Session 1I - Paper 2
Entrepreneurship Education and Graduates' Entrepreneurial Intentions: Entrepreneurship Education Pedagogies in Nigerian Universities
Ms Eunice Oluwakemi Chukwuma-Nwuba - University of Northampton
This paper addresses issues that relate to the question of whether entrepreneurship can be taught and enlightens audience of the current debates in entrepreneurship education in terms of its current focus on the how it is being taught and how it should be taught to achieve the desired outcomes given specific situations, context and learners. Further, the session will review how active and innovative teaching and learning pedagogies can assist students to navigate the complex and dynamic world of business, thus motivating them to become entrepreneurial.
Graduate unemployment in Nigeria became a subject of concern after the introduction of structural adjustment programme (SAP) in 1986. Youth unemployment (which includes graduate unemployment) is put at an annual rate of 16% (Doreo Partners, 2013). Given the potential for unemployed youths to engage in radical behaviours, persistent unemployment among this group calls for critical concern. In fact, researchers have fingered youth unemployment as a major contributor to social unrest in the country including the notorious Boko Haram terrorist group and the Niger Delta militancy (Olorundare & Kayode, 2014; Salami, 2013). Successive government administrations have taken several measures to resolve the problem by promoting entrepreneurial culture through different initiatives and measures to nurture positive attitude towards entrepreneurship (Ebo, 2013). The latest measure is the inclusion of entrepreneurship education (EE) in university curriculum in 2006.
Entrepreneurship is accepted as the engine of growth and economic development (Quadrini, 1997; Toma, 2014). Universities play key roles in providing students with knowledge and shaping their attitudes as enterprising individuals (Anderson & Jack, 2008). There is evidence that EE particularly at the Higher Education (HE) level produces graduates that can create new social and economic wealth (Fayolle & Toutain, 2013). Additionally, the continuous demand for more entrepreneurship modules in universities and its growing importance are pointers that EE or some aspects of it can be taught (Kuratko, 2017; Fayolle & Toutain, 2013; Kantor, 1988). Consequently, there is need to examine the pedagogies adopted in the context of this paper vis-à-vis those necessary to teach entrepreneurship successfully.
The presentation will:
- Review of different teaching methods that EE scholars have found to be effective in nurturing entrepreneurial intentions (Mwasalwiba, 2010).
- Outline the teaching methods mostly used in the context of the study
- Compare the methods adopted with the best practices.
- Analyse the necessity for the combination of theory and practice in teaching entrepreneurship modules. In doing this, the presentation will:
- Provide an appraisal of the teachability of entrepreneurship
Activities will include:
- Articulating teaching-learning ideas that will establish interactive and well-placed dialogue to develop knowledge and understanding particularly in large classes
- Discussing the strategies through which local small businesses can be attracted to partner with universities and ensuring a win-win situation
- Identifying how and what improvisation can be adopted in teaching and learning given the context of the study
By the end of the session, participants will have:
- Developed a better understanding of the teaching of entrepreneurship in Nigeria, a developing country context.
- A deeper insight into innovative pedagogies for nurturing entrepreneurial intentions
- Better understanding of the necessity to combine theory with practice in the teaching of entrepreneurship modules
- Gained a greater appreciation of the support required by developing nations
Anderson, A. R. & Jack, S. L., 2008. Role Typologies for Enterprising Education: The Professional Artisan. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 15(2), pp. 259-273.
Doreo Partners, 2013. The Nigerian Unemployment Challenge, s.l.: Africa Reports.
Ebo, N., 2013. Role of Government in Entrepreneurship Development in Nigeria. [Online]
Available at: http://www.nigerreporters.com/role-of-govt-in-entrepreneurship-development-in-nigeria-2/
[Accessed 12 04 2017].
Fayolle, A. & Toutain, O., 2013. Four Educational Principles to Rethink Entrepreneurship Education. Revista De Economia Mundial, Volume 25, pp. 21-45.
Kantor, J., 1988. Can Entrepreneurship be Taught? - A Canadian Experiment. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 5(4), pp. 12-19.
Kuratko, D. F., 2017. Entrepreneurship: Theory, Process, and Practice. 10th ed. Australia, Brazil, Mexico, Singapore, United Kingdom, United State: CENGAGE LEARNING.
Mwasalwiba, E. S., 2010. Entrepreneurship Education: A Review of its Objectives, Teaching Methods, and Impact Indicators. Education + Training, 52(1), pp. 20-47.
Olorundare, A. S. & Kayode, D. J., 2014. Entrepreneurship Education in Nigerian Universities: A Tool for National Transformation. Asia Pacific Journal of educators and education, Volume 29, pp. 155-175.
Quadrini, V., 1997. Entrepreneurship, Saving and Social Mobility: Discussion Paper 116, Minneapolis: Institute for Empirical Macroeconomics.
Salami, C. G. E., 2013. Youth Unemployment in Nigeria: A Time for Creative Intervention. International Journal of Business and Marketing Management, 1(2), pp. 18-23.
Toma, S.-G. G. A.-M. M. P., 2014. Economic Develpoment and Entrepreneurship. Economics and Finance, Volume 8, pp. 436-443.