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  1. Centre for Health Services Research
  2. Education for Practice and Research Group
School of Health Sciences

Education for Practice and Research Group

The Education for Practice and Research Group has overlapping activities that inform both practice and research. The focus on practice involves learning from simulated professional practice; education supporting patient safety; work-based learning (including mentorship); and learner-centered design and the learner experience. With funding from the NIHR-MRC, The London Deanery, and The National Patient Safety Agency, this aspect of the work has focused on a triangulation of methods to measure patient safety and facilitation and learning transfer in clinical simulation. The group's other focus is on developments in research methodology to ensure researchers are up to date on debates and methods in research.



2012- 2013 Raising the Roof Advancing Research Knowledge and Practice. C Cox. Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust. £19,800

01/2012 – 12/2012 - Developing an International Research Agenda for the Theoretical Domains Framework. Grimshaw J, Michie S, Brehaut J, Colquhoun H, Curran J, Francis J, O’Connor D, Squires, J. Canadian Institutes of Health Research: CAD$24,538

01/09/2010 – 31/08/2013 - Methods for strengthening evaluation and implementation: specifying components of behaviour change interventions. Michie S, Abraham C, Eccles M, Francis J, Hardeman W, Johnston M. MRC: £614,009

01/11/2009 – 31/10/2010 - Using ‘Good Goals’ to improve children’s occupational therapy services: a feasibility study of a multifaceted caseload management intervention. Kolehmainen N, Francis J, McKee L, Duncan E, MacLennan G. Chief Scientist Office; £70,397

2008 The Impact of Nursing Rounds on the Practice Environment, Nurse Satisfaction and Processes of Care. L Aitken, S Clayton and E Burmeister. Queensland Health Nursing Research Grants (Experienced Researcher), $25,313

2008- 2010 Exploring the Patient Experience Whilst Advancing Practice. C Cox. Moorfield’s Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust. £189,000

10/2006-09/2009 Optimising caseload management; Developing an intervention in paediatric occupational therapy. Kolehmainen N (PHD student), Francis JJ, McKee L Duncan E, Gant A. CSO Training fellowship Scheme. £114,500



Dombrowski SU, Prior M, Duncan E, Cuthberston BH, Belingan G, Campbell MK, Rose L, Binning AR, Gordon AC, Wilson P, Shulman R, Francis JJ (2013). Specifying clinical and behavioural components of a complex complex healthcare intervention: Case studies of selective decontamination of the digestive tract in intensive care. Special issue in Infection Control, Australian Critical Care 2013; Epub ahead of print doi: 10.1012/j.aucc.2013.04.002

Francis JJ, Duncan EM, Prior ME, MacLennan G, Marshall AP, Wells EC, Todd L, Rose L, Campbell MK, Webster F, Eccles MP, Bellingan G, Seppelt IM, Grimshaw JM, Cuthbertson BH, for the SuDDICU study groups (2013). Comparison of four methods for assessing the importance of attitudinal beliefs: An international Delphi study in intensive care settings. British Journal of Health Psychology, E-pub ahead of print, 2013. DOI: 10.11 11/bjhp.1 2066.

Hardy S, Webster J, Jackson C & Manley K (2013). Educating advanced level practitioners through transformational practice development: issues of complexity. Nurse Education Today. Available online:

Hill, M. and Cox, C. (2013) Influencing factors in MMR immunisation decision making. British Journal of Nursing, 22(15): 893-898

Jones, M., Krzysztof, R. and Cox, C/ (2013) On being a mentor. International Journal of Ophthalmic Practice 4(1): 30 – 36

Kolehmainen N, Duncan EAS, Francis JJ (2013). Clinicians’ actions associated with the successful patient care process: a content analysis of interviews with paediatric occupational therapists. Disability and Rehabilitation, 2013. 35(5); 388-396. Issn 0963-8288

Lucas, B., Cox, C., Perry, L. and Bridges, J. (2013) Changing clinical team practices in preparation of patients for Total Knee Replacement: Using Social Cognitive Theory to examine outcomes of an action research study. International Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing, 17 (3): 140-150

Lucas, B., Cox, C., Perry, L. and Bridges, J. (2013) Pre-operative preparation of patients for total knee replacement: An action research study. International Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing, 17 (2): 79-90

Marshall AP, Weisbrodt L, Rose L, Duncan E, Prior M, Todd L, Wells E, Seppelt I, Cuthbertson B, Francis JJ (2013). Implementing Selective Digestive Tract Decontamination in the intensive care unit: A qualitative analysis of nurse-identified considerations. Heart & Lung - The Journal of Acute and Critical Care. E-pub ahead of print, DOI: 10.1016/j.hrtlng.2013.09.002.

McCleary N, Duncan E, Stewart F, Francis JJ (2013). Active ingredients are reported more often for pharmacologic than non-pharmacologic interventions: an illustrative review of reporting practices in titles and abstracts. Trials 2013, 14:146. DOI:10.1186/1745-6215-14-146

Michie, S., Johnston, M., Abraham, C., Francis, J., Hardeman, W., Eccles, M.P., (...), Wood, C.E. (2013). The behavior change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques: Building an international consensus for the reporting of behaviour change interventions. Michie, S., Richardson, Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 46 (1), pp. 81-95. Doi: 10.1007/s12160-013-9486-6

Woodward, S., Steggall, M. and Tinhunu, J. (2013) Clean intermittent self-catheterisation: improving quality of life. British Journal of Nursing 22(9):S20-25


Abbott S, Anto-Awuakye S, Bryar R, Trivedi S. (2012). Returning to health visiting practice: completing the circle. Community Practitioner, 85(9): 25–29.

Abbott S, Rogers M, Freeth D (2012). Underpinning safety: communication habits and situation awareness in delivery units. British Journal of Midwifery, 20, 4, 278-83.

Abbott S, Thomas N, Apau D, Benato R, Hicks S, MacKenzie K (2012). An educational partnership in health promotion for pre-registration nurses and further education college students. Primary Health Care Research and Development, 13, 3, 193-203.

Bowden T, Buckwell C, Rowlands A, Abbott S (2012). Web-based video and feedback in the teaching of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. Nurse Education Today, 32, 4, 443-447.

Burmeister E & Aitken L (2012). Sample size: How many is enough? Australian Critical Care, 2012:25(4):271-274; IF (2011):0.973.

Cartwright, M., Traviss, G., Blance, A. (2012). Murder, muddled thinking and multilevel modelling. Psychologist, 25 (9), pp. 690-691

Chamney, M., Cook, T, Das,R., Muhammed, S. & Jones, J. (2012). Renal healthcare professionals', patients and carers' collaboration to improve renal education and research. Renal Society of Australasia Journal, 8 (3), 120-125

Cox, C. (2012) Significant Untoward Incidents in Gastrointestinal Nursing. Journal of Gastrointestinal Nursing, 9 (10): 41-44

Cox, C., Steggall, M. and Coutts, A. (2012) Fundamental Aspects of Gastrointestinal Nursing. London: Quay Books, Mark Allen Healthcare Ltd

Freeth, D., Sandall, J., Allan, T., Warburton, F., Berridge, E.J., Mackintosh, N., Rogers, M., Abbott, S. (2012). A methodological study to compare survey-based and observation-based evaluations of organisational and safety cultures and then compare both approaches with markers of the quality of care. Health Technology Assessment, 16 (25), pp. 1-183

Francis, J.J., O'Connor, D., Curran, J. (2012). Theories of behaviour change synthesised into a set of theoretical groupings: introducing a thematic series on the theoretical domains framework. Implementation Science, 7(1):35

Garner M, Ning Z, Francis J (2012). A framework for the evaluation of patient information leaflets. Health Expectations 2012;15:283.

Kolehmainen N, Francis J (2012). Specifying content and mechanisms of change in interventions to change professionals’ practice: an illustration from the Good Goals study. Implementation Science 2012; 7:100.

Kolehmainen, N., Francis, J.J., Mckee, L., Duncan, E.A.S. (2012). Beliefs about responsibilities, the aims of therapy and the structure of the therapy process: A qualitative study of caseload management issues in child health occupational therapy. Child: Care, Health and Development, 38 (1), pp. 108-116.Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2214.2011.01120.x

Kolehmainen, N., MacLennan, G., Ternent, L., Duncan, E.A.S., Duncan, E.M., Ryan, S.B., McKee, L., Francis, J.J. (2012). Using shared goal setting to improve access and equity: a mixed methods study of the Good Goals intervention in children's occupational therapy. Implementation Science, 7 (1), art. no. 76

Presseau J, Tait R, Francis JJ, Johnston D, Sniehotta FF. Goal conflict and goal facilitation as predictors of accelerometer-assessed physical activity. Health Psychology 2012. E-pub ahead of print.

Saunder, L. (2012). Developing an e-learning resource in clinical risk assessment. Nursing Management, 19(5), 26-29

Treweek S, Barnett K, Maclennan G, Boneti D, Eccles MP, Francis JJ, Jones C, Pitts NB, Ricketts IW, Weal M, Sullivan F. Email invitations to general practitioners were effective as postal invitations and were more time-and cost-efficient. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2012,65:793. Doi:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2011.11.010


Abbott S, Dimmock V, Goreham C, Dasgupta D (2011). Simulation learning in health care: is there evidence of transfer to the workplace? International Journal of Clinical Skills, 5, 2, 136-140.

Aitken LM, Hackwood B, Crouch S, Clayton S, West N, Carney D, Jack L (2011). Creating an environment to implement and sustain evidence based practice: A developmental process, Australian Critical Care, 2011; 24(4): 244-254; IF (2011): 0.973.

Aitken LM, Burmeister E, Clayton S, Dalais C, Gardner G (2011). The Impact of Nursing Rounds on the Practice Environment and Nurse Satisfaction in Intensive Care: pre-test post-test comparative study, International Journal of Nursing Studies, 2011; 48(8): 918 – 925; IF (2011): 2.178.

Aitken LM, Marshall A, Elliott R, McKinley S (2011). Comparison of ‘think aloud’ and observation as data collection methods in the study of decision making regarding sedation in intensive care patients, International Journal of Nursing Studies, 2011, 48(3):318 - 325; IF (2011): 2.178.

Cox, C., Hill, M. and Lack, V. (2011) Advanced Practice in Healthcare: Skills for Nurses and Allied Health Professionals. Milton Park Abingdon: Routledge

Cox, C. (2011) Advanced Level Nursing: Leadership and Collaboration in Practice. International Journal of Ophthalmic Practice, 2 (2): 93 – 98

Cushing A, Abbott S, Lothian D, Hall A, Westwood O (2011). Peer feedback as an aid to learning – what do we want? Feedback. When do we want it? Now! Medical Teacher, 33, e105-e112. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2011.542522

Hardy S, Bolster D, Kelly T and Yalden J (2011). Revealing facilitation skills through a practice development masterclass: the other side of the rainbow. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 29 (2) 36-47

Hardy S, Wilson V, & Brown B (2011). A "Praxis" Evaluation Framework: A Tool For All Seasons? International Journal of Practice Development 1 (2)

Kolehmainen N, Francis JJ, Ramsay CR, Owen C, McKee L, Ketelaar M, Rosenbaum P (2011). Participation in physical play and leisure: developing a theory-and evidence intervention for children with motor impairments. BMC paediatrics 2011, 11:100

Michie, S., Abraham, C., Eccles, M.P., Francis, J.J., Hardeman, W., Johnston, M. (2011). Strengthening evaluation and implementation by specifying components of behaviour change interventions: A study protocol. Implementation Science, 6:10

Presseau, J., Francis, J.J., Campbell, N.C., Sniehotta, F.F. (2011). Goal conflict, goal facilitation, and health professionals' provision of physical activity advice in primary care: An exploratory prospective study. Implementation Science, 6:73

Prior, M.E., Hamzah, J.C., Francis, J.J., Ramsay, C.R., Castillo, M.M., Campbell, S.E., Azuara-Blanco, A., Burr, J.M. (2011). Pre-validation methods for developing a patient reported outcome instrument. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 11:112

Shaha, M., Cox, C. L., Cohen, M. Z., Belcher, A. E. and Kapelli, S. (2011/2012 - December 2011) Wissensvermehrung durch Konzeptentwicklung? Das Beispiel Vergänglichkeit. Translation: The contribution of concept development to nursing knowledge? The example of Transitoriness. Pflege 24 (6): 361 – 372 (Invited paper, special edition on Theory Development.)

Shaha, M., Cox, C., Belcher, A. and Cohen, M. (2011) Transitoriness: patients’ perception of life after a diagnosis of cancer, Journal of Cancer Nursing Practice, 10 (4): 24 - 27


Berridge, E.-J., Mackintosh, N.J., Freeth, D.S. (2010). Supporting patient safety: Examining communication within delivery suite teams through contrasting approaches to research observation. Midwifery, 26 (5), pp. 512-519

Boldero, J.M., Robins, G.L., Williams, B.J., Francis, J.J., Hampton, A., Fourie, A.J. (2009). Relational discrepancies and emotion: The moderating roles of relationship type and relational discrepancy valence. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 12 (4), pp. 259-273

Cox, C. and Gibbons, H. (2010) Diagnosis and Treatment of Choroidal Melanoma. Cancer Nursing Practice, 9 (6): 12 – 17

Cox, C. (2010) Physical Assessment for Nurses, Second Edition, Oxford: Wiley Blackwell

Cox, C. and Hill, M. (2010) Professional Issues in Primary Care Nursing, Oxford: Wiley Blackwell

Cuthbertson, B.H., Francis, J., Campbell, M.K., MacIntyre, L., Seppelt, I., Grimshaw, J. (2010). A study of the perceived risks, benefits and barriers to the use of SDD in adult critical care units (The SuDDICU study). Trials 11, art. no. 117

Dickinson, H.O., Hrisos, S., Eccles, M.P., Francis, J., Johnston, M. (2010). Statistical considerations in a systematic review of proxy measures of clinical behaviour. Implementation Science, 5 (1), art. no. 20

Gardner G, Woollett K, Daly N, Richardson B, Aitken LM (2010), Innovation in Clinical Learning for the Acute Hospital Environment: Nursing Grand Rounds, Nurse Education Today, 2010; 30(8): 737 – 741; IF (2010): 1.113.

Kolehmainen, N., Francis, J., Duncan, E., Fraser, C. (2010). Community professionals' management of client care: A mixed-methods systematic review. Journal of Health Services Research and Policy, 15 (1), pp. 47-55

Kolehmainen, N., Duncan, E., McKee, L., Francis, J. (2010). Mothers' perceptions of their children's occupational therapy processes: A qualitative interview study. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 73 (5), pp. 192-199

Kolehmainen, N., MacLennan, G., Francis, J.J., Duncan, E.A. (2010). Clinicians' caseload management behaviours as explanatory factors in patients' length of time on caseloads: A predictive multilevel study in paediatric community occupational therapy. BMC Health Services Research, 10, art. no. 249

McColl, A. and Cox, C. (2010) Health professionals’ views of the approval process for cancer treatment. Cancer Nursing Practice, 9 (2): 33-38

Noble, H., Chamney, M, Jones, J. & Thomas, N (2010). A new initiative in renal research and education. Journal of Renal Nursing, 2 (3) 141 – 143

Presseau, J., Sniehotta, F.F., Francis, J.J., Gebhardt, W.A. (2010). With a little help from my goals: Integrating intergoal facilitation with the theory of planned behaviour to predict physical activity. British Journal of Health Psychology, 15 (4), pp. 905-919

Whiteing, N. and Cox, C. (2010) PROMS in Gastrointestinal Nursing. Journal of Gastrointestinal Nursing, 8 (5): 16-19


Abbott S, Buckwell M, Dimmock V, Goreham C, Lau J (2009). Interprofessional teaching using a computerised patient simulator: what do students learn and how? International Journal of Clinical Skills, 3, 2, 74-79.

Aitken LM, Marshall A, Elliott R, McKinley S (2009), Critical care nurses’ decision making: sedation assessment and management in intensive care, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 2009; 18(1): 36 – 45; IF (2009): 1.194.

Cooper J, Levington A, Abbott S, Meyer J (2009). Partnerships for skills training in the care home sector. Primary Health Care Research and Development, 10, 284-9.

Cox, C. and Steggall, M. (2009) “A step-by-step guide to performing a complete abdominal examination”. Journal of Gastrointestinal Nursing, 7 (1): 10 – 17Davis K, Drey N, Gould, D. (2009) What are scoping studies? A review of the nursing literature. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 46: 1386-1400.

Cox, C., & Steggall, M. J. (2009). A step-by-step guide for performing a complete abdominal examination. Gastrointestinal Nursing, 7(1)

Cox, C., Gibbons, H., Evans, P. and Thombs, J. (2009) “Choroidal Melanoma: nursing’s role in patient care”. Eye News Journal 16 (2): 20 – 25

Eccles MP, Hrisos S, Francis JJ, Steen N, Bosch M, Johnston M (2009). Can the collective intentions of individual professionals within healthcare teams predict the team's performance: developing methods and theory. Implementation Science 2009, 4:24.

Francis, J.J., Johnston, M., Robertson, C., Glidewell, L., Entwistle, V., Eccles, M.P., Grimshaw, J.M.(2010). What is an adequate sample size? Operationalising data saturation for theory-based interview studies. Psychology and Health, 25 (10), pp. 1229-1245

Francis, J.J., Tinmouth, A., Stanworth, S.J., Grimshaw, J.M., Johnston, M., Hyde, C., Stockton, C., (...), Eccles, M.P. (2009). Using theories of behaviour to understand transfusion prescribing in three clinical contexts in two countries: Development work for an implementation trial. Implementation Science, 4 (1), art. no.70

Freeth, D., Ayida, G., Berridge, E.J., Mackintosh, N., Norris, B., Sadler, C., Strachan, A. (2009). Multidisciplinary obstetric simulated emergency scenarios (MOSES): Promoting patient safety in obstetrics with teamwork-focused interprofessional simulations. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 29 (2), pp. 98-104

Hoffman K, Aitken LM, Duffield C (2009). A comparison of novice and expert nurses' cue collection during clinical decision-making: verbal protocol analysis, International Journal of Nursing Studies, 2009; 46(10): 1335 – 44; IF (2009): 1.910.

Hrisos, S., Eccles, M.P., Francis, J.J., Dickinson, H.O., Kaner, E.F., Beyer, F., Johnston, M. (2009). Are there valid proxy measures of clinical behaviour? A systematic review. Implementation Science, 4 ;37

K Davis, N Drey, D Gould. What are scoping studies? A review of the nursing literature. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 2009 Oct; 46(10) 1386-1400.

Kelly, D., Berridge, E.-J., Gould, D. (2009). Twenty-four hour care: Implications for the role and developmental needs of nurses in acute and community settings. Journal of Nursing Management, 17 (5), pp. 594-602

MacKintosh, N., Berridge, E.-J., Freeth, D. (2009). Supporting structures for team situation awareness and decision making: Insights from four delivery suites Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice15 (1), pp. 46-54. Nurse Education Today, 28 (5), pp. 633-640

Manley K, Titchen A, Hardy S (2009). Work based learning in the context of contemporary UK healthcare education and practice: a concept analysis. Practice Development in Health Care 8 (2) 87-127

Manning, A.; Cronin, P.; Monaghan, A. & Rawlings-Anderson, K (2009). Supporting students in practice: An exploration of the reflective groups as a means of support. Nurse Education in Practice 9(3): 176-183 [12]

McKinley S, Dracup K, Moser DK, Riegel B, Doering LV, Meischke H, Aitken LM, Buckley T, Marshall A, Pelter MM (2009), The Effect of a Short One-on-One Nursing Intervention on Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs Related to Response to Acute Coronary Syndrome in People with Coronary Heart Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial, International Journal of Nursing Studies, 2009; 46(8):1037 – 1046; IF (2009): 1.910.

Meyer, J, Noble, H, Kilbride, C, Holman, C, Bridges, J (2009) Doing qualitative research as a practitioner: Processes, issues and challenges., Malaysian Journal of Qualitative Research, 2/2, pp.36-55, 02(02)36-55,

N. Drey, D. Gould, T. Allan. The relationship between continuing professional education and commitment to nursing. Nurse Education Today 2009 Oct; 29(7) 740-745.

Redding, E., Weller, P., Ehrenberg, S., Irvine, S., Quinn, E., Rafferty, S., Wyon, M. and Cox, C. (2009) “The Development of a High Intensity Dance Performance Fitness Test”. Journal of Dance Medicine & Science, 13 (1): 3 – 9

Steggall, M. and Cox, C (2009) “A step-by-step guide to performing a complete digital rectal examination”. Journal of Gastrointestinal Nursing, 7 (2): 10 – 14

Steggall, M. J., & Cox, C. (2009). A Step-by-step guide for performing a complete digital rectal examination. Gastrointestinal Nursing, 7(2).

Wetzig, S., Walsh, C., Prescott, C., Kruger, P.S., Griffiths, D., Jennings, F. & Aitken, L.M (2009). Having a permanent resident in intensive care: the rewards and challenges, Australian Critical Care, 2009; 22 (2):83 – 92

Wilkinson, C, Meyer, J, Cotter, A (2009) , Developing Person-centred Care in an NHS Continuing Care Setting, Understanding Care Homes: A research and development perspective, London, Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 25-46


Aitken LM, Currey J, Marshall AP, Elliott D (2008). Discrimination of educational outcomes between differing levels of critical care programmes by selected stakeholders in Australia: a mixed-method approach, Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 2008; 24: 68 - 77.

Aitken LM, Pelter MM, Carlson B, Marshall AP, Cross R, McKinley S, Dracup K (2008), Effective strategies for implementing a multicenter international clinical trial, Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 2008; 40(2):101 – 108; IF (2008): 1.070.

Cox, Carol, Evans, P., Withers, T. and Titmus, K. (2008) “The importance of gastrointestinal nurses being HLA-B27 aware”. Journal of Gastrointestinal Nursing, 6 (9): 32 – 40

Francis, H.M., Clarke, K.A., Steer, C.B., Francis, J.J., Underhill, C.R. (2008). Attitudes of advanced Australian medical oncology trainees to rural practice. Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology, 4 (1), pp. 34-41

Gulati, S. (2008). Compulsory participation in online discussions: Is this constructivism or normalisation of learning? Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 45 (2), pp. 183-192

Gulati, S. (2008). Technology-enhanced learning in developing nations: A review. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 9 (1)

Kolehmainen, N., Francis, J., McKee, L. (2008). To provide or not to provide treatment? That is the question. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 71 (12), pp. 510-523

Massey D, Aitken L, Chaboyer W (2008), Care of the acutely ill ward patient, Australian Critical Care, 2008; 21(3): 127 – 140

Michie, S., Johnston, M., Francis, J., Hardeman, W., Eccles, M. (2008). From Theory to Intervention: Mapping Theoretically Derived Behavioural Determinants to Behaviour Change Techniques Applied Psychology, 57 (4), pp. 660-680

O’Callaghan J, Lowe E, Meyer J, Khan N (2008) Relationship-Centred Care Care Management Matters February 2008 42-43

Porrett, T. and Cox, C. (2008) “Coping mechanisms in women living with pelvic floor dysfunction”. Journal of Gastrointestinal Nursing, 6 (5): 30 – 39

Shaha, M., Cox, C., Talman, K. and Kelly, D. (2008) “Uncertainty in Breast, Prostate and Colorectal Cancer: Implications for Supportive Care”. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 40 (1): 60 -67

Simpson, A., Reynolds, L., Light, I., Attenborough, J. (2008). Talking with the experts: Evaluation of an online discussion forum involving mental health service users in the education of mental health nursing students, Nurse Education Today, 28(5):633-640, doi:10.1016/j.nedt.2007.09.009

Spouse, Jenny, Cook, Mike and Cox, Carol (Eds) (2008) Common Foundation Studies in Nursing, Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone - Elsevier

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