably Dependable Computing Systems (ESPRIT Basic Research Series) (pp. 473-493) Springer. ISBN: 3540593349.
  6. Littlewood, B. (1994). Software Reliability Modelling. McDermid, J. (Ed.), Software engineer's reference book (pp. ) Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd. ISBN: 0750608137.
  7. Littlewood, B. (1991). Reliability. Fenton, N.E. (Ed.), Software Metrics: A Rigorous Approach (pp. 230-249) London: Chapman and Hall. ISBN: 0412404400.
  8. Littlewood, B. (1991). Limits to evaluation of software dependability. Fenton, N.E. and Littlewood, B. (Ed.), Software reliability and metrics (pp. 81-110) Elsevier. ISBN: 1851666753.
  9. Littlewood, B. (1990). Modelling growth in software reliability. Rook, P. (Ed.), Software Reliability Handbook (pp. ) Elsevier. ISBN: 1851664009.
  10. Littlewood, B., Chan, P.Y. and Abdel Ghaly, A.A. (1986). Tools for the analysis of the accuracy of software reliability predictions. Skwirzynski, J.K. (Ed.), NATO advanced Study Institute, Software System Design Methods (pp. 229-336) Springer-Verlag.
  11. Littlewood, B. (1985). Software Reliability Prediction. Anderson, T. (Ed.), Resilient computing systems (pp. 144-162) Wiley-Interscience.

Conference (72)

  1. Zhao, X., Littlewood, B., Povyakalo, A. and Wright, D. (13 Jan 2016). Conservative claims about the probability of perfection of software-based systems. , doi: 10.1109/ISSRE.2015.7381807
  2. Littlewood, B. and Burns, A. (2010). Reasoning About the Reliability of Multi-version, Diverse Real-Time Systems. 31st IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, 30 Nov 2010, San Diego. doi: 10.1109/RTSS.2010.43

    [publisher's website]

  3. Bishop, P., Gashi, I., Littlewood, B. and Wright, D. (2007). Reliability modeling of a 1-out-of-2 system: Research with diverse Off-the-shelf SQL database servers. ,
  4. Bloomfield, R.E., Littlewood, B. and Wright, D. (2007). Confidence: Its role in dependability cases for risk assessment. , doi: 10.1109/DSN.2007.29
  5. Bryans, J.W., Littlewood, B., Ryan, P.Y.A. and Strigini, L. (2006). E-voting: Dependability requirements and design for dependability. 1st International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security, 20 Apr 2006, Vienna Univ Technol, Vienna, AUSTRIA.
  6. Littlewood, B. (2005). Dependability assessment of software-based systems: state of the art.. , doi: 10.1145/1062455.1062461

    [publisher's website]

  7. Littlewood, B., Bloomfield, R., Popov, P., Povyakalo, A. and Strigini, L. (2004). The impact of ‘difficulty’ variation on the probability of coincident failure of diverse systems. International Conference on Control and Instrumentation in Nuclear Installations, , Liverpool.
  8. Popov, P.T. and Littlewood, B. (2004). The Effect of Testing on Reliability of Fault-Tolerant Software.. , doi: 10.1109/DSN.2004.1311896

    [publisher's website]

  9. Popov, P., Littlewood, B. and Society, I.E.E.E.C. (2004). The effect of testing on reliability of fault-tolerant software. ,
  10. Littlewood, B. and Strigini, L. (2004). Redundancy and Diversity in Security.. , doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-30108-0_26

    [publisher's website]

  11. Littlewood, B. and Bloomfield, R. (2004). On the use of diverse arguments to increase confidence in dependability claims. International Conference on Control and Instrumentation in Nuclear Installations, ,
  12. Bloomfield, R. and Littlewood, B. (2003). Multi-legged arguments: the impact of diversity upon confidence in dependability arguments. , doi: 10.1109/DSN.2003.1209913
  13. (2003). Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security, 22nd International Conference, SAFECOMP 2003, Edinburgh, UK, September 23-26, 2003, Proceedings. ,
  14. Littlewood, B. (2002). On Diversity, and the Elusiveness of Independence.. , doi: 10.1007/3-540-45732-1_24

    [publisher's website]

  15. Littlewood, B., SOCIETY, I.C. and SOCIETY, I.C. (2002). Complexity is the enemy of dependability - Can diversity provide a defence?. , doi: 10.1109/ICECCS.2002.1181492
  16. Strigini, L., Bosio, D., Littlewood, B. and Newby, M.J. (2002). Advantages of open source processes for reliability: clarifying the issues. 25 Feb 2002, Newcastle upon Tyne.
  17. Littlewood, B., Popov, P. and Strigini, L. (01 Dec 2001). Modeling software design diversity - A review. ,
  18. Oussalah, M., Littlewood, B., Strigini, L. and Newby, M. (2001). Combination of qualitative and quantitative sources of knowledge for risk assessment.. ,

    [publisher's website]

  19. Littlewood, B., Popov, P. and Strigini, L. (2001). Design diversity: an update from research on reliability modelling. ,
  20. Littlewood, B., Popov, P. and Strigini, L. (2000). N-version design versus one good version. Proc International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (Fast Abstracts), , New York.
  21. Littlewood, B. and Strigini, L. (2000). Software reliability (tutorial session): basic concepts and assessment methods.. , doi: 10.1145/337180.337858

    [publisher's website]

  22. Littlewood, B. and Strigini, L. (2000). Fault tolerance via diversity against design faults (tutorial session): design principles and reliability assessment.. , doi: 10.1145/337180.337864

    [publisher's website]

  23. Littlewood, B. (2000). The Problems of Assessing Software Reliability .... when you really need to depend on it. ,
  24. Littlewood, B., Strigini, L., Wright, D., Fenton, N., Neil, M. and Courtois, P.-.J. (24 Mar 2000). Bayesian Belief Networks for safety assessment of computer-based systems. ,
  25. Littlewood, B., Popov, P.T. and Strigini, L. (2000). Assessment of the Reliability of Fault-Tolerant Software: A Bayesian Approach.. , doi: 10.1007/3-540-40891-6_26

    [publisher's website]

  26. Popov, P.T., Strigini, L. and Littlewood, B. (2000). Choosing Between Fault-Tolerance and Increased V&V for Improving Reliability.. ,

    [publisher's website]

  27. Littlewood, B. (1999). Two Heads Are Better Than One: Using Diversity to Make Software Dependable.. ,

    [publisher's website]

  28. Frankl, P., Hamlet, D., Littlewood, B. and Strigini, L. (1997). Choosing a testing method to deliver reliability. 19th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 97) - Pulling Together, 17 May 1997, BOSTON, MA.
  29. Barghout, M., Littlewood, B., AbdelGhaly, A. and SOC, I.C. (1997). A non-parametric approach to software reliability prediction. ,
  30. Littlewood, B., Combelles, A. and Sorel, V. (1996). Difficulties in evaluating the dependability of safety-critical systems: investigation on the combination of evidence. International Conference on Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management, (ESREL ’96 - PSAM III), 24 Jun 1996, Crete.
  31. Littlewood, B., Neil, M. and Fenton, N. (1996). Applying Bayesian belief networks in systems dependability assessment. Safety Critical Systems Symposium, Feb 1996, Leeds.
  32. LITTLEWOOD, B., WRIGHT, D. and IEEE, (1995). Stopping rules for the operational testing of safety-critical software. , doi: 10.1109/FTCS.1995.466955
  33. Littlewood, B. and Wright, D. (1995). A Bayesian model that combines disparate evidence for the quantitative assessment of system dependability. 14th International Conference on Computer Safety (SafeComp’95), ,
  34. BROCKLEHURST, S., OLOVSSON, T., LITTLEWOOD, B., JONSSON, E. and IEEE, (1994). ON MEASUREMENT OF OPERATIONAL SECURITY. ,
  35. LITTLEWOOD, B. (1994). WHY WE SHOULD LEARN NOT TO DEPEND TOO MUCH UPON SOFTWARE. ,
  36. Littlewood, B. (1994). Learning to live with uncertainty in our software. 2nd Intl Software Metrics Symposium, 24 Oct 1994, London.
  37. Littlewood, B. (1991). Software reliability modelling: achievements and limitations. IEEE CompEuro 91, 13 May 1991, Bologna.
  38. Littlewood, B. and Thomas, M. (1991). Reasons why safety-critical avionics software cannot be adequately validated. Safety and Reliability Society Spring Conference,, ,
  39. Littlewood, B. (1989). Hardware and software dependability evaluation: software dependability. 11th Information Processing World Congress (IFIP), 28 Aug 1989, San Francisco.
  40. Littlewood, B., Brocklehurst, S., Chan, P.Y. and Snell, J. (1988). A general adaptive approach to software reliability prediction. UK IT '88, ,
  41. Littlewood, B. and Miller, D.R. (1988). A conceptual model for software diversity. UK IT '88, ,
  42. Littlewood, B. (1987). How good are software reliability predictions?. 2nd CSR Workshop, Software Reliability: Achievement and Assessment, ,
  43. Littlewood, B., Keiller, P.A. and Sofer, A. (1984). Predictive quality of software reliability models. 4th Jerusalem Conference on Information Technology (JCIT), ,
  44. Littlewood, B. and Keiller, P.A. (1984). Adaptive software reliability modelling. IEEE 14th Annual International Symposium Fault-Tolerant Computing (FTCS 1984), , Orlando.
  45. Littlewood, B., Keiller, P.A., Miller, D.R. and Sofer, A. (1983). On the quality of software reliability prediction. 1982 NATO Advanced Study Institute on Electronic Systems Effectiveness and Life Cycle Costing, ,
  46. Littlewood, B. (1977). Software reliability measurement: some criticisms and suggestions. Conference on Software Life Cycle Management, 22 Aug 1977, Airlie, VA.
  47. Littlewood, B. (1976). A semi-Markov model for software reliability with failure costs. MRI Symposium on Computer Software Engineering, 20 Apr 1976, New York.
  48. Littlewood, B. (1975). A reliability model for Markov structured software. International Conference on Reliable Software, 21 Apr 1975, Los Angeles, California.
  49. Littlewood, B., Keiller, P.A., Miller, D.R. and Sofer, A. Comparison of software reliability predictions. IEEE 13th Annual International Symposium Fault-Tolerant Computing (1983 FTCS), 1983, Milan.
  50. Littlewood, B. and Fenton, N. Evaluating software engineering standards and methods. Eurometrics 91, Mar 1991, Issy-les-Molinieaux.
  51. Littlewood, B. Proceedings of 4th CSR Conference: Measurement for Software Control and Assurance. 4th CSR Conference: Measurement for Software Control and Assurance, Sep 1987, Bristol.
  52. Littlewood, B., Wright, D. and Meyer, F. Dependability of modular software in a multiuser operational environment. International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE ’95), Nov 1995, Toulouse.
  53. Littlewood, B., Brocklehurst, S., Kanoun, K., Laprie, J.C., Metge, S., Mellor, P. and Tanner, A. Reliability analyses of workstation failure data. ESPRIT ‘91, 25 Nov 1991, Brussels.
  54. Littlewood, B. and Miller, D.R. Modelling multi-version software. 4th CSR Conference: Measurement for Software Control and Assurance, Sep 1987, Bristol.
  55. Littlewood, B. Software reliability modelling: some achievements and limitations. ICL/Newcastle University International Seminar on the Teaching of Computer Science, Sep 1990, University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
  56. Littlewood, B. Computer software reliability measurement. Thirteenth Annual Conference in Statistics, Computer Science, and Operations Research, ISSR, Mar 1978, Cairo University, Egypt.
  57. Littlewood, B. Validation of a software reliability model. 2nd Software Life Cycle Management Workshop, 20 Aug 1978, Atlanta, GA.
  58. Littlewood, B. Editor SAFECOMP2003. International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security, Sep 2003, Edinburgh.
  59. Littlewood, B. Measurement of operational security. IFIP Conference on Distributed Computing for Critical Applications (DCCA-4), Jan 1994, San Diego.
  60. Littlewood, B. How to measure software reliability, and how not to .... 3rd International Conference on Software Engineering, 10 May 1978, Atlanta, GA.
  61. Littlewood, B. A Bayesian differential debugging model for software reliability. Workshop on Quantitative Software Models, 09 Oct 1979, Kiamesha Lake, New York.
  62. Littlewood, B. Measurement-based modelling issues - the problem of ultra-high dependability. Experimental Software Engineering Issues: Critical Assessment and Future Directions International Workshop, Sep 1992, Dagstuhl Castle, Germany.
  63. Littlewood, B. A Bayesian differential debugging model for software reliability. COMPSAC 80, 27 Oct 1980, Chicago, IL.
  64. Littlewood, B. Proceedings of 2nd CSR Workshop, Software Reliability: Achievement and Assessment. 2nd CSR Workshop, Software Reliability: Achievement and Assessment, Sep 1987,
  65. Littlewood, B. and Verrall, J.L. A Bayesian reliability growth model for computer software. 1973 IEEE Symposium on Computer Software Reliability, 30 Apr 1973, New York.
  66. Littlewood, B. and Burns, A. Reasoning About the Reliability of Multi-version, Diverse Real-Time Systems. Real Time Systems Symposium, 30 Nov 2010, San Diego, CA.
  67. Littlewood, B. and Miller, D.R. A conceptual model of the effect of diverse methodologies on coincident failures in multi-version software. 3rd International Fault-Tolerant Computing Systems (IFTCS), Sep 1987, Bremerhaven.
  68. Littlewood, B. and Strigini, L. Software reliability and dependability: a roadmap. 22nd International Conference on Software Engineering, 04 Jun 2000, Limerick, Ireland.
  69. Littlewood, B. A critique of the Jelinski-Moranda model for software reliability. Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium, 27 Jun 1981, Philadephia.
  70. Littlewood, B. The need for evidence from disparate sources to evaluate software safety. Directions in Safety-Critical Computing, 09 Feb 1993, Bristol.
  71. Littlewood, B., Brocklehurst, S., Chan, P.Y. and Snell, J. Adaptive software reliability modelling. 4th CSR Conference: Measurement for Software Control and Assurance, Sep 1987, Bristol.
  72. Littlewood, B. What makes a reliable program - few bugs, or a small failure rate. 1980 National Computer Conference (NCC 80), 19 May 1980, Arlington, VA.

Report (7)

  1. Littlewood, B. and Povyakalo, A. (2012). Conservative bounds for the pfd of a 1-out-of-2 software-based system based on an assessor’s subjective probability of 'not worse than independence'. London: Centre for Software Reliability, City University London.
  2. Littlewood, B. and Povyakalo, A. (2012). Conservative reasoning about epistemic uncertainty for the probability of failure on demand of a 1-out-of-2 software-based system in which one channel is “possibly perfect”. London: Centre for Software Reliability, City University London.
  3. Littlewood, B., Bainbridge, I., Bloomfield, R.E. and et al, (1998). The use of computers in safety-critical applications. London, UK: Health and Safety Commission.
  4. Fenton, N.E., Littlewood, B., Neil, M., Strigini, L., Wright, D.R. and Courtois, P.J. (1997). Bayesian belief network model for the safety assessment of nuclear computer-based Systems. Brussels: DeVa ESPRIT Long Term Research Project.
  5. Littlewood, B. and Wright, D. (1996). Reliability prediction of a software product using testing data from other products or execution environment. Brussels: DeVa Project.
  6. Littlewood, B. and Wright, D. (1996). Some conservative stopping rules for the operational testing of saftey-critical software. Brussels: DeVa ESPRIT Long Term Research Project.
  7. Littlewood, B. (Apr 1984). Predictive ability of software reliability models.

Other (1)

  1. Littlewood, B. and CSR, (Jan 1970). Software Reliability and Metrics Program. The Alvey Directorate, Department of Trade and Industry, London.

Find us

City, University of London

Northampton Square

London EC1V 0HB

United Kingdom

Back to top

City, University of London is an independent member institution of the University of London. Established by Royal Charter in 1836, the University of London consists of 18 independent member institutions with outstanding global reputations and several prestigious central academic bodies and activities.